package ExtUtils::AutoInstall;
$ExtUtils::AutoInstall::VERSION = '0.64';

use strict;
use Cwd ();
use ExtUtils::MakeMaker ();

=head1 NAME

ExtUtils::AutoInstall - Automatic install of dependencies via CPAN

=head1 VERSION

This document describes version 0.63 of B<ExtUtils::AutoInstall>,
released September 12, 2005.


In F<Makefile.PL>, with L<Module::Install> available on the author's system:

    use inc::Module::Install;

    name        ('Joe-Hacker');
    abstract    ('Perl Interface to Joe Hacker');
    author      ('Joe Hacker <>');
    include     ('ExtUtils::AutoInstall');

    requires    ('Module0');            # mandatory modules
    features    (
        -config         => {
            make_args   => '--hello',   # option(s) for CPAN::Config
            force       => 1,           # pseudo-option to force install
            do_once     => 1,           # skip previously failed modules
        'Feature1' => [
            'Module2'   => '0.1',
        'Feature2' => [
            'Module3'   => '1.0',

Invoking the resulting F<Makefile.PL>:

    % perl Makefile.PL                  # interactive behaviour
    % perl Makefile.PL --defaultdeps    # accept default value on prompts
    % perl Makefile.PL --checkdeps      # check only, no Makefile produced
    % perl Makefile.PL --skipdeps       # ignores all dependencies
    % perl Makefile.PL --testonly       # don't write installation targets

Note that the trailing 'deps' of arguments may be omitted, too.

Using C<--defaultdeps> will make F<Makefile.PL> behave similarly to a regular
Makefile.PL file with C<PREREQ_PM> dependencies.

One can use environment variables (see "ENVIRONMENT") below to set a default
behavior instead of specifying it in the command line for every invocation
of F<Makefile.PL>.

Using F<make> (or F<nmake>):

    % make [all|test|install]           # install dependencies first
    % make checkdeps                    # same as the --checkdeps above
    % make installdeps                  # install dependencies only


B<ExtUtils::AutoInstall> lets module writers to specify a more
sophisticated form of dependency information than the C<PREREQ_PM>
option offered by B<ExtUtils::MakeMaker>.

This module works best with the B<Module::Install> framework,
a drop-in replacement for MakeMaker.  However, this module also
supports F<Makefile.PL> files based on MakeMaker; see L</EXAMPLES>
for instructions.

=head2 Prerequisites and Features

Prerequisites are grouped into B<features>, and the user could choose
yes/no on each one's dependencies; the module writer may also supply a
boolean value via C<-default> to specify the default choice.

The B<Core Features> marked by the name C<-core> will double-check with
the user, if the user chooses not to install the mandatory modules.
This differs from the pre-0.26 'silent install' behaviour.

Starting from version 0.27, if C<-core> is set to the string C<all>
(case-insensitive), every feature will be considered mandatory.

The dependencies are expressed as pairs of C<Module> => C<version>
inside an array reference.  If the order does not matter, and there
are no C<-default>, C<-tests> or C<-skiptests> directives for that
feature, you may also use a hash reference.

=head2 The Installation Process

Once B<ExtUtils::AutoInstall> has determined which module(s) are needed,
it checks whether it's running under the B<CPAN> shell and should
therefore let B<CPAN> handle the dependency.

Finally, the C<WriteMakefile()> is overridden to perform some additional
checks, as well as skips tests associated with disabled features by the
C<-tests> option.

The actual installation happens at the end of the C<make config> target;
both C<make test> and C<make install> will trigger the installation of
required modules.

If it's not running under B<CPAN>, the installer will probe for an
active connection by trying to resolve the domain C<>, and check
for the user's permission to use B<CPAN>.  If all went well, a separate
    B<CPAN> instance is created to install the required modules.

If you have the B<CPANPLUS> package installed in your system, it is
preferred by default over B<CPAN>; it also accepts some extra options
(e.g. C<-target =E<gt> 'skiptest', -skiptest =E<gt> 1> to skip testing).

