package CGI::Tiny;
# ABSTRACT: Common Gateway Interface, with no frills

# This file is part of CGI::Tiny which is released under:
#   The Artistic License 2.0 (GPL Compatible)
# See the documentation for CGI::Tiny for full license details.

use strict;
use warnings;
use Carp ();
use IO::Handle ();
use Exporter ();

our $VERSION = '1.002';

use constant DEFAULT_REQUEST_BODY_LIMIT => 16777216;
use constant DEFAULT_REQUEST_BODY_BUFFER => 262144;
use constant DEFAULT_RESPONSE_BODY_BUFFER => 131072;

our @EXPORT = 'cgi';

# List from HTTP::Status 6.29
# Unmarked codes are from RFC 7231 (2017-12-20)
my %HTTP_STATUS = (
    100 => 'Continue',
    101 => 'Switching Protocols',
    102 => 'Processing',                      # RFC 2518: WebDAV
    103 => 'Early Hints',                     # RFC 8297: Indicating Hints
    200 => 'OK',
    201 => 'Created',
    202 => 'Accepted',
    203 => 'Non-Authoritative Information',
    204 => 'No Content',
    205 => 'Reset Content',
    206 => 'Partial Content',                 # RFC 7233: Range Requests
    207 => 'Multi-Status',                    # RFC 4918: WebDAV
    208 => 'Already Reported',                # RFC 5842: WebDAV bindings
    226 => 'IM Used',                         # RFC 3229: Delta encoding
    300 => 'Multiple Choices',
    301 => 'Moved Permanently',
    302 => 'Found',
    303 => 'See Other',
    304 => 'Not Modified',                    # RFC 7232: Conditional Request
    305 => 'Use Proxy',
    307 => 'Temporary Redirect',
    308 => 'Permanent Redirect',              # RFC 7528: Permanent Redirect
    400 => 'Bad Request',
    401 => 'Unauthorized',                    # RFC 7235: Authentication
    402 => 'Payment Required',
    403 => 'Forbidden',
    404 => 'Not Found',
    405 => 'Method Not Allowed',
    406 => 'Not Acceptable',
    407 => 'Proxy Authentication Required',   # RFC 7235: Authentication
    408 => 'Request Timeout',
    409 => 'Conflict',
    410 => 'Gone',
    411 => 'Length Required',
    412 => 'Precondition Failed',             # RFC 7232: Conditional Request
    413 => 'Payload Too Large',
    414 => 'URI Too Long',
    415 => 'Unsupported Media Type',
    416 => 'Range Not Satisfiable',           # RFC 7233: Range Requests
    417 => 'Expectation Failed',
    418 => 'I\'m a teapot',                   # RFC 2324: HTCPC/1.0  1-april
    421 => 'Misdirected Request',             # RFC 7540: HTTP/2
    422 => 'Unprocessable Entity',            # RFC 4918: WebDAV
    423 => 'Locked',                          # RFC 4918: WebDAV
    424 => 'Failed Dependency',               # RFC 4918: WebDAV
    425 => 'Too Early',                       # RFC 8470: Using Early Data in HTTP
    426 => 'Upgrade Required',
    428 => 'Precondition Required',           # RFC 6585: Additional Codes
    429 => 'Too Many Requests',               # RFC 6585: Additional Codes
    431 => 'Request Header Fields Too Large', # RFC 6585: Additional Codes
    451 => 'Unavailable For Legal Reasons',   # RFC 7725: Legal Obstacles
    500 => 'Internal Server Error',
    501 => 'Not Implemented',
    502 => 'Bad Gateway',
    503 => 'Service Unavailable',
    504 => 'Gateway Timeout',
    505 => 'HTTP Version Not Supported',
    506 => 'Variant Also Negotiates',         # RFC 2295: Transparant Ngttn
    507 => 'Insufficient Storage',            # RFC 4918: WebDAV
    508 => 'Loop Detected',                   # RFC 5842: WebDAV bindings
    509 => 'Bandwidth Limit Exceeded',        #           Apache / cPanel
    510 => 'Not Extended',                    # RFC 2774: Extension Framework
    511 => 'Network Authentication Required', # RFC 6585: Additional Codes
);

{
  my $cgi;

  sub import {
    # for cleanup in END in case of premature exit
    $cgi ||= bless {pid => $$}, $_[0];
    goto &Exporter::import;
  }

  sub cgi (&) {
    my ($handler) = @_;
    $cgi ||= bless {pid => $$}, __PACKAGE__;
    if (@ARGV and !defined $ENV{REQUEST_METHOD}) {
      require CGI::Tiny::_Debug;
      CGI::Tiny::_Debug::debug_command($cgi, [@ARGV]);
    }
    my ($error, $errored);
    {
      local $@;
      eval { local $_ = $cgi; $handler->(); 1 } or do { $error = $@; $errored = 1 };
    }
    if ($errored) {
      _handle_error($cgi, $error);
    } elsif (!$cgi->{headers_rendered}) {
      _handle_error($cgi, "cgi completed without rendering a response\n");
    }
    undef $cgi;
    1;
  }

