Encode::Arabic::Buckwalter - Tim Buckwalter's transliteration of Arabic


    use Encode::Arabic::Buckwalter;         # imports just like 'use Encode' would, plus more

    while ($line = <>) {                    # Tim Buckwalter's mapping into the Arabic script

        print encode 'utf8', decode 'buckwalter', $line;    # 'Buckwalter' alias 'Tim'

    # shell filter of data, e.g. in *n*x systems instead of viewing the Arabic script proper

    % perl -MEncode::Arabic::Buckwalter -pe '$_ = encode "buckwalter", decode "utf8", $_'

    # employing the modes of conversion for filtering and trimming

    Encode::Arabic::enmode 'buckwalter', 'nosukuun', '>&< xml';
    Encode::Arabic::Buckwalter->demode(undef, undef, 'strip _');

    $decode = "Aiqora>o h`*aA {l_n~a_S~a bi___{notibaAhK.";
    $encode = encode 'buckwalter', decode 'buckwalter', $decode;

    # $encode eq "AiqraO h`*aA Aln~aS~a biAntibaAhK."


Tim Buckwalter's notation is a one-to-one transliteration of the Arabic script for Modern Standard Arabic, using lower ASCII characters to encode the graphemes of the original script. This system has been very popular in Natural Language Processing, however, there are limits to its applicability due to numerous non-alphabetic codes involved.


The module takes care of the Encode::Encoding programming interface, while the effective code is Tim Buckwalter's trick:

    $encode =~ tr[\x{060C}\x{061B}\x{061F}\x{0621}-\x{063A}\x{0640}-\x{0652}    # !! no break in true perl !!

    $decode =~ tr[,;?'|>&<}AbptvjHxd*rzs$SDTZEg_fqklmnhwYyFNKaui~o`{PJRVG0-9]
                 [\x{060C}\x{061B}\x{061F}\x{0621}-\x{063A}\x{0640}-\x{0652}    # !! no break in true perl !!


If the first element in the list to use is :xml, the alternative mapping is introduced that suits the XML etiquette. This option is there only to replace the >&< reserved characters by OWI while still having a one-to-one notation. There is no XML parsing involved, and the markup would get distorted if subject to decode!

    $using_xml = eval q { use Encode::Arabic::Buckwalter ':xml'; decode 'buckwalter', 'OWI' };
    $classical = eval q { use Encode::Arabic::Buckwalter;        decode 'buckwalter', '>&<' };

    # $classical eq $using_xml and $classical eq "\x{0623}\x{0624}\x{0625}"

The module exports as if use Encode also appeared in the package. The other import options are just delegated to Encode and imports performed properly.

The conversion modes of this module allow to override the setting of the :xml option, in addition to filtering out diacritical marks and stripping off kashida. The modes and aliases relate like this:

    our %Encode::Arabic::Buckwalter::modemap = (

            'default'       => 0,   'undef'         => 0,

            'fullvocalize'  => 0,   'full'          => 0,

            'nowasla'       => 4,

            'vocalize'      => 3,   'nosukuun'      => 3,

            'novocalize'    => 2,   'novowels'      => 2,   'none'          => 2,

            'noshadda'      => 1,   'noneplus'      => 1,
enmode ($obj, $mode, $xml, $kshd)
demode ($obj, $mode, $xml, $kshd)

These methods can be invoked directly or through the respective functions of Encode::Arabic. The meaning of the extra parameters follows from the examples of usage.


Encode::Arabic, Encode, Encode::Encoding

Tim Buckwalter's Qamus

Buckwalter Arabic Morphological Analyzer


Otakar Smrz <otakar-smrz>,


Copyright (C) 2003-2016 Otakar Smrz

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.