  # cleanup of premature exit, more reliable than potentially doing this in global destruction
  # ModPerl::Registry or CGI::Compile won't run END after each request,
  # but they override exit to throw an exception which we handle already
  END {
    if (defined $cgi) {
      _handle_error($cgi, "cgi exited without rendering a response\n") unless $cgi->{headers_rendered};
      undef $cgi;
    }
  }
}

sub _handle_error {
  my ($cgi, $error) = @_;
  return unless $cgi->{pid} == $$; # in case of fork
  $cgi->{response_status} = "500 $HTTP_STATUS{500}" unless $cgi->{headers_rendered}
    or (defined $cgi->{response_status} and $cgi->{response_status} =~ m/^[45][0-9]{2} /);
  if (defined(my $handler = $cgi->{on_error})) {
    my ($error_error, $error_errored);
    {
      local $@;
      eval { $handler->($cgi, $error, !!$cgi->{headers_rendered}); 1 } or do { $error_error = $@; $error_errored = 1 };
    }
    return unless $cgi->{pid} == $$; # in case of fork in error handler
    if ($error_errored) {
      warn "Exception in error handler: $error_error";
      warn "Original error: $error";
    }
  } else {
    warn $error;
  }
  $cgi->set_response_type('text/plain')->render(data => $cgi->{response_status}) unless $cgi->{headers_rendered};
}

sub set_error_handler          { $_[0]{on_error} = $_[1]; $_[0] }
sub set_request_body_buffer    { $_[0]{request_body_buffer} = $_[1]; $_[0] }
sub set_request_body_limit     { $_[0]{request_body_limit} = $_[1]; $_[0] }
sub set_multipart_form_options { $_[0]{multipart_form_options} = $_[1]; $_[0] }
sub set_multipart_form_charset { $_[0]{multipart_form_charset} = $_[1]; $_[0] }
sub set_input_handle           { $_[0]{input_handle} = $_[1]; $_[0] }
sub set_output_handle          { $_[0]{output_handle} = $_[1]; $_[0] }

sub auth_type         { defined $ENV{AUTH_TYPE} ? $ENV{AUTH_TYPE} : '' }
sub content_length    { defined $ENV{CONTENT_LENGTH} ? $ENV{CONTENT_LENGTH} : '' }
sub content_type      { defined $ENV{CONTENT_TYPE} ? $ENV{CONTENT_TYPE} : '' }
sub gateway_interface { defined $ENV{GATEWAY_INTERFACE} ? $ENV{GATEWAY_INTERFACE} : '' }
sub path_info         { defined $ENV{PATH_INFO} ? $ENV{PATH_INFO} : '' }
*path = \&path_info;
sub path_translated   { defined $ENV{PATH_TRANSLATED} ? $ENV{PATH_TRANSLATED} : '' }
sub query_string      { defined $ENV{QUERY_STRING} ? $ENV{QUERY_STRING} : '' }
*query = \&query_string;
sub remote_addr       { defined $ENV{REMOTE_ADDR} ? $ENV{REMOTE_ADDR} : '' }
sub remote_host       { defined $ENV{REMOTE_HOST} ? $ENV{REMOTE_HOST} : '' }
sub remote_ident      { defined $ENV{REMOTE_IDENT} ? $ENV{REMOTE_IDENT} : '' }
sub remote_user       { defined $ENV{REMOTE_USER} ? $ENV{REMOTE_USER} : '' }
sub request_method    { defined $ENV{REQUEST_METHOD} ? $ENV{REQUEST_METHOD} : '' }
*method = \&request_method;
sub script_name       { defined $ENV{SCRIPT_NAME} ? $ENV{SCRIPT_NAME} : '' }
sub server_name       { defined $ENV{SERVER_NAME} ? $ENV{SERVER_NAME} : '' }
sub server_port       { defined $ENV{SERVER_PORT} ? $ENV{SERVER_PORT} : '' }
sub server_protocol   { defined $ENV{SERVER_PROTOCOL} ? $ENV{SERVER_PROTOCOL} : '' }
sub server_software   { defined $ENV{SERVER_SOFTWARE} ? $ENV{SERVER_SOFTWARE} : '' }

sub headers {
  my ($self) = @_;
  unless (exists $self->{request_headers}) {
    my %headers;
    foreach my $key (keys %ENV) {
      my $name = $key;
      next unless $name =~ s/^HTTP_//;
      $name =~ tr/_/-/;
      $headers{lc $name} = $ENV{$key};
    }
    $self->{request_headers} = \%headers;
  }
  return {%{$self->{request_headers}}};
}

sub header { (my $name = $_[1]) =~ tr/-/_/; $ENV{"HTTP_\U$name"} }

sub cookies      { [map { [@$_] } @{$_[0]->_cookies->{ordered}}] }
sub cookie_names { [@{$_[0]->_cookies->{names}}] }
sub cookie       { my $c = $_[0]->_cookies->{keyed}; exists $c->{$_[1]} ? $c->{$_[1]}[-1] : undef }
sub cookie_array { my $c = $_[0]->_cookies->{keyed}; exists $c->{$_[1]} ? [@{$c->{$_[1]}}] : [] }

sub _cookies {
  my ($self) = @_;
  unless (exists $self->{request_cookies}) {
    $self->{request_cookies} = {names => \my @names, ordered => \my @ordered, keyed => \my %keyed};
    if (defined $ENV{HTTP_COOKIE}) {
      foreach my $pair (split /\s*;\s*/, $ENV{HTTP_COOKIE}) {
        next unless length $pair;
        my ($name, $value) = split /=/, $pair, 2;
        next unless defined $value;
        push @names, $name unless exists $keyed{$name};
        push @ordered, [$name, $value];
        push @{$keyed{$name}}, $value;
      }
    }
  }
  return $self->{request_cookies};
}

sub params      { [map { [@$_] } @{$_[0]->_query_params->{ordered}}, @{$_[0]->_body_params->{ordered}}] }
sub param_names { my $q = $_[0]->_query_params; [@{$q->{names}}, grep { !exists $q->{keyed}{$_} } @{$_[0]->_body_params->{names}}] }
sub param       {
  my ($self, $name) = @_;
  my $p = $self->_body_params->{keyed};
  return $p->{$name}[-1] if exists $p->{$name};
  my $q = $self->_query_params->{keyed};
  return exists $q->{$name} ? $q->{$name}[-1] : undef;
}
sub param_array { [map { exists $_->{$_[1]} ? @{$_->{$_[1]}} : () } $_[0]->_query_params->{keyed}, $_[0]->_body_params->{keyed}] }

sub query_params      { [map { [@$_] } @{$_[0]->_query_params->{ordered}}] }
sub query_param_names { [@{$_[0]->_query_params->{names}}] }
sub query_param       { my $p = $_[0]->_query_params->{keyed}; exists $p->{$_[1]} ? $p->{$_[1]}[-1] : undef }
sub query_param_array { my $p = $_[0]->_query_params->{keyed}; exists $p->{$_[1]} ? [@{$p->{$_[1]}}] : [] }

sub _query_params {
  my ($self) = @_;
  unless (exists $self->{query_params}) {
    $self->{query_params} = {names => \my @names, ordered => \my @ordered, keyed => \my %keyed};
    foreach my $pair (split /[&;]/, $self->query) {
      my ($name, $value) = split /=/, $pair, 2;
      $value = '' unless defined $value;
      do { tr/+/ /; s/%([0-9a-fA-F]{2})/chr hex $1/ge; utf8::decode $_ } for $name, $value;
      push @names, $name unless exists $keyed{$name};
      push @ordered, [$name, $value];
      push @{$keyed{$name}}, $value;
    }
  }
  return $self->{query_params};
}

sub body {
  my ($self) = @_;
  unless (exists $self->{body_content} or exists $self->{body_parts}) {
    $self->{body_content} = '';
    my $length = $self->_body_length;
    my $in_fh = defined $self->{input_handle} ? $self->{input_handle} : *STDIN;
    binmode $in_fh;
    my $buffer_size = 0 + ($self->{request_body_buffer} || $ENV{CGI_TINY_REQUEST_BODY_BUFFER} || DEFAULT_REQUEST_BODY_BUFFER);
    while ($length > 0) {
      my $chunk = $length < $buffer_size ? $length : $buffer_size;
      last unless my $read = read $in_fh, $self->{body_content}, $chunk, length $self->{body_content};
      $length -= $read;
    }
  }
  return $self->{body_content};
}

sub body_json {
  my ($self) = @_;
  unless (exists $self->{body_json}) {
    $self->{body_json} = undef;
    if ($ENV{CONTENT_TYPE} and $ENV{CONTENT_TYPE} =~ m/^application\/json\b/i) {
      $self->{body_json} = $self->_json->decode($self->body);
    }
  }
  return $self->{body_json};
}

sub body_params      { [map { [@$_] } @{$_[0]->_body_params->{ordered}}] }
sub body_param_names { [@{$_[0]->_body_params->{names}}] }
sub body_param       { my $p = $_[0]->_body_params->{keyed}; exists $p->{$_[1]} ? $p->{$_[1]}[-1] : undef }
sub body_param_array { my $p = $_[0]->_body_params->{keyed}; exists $p->{$_[1]} ? [@{$p->{$_[1]}}] : [] }

sub _body_params {
  my ($self) = @_;
  unless (exists $self->{body_params}) {
    $self->{body_params} = {names => \my @names, ordered => \my @ordered, keyed => \my %keyed};
    if ($ENV{CONTENT_TYPE} and $ENV{CONTENT_TYPE} =~ m/^application\/x-www-form-urlencoded\b/i) {
      foreach my $pair (split /&/, $self->body) {
        my ($name, $value) = split /=/, $pair, 2;
        $value = '' unless defined $value;
        do { tr/+/ /; s/%([0-9a-fA-F]{2})/chr hex $1/ge; utf8::decode $_ } for $name, $value;
        push @names, $name unless exists $keyed{$name};
        push @ordered, [$name, $value];
        push @{$keyed{$name}}, $value;
      }
    } elsif ($ENV{CONTENT_TYPE} and $ENV{CONTENT_TYPE} =~ m/^multipart\/form-data\b/i) {
      my $default_charset = $self->{multipart_form_charset};
      $default_charset = 'UTF-8' unless defined $default_charset;
      foreach my $part (@{$self->_body_multipart}) {
        next if defined $part->{filename};
        my ($name, $headers, $content, $file) = @$part{'name','headers','content','file'};
        if (length $default_charset) {
          require Encode;
          $name = Encode::decode($default_charset, "$name");
        }
        my $value = '';
        if (defined $content) {
          $value = $content;
        } elsif (defined $file) {
          binmode $file;
          seek $file, 0, 0;
          $value = do { local $/; readline $file };
          seek $file, 0, 0;
        }
        my $value_charset;
        if (defined $headers->{'content-type'}) {
          if (my ($charset_quoted, $charset_unquoted) = $headers->{'content-type'} =~ m/;\s*charset=(?:"((?:\\[\\"]|[^"])+)"|([^";]+))/i) {
            $charset_quoted =~ s/\\([\\"])/$1/g if defined $charset_quoted;
            $value_charset = defined $charset_quoted ? $charset_quoted : $charset_unquoted;
          }
        }
        if (defined $value_charset or !defined $headers->{'content-type'} or $headers->{'content-type'} =~ m/^text\/plain\b/i) {
          require Encode;
          if (defined $value_charset) {
            $value = Encode::decode($value_charset, "$value");
          } elsif (length $default_charset) {
            $value = Encode::decode($default_charset, "$value");
          }
        }
        push @names, $name unless exists $keyed{$name};
        push @ordered, [$name, $value];
        push @{$keyed{$name}}, $value;
      }
    }
  }
  return $self->{body_params};
}

sub body_parts {
  my ($self) = @_;
  return [] unless $ENV{CONTENT_TYPE} and $ENV{CONTENT_TYPE} =~ m/^multipart\/form-data\b/i;
  return [map { +{%$_} } @{$self->_body_multipart}];
}

sub uploads      { [map { [@$_] } @{$_[0]->_body_uploads->{ordered}}] }
sub upload_names { [@{$_[0]->_body_uploads->{names}}] }
sub upload       { my $u = $_[0]->_body_uploads->{keyed}; exists $u->{$_[1]} ? $u->{$_[1]}[-1] : undef }
sub upload_array { my $u = $_[0]->_body_uploads->{keyed}; exists $u->{$_[1]} ? [@{$u->{$_[1]}}] : [] }

sub _body_uploads {
  my ($self) = @_;
  unless (exists $self->{body_uploads}) {
    $self->{body_uploads} = {names => \my @names, ordered => \my @ordered, keyed => \my %keyed};
    if ($ENV{CONTENT_TYPE} and $ENV{CONTENT_TYPE} =~ m/^multipart\/form-data\b/i) {
      my $default_charset = $self->{multipart_form_charset};
      $default_charset = 'UTF-8' unless defined $default_charset;
      foreach my $part (@{$self->_body_multipart}) {
        next unless defined $part->{filename};
        my ($name, $filename, $size, $headers, $file, $content) = @$part{'name','filename','size','headers','file','content'};
        if (length $default_charset) {
          require Encode;
          $name = Encode::decode($default_charset, "$name");
          $filename = Encode::decode($default_charset, "$filename");
        }
        my $upload = {
          filename     => $filename,
          size         => $size,
          content_type => $headers->{'content-type'},
        };
        $upload->{file} = $file if defined $file;
        $upload->{content} = $content if defined $content;
        push @names, $name unless exists $keyed{$name};
        push @ordered, [$name, $upload];
        push @{$keyed{$name}}, $upload;
      }
    }
  }
  return $self->{body_uploads};
}

sub _body_length {
  my ($self) = @_;
  my $limit = $self->{request_body_limit};
  $limit = $ENV{CGI_TINY_REQUEST_BODY_LIMIT} unless defined $limit;
  $limit = DEFAULT_REQUEST_BODY_LIMIT unless defined $limit;
  my $length = $ENV{CONTENT_LENGTH} || 0;
  if ($limit and $length > $limit) {
    $self->{response_status} = "413 $HTTP_STATUS{413}" unless $self->{headers_rendered};
    die "Request body limit exceeded\n";
  }
  return 0 + $length;
}

sub _body_multipart {
  my ($self) = @_;
  unless (exists $self->{body_parts}) {
    $self->{body_parts} = [];
    require CGI::Tiny::Multipart;
    my $boundary = CGI::Tiny::Multipart::extract_multipart_boundary($ENV{CONTENT_TYPE});
    unless (defined $boundary) {
      $self->{response_status} = "400 $HTTP_STATUS{400}" unless $self->{headers_rendered};
      die "Malformed multipart/form-data request\n";
    }

    my ($input, $length);
    if (exists $self->{body_content}) {
      $length = length $self->{body_content};
      $input = \$self->{body_content};
    } else {
      $length = $self->_body_length;
      $input = defined $self->{input_handle} ? $self->{input_handle} : *STDIN;
    }

    my $parts = CGI::Tiny::Multipart::parse_multipart_form_data($input, $length, $boundary, {
      buffer_size => $self->{request_body_buffer} || $ENV{CGI_TINY_REQUEST_BODY_BUFFER},
      %{$self->{multipart_form_options} || {}},
    });
    unless (defined $parts) {
      $self->{response_status} = "400 $HTTP_STATUS{400}" unless $self->{headers_rendered};
      die "Malformed multipart/form-data request\n";
    }

    $self->{body_parts} = $parts;
  }
  return $self->{body_parts};
}

sub set_nph {
  my ($self, $value) = @_;
  if ($self->{headers_rendered}) {
    Carp::carp "Attempted to set NPH response mode but headers have already been rendered";
  } else {
    $self->{nph} = @_ < 2 ? 1 : $value;
  }
  return $self;
}

sub set_response_body_buffer { $_[0]{response_body_buffer} = $_[1]; $_[0] }

sub set_response_status {
  my ($self, $status) = @_;
  if ($self->{headers_rendered}) {
    Carp::carp "Attempted to set HTTP response status but headers have already been rendered";
  } else {
    if (defined $status and $status =~ m/\A[0-9]+ [^\r\n]*\z/) {
      $self->{response_status} = $status;
    } elsif (defined $status) {
      Carp::croak "Attempted to set unknown HTTP response status $status" unless exists $HTTP_STATUS{$status};
      $self->{response_status} = "$status $HTTP_STATUS{$status}";
    } else {
      delete $self->{response_status};
    }
  }
  return $self;
}

{
  my %DISPOSITIONS = (attachment => 1, inline => 1);
  sub set_response_disposition {
    my ($self, $disposition, $filename) = @_;
    if ($self->{headers_rendered}) {
      Carp::carp "Attempted to set HTTP response content disposition but headers have already been rendered";
    } else {
      Carp::croak "Attempted to set unknown Content-Disposition value '$disposition'" unless exists $DISPOSITIONS{lc $disposition};
      $self->{response_disposition} = $disposition;
      # filename will be quoted/escaped later
      $self->{response_filename} = $filename;
    }
    return $self;
  }
}

sub set_response_type {
  my ($self, $content_type) = @_;
  if ($self->{headers_rendered}) {
    Carp::carp "Attempted to set HTTP response content type but headers have already been rendered";
  } else {
    Carp::croak "Newline characters not allowed in HTTP response content type" if defined $content_type and $content_type =~ tr/\r\n//;
    $self->{response_type} = $content_type;
  }
  return $self;
}

sub set_response_charset {
  my ($self, $charset) = @_;
  Carp::croak "Invalid characters in HTTP response charset" if defined $charset and $charset =~ m/[^a-zA-Z0-9!#\$%&'*+\-.^_`|~]/;
  $self->{response_charset} = $charset;
  return $self;
}

sub add_response_header {
  my ($self, $name, $value) = @_;
  if ($self->{headers_rendered}) {
    Carp::carp "Attempted to add HTTP response header '$name' but headers have already been rendered";
  } else {
    Carp::croak "Newline characters not allowed in HTTP response header '$name'" if $value =~ tr/\r\n//;
    push @{$self->{response_headers}}, [$name, $value];
  }
  return $self;
}

{
  my %COOKIE_ATTR_VALUE = (expires => 1, domain => 1, path => 1, secure => 0, httponly => 0, samesite => 1, 'max-age' => 1);
  sub add_response_cookie {
    my ($self, $name, $value, @attrs) = @_;
    if ($self->{headers_rendered}) {
      Carp::carp "Attempted to add HTTP response cookie '$name' but headers have already been rendered";
    } else {
      my $cookie_str = "$name=$value";
      my $i = 0;
      while ($i <= $#attrs) {
        my ($key, $val) = @attrs[$i, $i+1];
        my $has_value = $COOKIE_ATTR_VALUE{lc $key};
        if (!defined $has_value) {
          Carp::croak "Attempted to set unknown cookie attribute '$key' for HTTP response cookie '$name'";
        } elsif ($has_value) {
          $cookie_str .= "; $key=$val" if defined $val;
        } else {
          $cookie_str .= "; $key" if $val;
        }
      } continue {
        $i += 2;
      }
      Carp::croak "Newline characters not allowed in HTTP response cookie '$name'" if $cookie_str =~ tr/\r\n//;
      push @{$self->{response_headers}}, ['Set-Cookie', $cookie_str];
    }
    return $self;
  }
}

sub reset_response_headers { delete $_[0]{response_headers}; $_[0] }

sub response_status_code {
  my ($self) = @_;
  if (defined $self->{response_status} and $self->{response_status} =~ m/\A([0-9]+)/) {
    return 0+$1;
  }
  return 200;
}

{
  my %RENDER_TYPES = (text => 1, html => 1, xml => 1, json => 1, data => 1, file => 1, handle => 1, redirect => 1);

  sub render {
    my ($self, $type, $data) = @_;
    Carp::croak "Cannot render additional data with ->render; use ->render_chunk" if $self->{headers_rendered};
    $type = '' unless defined $type;
    Carp::croak "Don't know how to render '$type'" if length $type and !exists $RENDER_TYPES{$type};
    Carp::croak "Cannot render from an open filehandle with ->render; use ->render_chunk" if $type eq 'handle';

    my ($response_body, $response_length, $redirect_url);
    if ($type eq 'redirect') {
      Carp::croak "Newline characters not allowed in HTTP redirect" if $data =~ tr/\r\n//;
      $redirect_url = $data;
    } elsif (uc($ENV{REQUEST_METHOD} || '') eq 'HEAD') {
      # no response content
    } elsif ($type eq 'text' or $type eq 'html' or $type eq 'xml') {
      my $charset = $self->{response_charset};
      $charset = 'UTF-8' unless defined $charset;
      if (uc $charset eq 'UTF-8' and do { local $@; eval { require Unicode::UTF8; 1 } }) {
        $response_body = Unicode::UTF8::encode_utf8($data);
      } else {
        require Encode;
        $response_body = Encode::encode($charset, "$data");
      }
      $response_length = length $response_body;
    } elsif ($type eq 'json') {
      $response_body = $self->_json->encode($data);
      $response_length = length $response_body;
    } elsif ($type eq 'data') {
      $response_body = $data;
      $response_length = length $response_body;
    } elsif ($type eq 'file') {
      $response_length = -s $data;
      Carp::croak "Failed to retrieve size of file '$data': $!" unless defined $response_length;
    }
    $response_length = 0 unless defined $response_length;

    my $headers_str = $self->_response_headers($type, $response_length, $redirect_url);
    my $out_fh = defined $self->{output_handle} ? $self->{output_handle} : *STDOUT;
    binmode $out_fh;
    $out_fh->printflush($headers_str);
    $self->{headers_rendered} = 1;
    $self->{response_fixed_length} = 1;
    return $self unless $response_length;

    if ($type eq 'file') {
      open my $in_fh, '<', $data or Carp::croak "Failed to open file '$data' for rendering: $!";
      binmode $in_fh;
      my $buffer_size = 0 + ($self->{response_body_buffer} || $ENV{CGI_TINY_RESPONSE_BODY_BUFFER} || DEFAULT_RESPONSE_BODY_BUFFER);
      while (read $in_fh, my $buffer, $buffer_size) {
        $out_fh->print($buffer);
      }
      $out_fh->flush;
    } else {
      $out_fh->printflush($response_body);
    }
    return $self;
  }

  sub render_chunk {
    my ($self, $type, $data) = @_;
    Carp::croak "Cannot render additional data after ->render" if $self->{response_fixed_length};
    $type = '' unless defined $type;
    Carp::croak "Don't know how to render '$type'" if length $type and !exists $RENDER_TYPES{$type};
    Carp::croak "Cannot render a chunked redirect" if $type eq 'redirect';

    my $out_fh = defined $self->{output_handle} ? $self->{output_handle} : *STDOUT;
    unless ($self->{headers_rendered}) {
      my $headers_str = $self->_response_headers($type);
      binmode $out_fh;
      $out_fh->printflush($headers_str);
      $self->{headers_rendered} = 1;
    }

    if (uc($ENV{REQUEST_METHOD} || '') eq 'HEAD') {
      # no response content
    } elsif ($type eq 'text' or $type eq 'html' or $type eq 'xml') {
      my $charset = $self->{response_charset};
      $charset = 'UTF-8' unless defined $charset;
      my $response_body;
      if (uc $charset eq 'UTF-8' and do { local $@; eval { require Unicode::UTF8; 1 } }) {
        $response_body = Unicode::UTF8::encode_utf8($data);
      } else {
        require Encode;
        $response_body = Encode::encode($charset, "$data");
      }
      $out_fh->printflush($response_body);
    } elsif ($type eq 'json') {
      my $response_body = $self->_json->encode($data);
      $out_fh->printflush($response_body);
    } elsif ($type eq 'data') {
      $out_fh->printflush($data);
    } elsif ($type eq 'file' or $type eq 'handle') {
      my $in_fh;
      if ($type eq 'file') {
        open $in_fh, '<', $data or Carp::croak "Failed to open file '$data' for rendering: $!";
      } else {
        $in_fh = $data;
      }
      binmode $in_fh;
      my $buffer_size = 0 + ($self->{response_body_buffer} || $ENV{CGI_TINY_RESPONSE_BODY_BUFFER} || DEFAULT_RESPONSE_BODY_BUFFER);
      while (read $in_fh, my $buffer, $buffer_size) {
        $out_fh->print($buffer);
      }
      $out_fh->flush;
    }
    return $self;
  }
}

sub _response_headers {
  my ($self, $type, $content_length, $location) = @_;
  my $headers_str = '';
  return $headers_str if defined $self->{debug_method} and !$self->{debug_verbose};
  my %headers_set;
  foreach my $header (@{$self->{response_headers} || []}) {
    my ($name, $value) = @$header;
    $headers_str .= "$name: $value\r\n";
    $headers_set{lc $name} = 1;
  }
  if (!$headers_set{'content-length'} and defined $content_length) {
    $headers_str = "Content-Length: $content_length\r\n$headers_str";
  }
  if (!$headers_set{'content-disposition'} and (defined $self->{response_disposition} or defined $self->{response_filename})) {
    my $value = defined $self->{response_disposition} ? $self->{response_disposition} : 'inline';
    if (defined(my $filename = $self->{response_filename})) {
      require Encode;
      my $quoted_filename = Encode::encode('ISO-8859-1', "$filename");
      $quoted_filename =~ tr/\r\n/  /;
      $quoted_filename =~ s/([\\"])/\\$1/g;
      $value .= "; filename=\"$quoted_filename\"";
      my $ext_filename = Encode::encode('UTF-8', "$filename");
      $ext_filename =~ s/([^a-zA-Z0-9!#\$&+\-.^_`|~])/sprintf '%%%02X', ord $1/ge;
      $value .= "; filename*=UTF-8''$ext_filename";
    }
    $headers_str = "Content-Disposition: $value\r\n$headers_str" unless lc $value eq 'inline';
  }
  if (!$headers_set{location} and $type eq 'redirect') {
    $headers_str = "Location: $location\r\n$headers_str";
  }
  if (!$headers_set{'content-type'} and $type ne 'redirect') {
    my $content_type = $self->{response_type};
    my $charset = $self->{response_charset};
    $charset = 'UTF-8' unless defined $charset;
    $content_type =
        $type eq 'text' ? "text/plain;charset=$charset"
      : $type eq 'html' ? "text/html;charset=$charset"
      : $type eq 'xml'  ? "application/xml;charset=$charset"
      : $type eq 'json' ? 'application/json;charset=UTF-8'
      : 'application/octet-stream'
      unless defined $content_type or (defined $content_length and $content_length == 0);
    $headers_str = "Content-Type: $content_type\r\n$headers_str" if defined $content_type;
  }
  if (!$headers_set{date}) {
    my $date_str = epoch_to_date(time);
    $headers_str = "Date: $date_str\r\n$headers_str";
  }
  my $status = $self->{response_status};
  $status = $self->{response_status} = "302 $HTTP_STATUS{302}" if $type eq 'redirect'
    and !(defined $status and $status =~ m/^3[0-9]{2} /);
  if ($self->{nph}) {
    $status = "200 $HTTP_STATUS{200}" unless defined $status;
    my $protocol = $ENV{SERVER_PROTOCOL};
    $protocol = 'HTTP/1.0' unless defined $protocol and length $protocol;
    $headers_str = "$protocol $status\r\n$headers_str";
    my $server = $ENV{SERVER_SOFTWARE};
    $headers_str .= "Server: $server\r\n" if defined $server and length $server;
  } elsif (!$headers_set{status} and defined $status) {
    $headers_str = "Status: $status\r\n$headers_str";
  }
  return "$headers_str\r\n";
}

sub _json {
  my ($self) = @_;
  unless (exists $self->{json}) {
    if (do { local $@; eval { require Cpanel::JSON::XS; Cpanel::JSON::XS->VERSION('4.09'); 1 } }) {
      $self->{json} = Cpanel::JSON::XS->new->allow_dupkeys->stringify_infnan;
    } else {
      require JSON::PP;
      $self->{json} = JSON::PP->new;
    }
    $self->{json}->utf8->canonical->allow_nonref->allow_unknown->allow_blessed->convert_blessed->escape_slash;
  }
  return $self->{json};
}

{
  my @DAYS_OF_WEEK = qw(Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat);
  my @MONTH_NAMES = qw(Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec);
  my %MONTH_NUMS;
  @MONTH_NUMS{@MONTH_NAMES} = 0..11;

  sub epoch_to_date {
    my ($sec,$min,$hour,$mday,$mon,$year,$wday) = gmtime $_[0];
    return sprintf '%s, %02d %s %04d %02d:%02d:%02d GMT',
      $DAYS_OF_WEEK[$wday], $mday, $MONTH_NAMES[$mon], $year + 1900, $hour, $min, $sec;
  }

  sub date_to_epoch {
    # RFC 1123 (Sun, 06 Nov 1994 08:49:37 GMT)
    my ($mday,$mon,$year,$hour,$min,$sec) = $_[0] =~ m/^ (?:Sun|Mon|Tue|Wed|Thu|Fri|Sat),
      [ ] ([0-9]{2}) [ ] (Jan|Feb|Mar|Apr|May|Jun|Jul|Aug|Sep|Oct|Nov|Dec) [ ] ([0-9]{4})
      [ ] ([0-9]{2}) : ([0-9]{2}) : ([0-9]{2}) [ ] GMT $/x;

    # RFC 850 (Sunday, 06-Nov-94 08:49:37 GMT)
    ($mday,$mon,$year,$hour,$min,$sec) = $_[0] =~ m/^ (?:Sun|Mon|Tues|Wednes|Thurs|Fri|Satur)day,
      [ ] ([0-9]{2}) - (Jan|Feb|Mar|Apr|May|Jun|Jul|Aug|Sep|Oct|Nov|Dec) - ([0-9]{2})
      [ ] ([0-9]{2}) : ([0-9]{2}) : ([0-9]{2}) [ ] GMT $/x unless defined $mday;

    # asctime (Sun Nov  6 08:49:37 1994)
    ($mon,$mday,$hour,$min,$sec,$year) = $_[0] =~ m/^ (?:Sun|Mon|Tue|Wed|Thu|Fri|Sat)
      [ ] (Jan|Feb|Mar|Apr|May|Jun|Jul|Aug|Sep|Oct|Nov|Dec) [ ]{1,2} ([0-9]{1,2})
      [ ] ([0-9]{2}) : ([0-9]{2}) : ([0-9]{2}) [ ] ([0-9]{4}) $/x unless defined $mday;

    return undef unless defined $mday;

    require Time::Local;
    # 4 digit years interpreted literally, but may have leading zeroes
    # 2 digit years interpreted with best effort heuristic
    return scalar Time::Local::timegm($sec, $min, $hour, $mday, $MONTH_NUMS{$mon},
      (length($year) == 4 && $year < 1900) ? $year - 1900 : $year);
  }
}

{
  my %ESCAPES = ('&' => '&amp;', '<' => '&lt;', '>' => '&gt;', '"' => '&quot;', '\'' => '&#39;');
  sub escape_html { (my $escaped = $_[0]) =~ s/([&<>"'])/$ESCAPES{$1}/ge; $escaped }
}

1;