All modules scheduled to be installed will be deleted from C<%INC>
first, so B<ExtUtils::MakeMaker> will check the newly installed modules.

Additionally, you could use the C<make installdeps> target to install
the modules, and the C<make checkdeps> target to check dependencies
without actually installing them; the C<perl Makefile.PL --checkdeps>
command has an equivalent effect.

If the F<Makefile.PL> itself needs to use an independent module (e.g.
B<Acme::KillarApp>, v1.21 or greater), then use something like below:

    BEGIN {
        require ExtUtils::AutoInstall;
        # the first argument is an arrayref of the -config flags
        ExtUtils::AutoInstall->install([], 'Acme::KillerApp' => 1.21);
    use Acme::KillerApp 1.21;

        # ... arguments as usual ...

Note the version test in the use clause; if you are so close to the
cutting edge that B<Acme::KillerApp> 1.20 is the latest version on CPAN,
this will prevent your module from going awry.

=head2 User-Defined Hooks

User-defined I<pre-installation> and I<post-installation> hooks are
available via C<MY::preinstall> and C<MY::postinstall> subroutines,
as shown below:

    # pre-install handler; takes $module_name and $version
    sub MY::preinstall  { return 1; } # return false to skip install

    # post-install handler; takes $module_name, $version, $success
    sub MY::postinstall { return; }   # the return value doesn't matter

Note that since B<ExtUtils::AutoInstall> performs installation at the
time of C<use> (i.e. before perl parses the remainder of
F<Makefile.PL>), you have to declare those two handlers I<before> the
C<use> statement for them to take effect.

If the user did not choose to install a module or it already exists on
the system, neither of the handlers is invoked.  Both handlers are invoked
exactly once for each module when installation is attempted.

C<MY::preinstall> takes two arguments, C<$module_name> and C<$version>;
if it returns a false value, installation for that module will be
skipped, and C<MY::postinstall> won't be called at all.

C<MY::postinstall> takes three arguments, C<$module_name>, C<$version>
and C<$success>.  The last one denotes whether the installation
succeeded or not: C<1> means installation completed successfully, C<0>
means failure during install, and C<undef> means that the installation
was not attempted at all, possibly due to connection problems, or that
module does not exist on CPAN at all.

=head2 Customized C<MY::postamble>

Starting from version 0.43, B<ExtUtils::AutoInstall> supports modules
that require a C<MY::postamble> subroutine in their F<Makefile.PL>.
The user-defined C<MY::postamble>, if present, is responsible for
calling C<ExtUtils::AutoInstall::postamble> and include the output in
its return value.

For example, the B<DBD::*> (database driver) modules for the Perl DBI
are required to include the postamble generated by the function
C<dbd_postamble>, so their F<Makefile.PL> may contain lines like this:

    sub MY::postamble {
        return &ExtUtils::AutoInstall::postamble . &dbd_postamble;

Note that the B<ExtUtils::AutoInstall> module does not export the
C<postamble> function, so the name should always be fully qualified.

=head1 CAVEATS

B<ExtUtils::AutoInstall> will add C<UNINST=1> to your B<make install>
flags if your effective uid is 0 (root), unless you explicitly disable
it by setting B<CPAN>'s C<make_install_arg> configuration option (or the
C<makeflags> option of B<CPANPLUS>) to include C<UNINST=0>.  This I<may>
cause dependency problems if you are using a fine-tuned directory
structure for your site.  Please consult L<CPAN/FAQ> for an explanation
in detail.

If either B<version> or B<Sort::Versions> is available, they will be
used to compare the required version with the existing module's version
and the CPAN module's.  Otherwise it silently falls back to use I<cmp>.
This may cause inconsistent behaviours in pathetic situations.

=head1 NOTES

Since this module is needed before writing F<Makefile>, it makes little
use as a CPAN module; hence each distribution must include it in full.
The only alternative I'm aware of, namely prompting in F<Makefile.PL> to
force user install it (cf. the B<Template Toolkit>'s dependency on
B<AppConfig>) is not very desirable either.

The current compromise is to add the bootstrap code listed in the
L</SYNOPSIS> before every script, but that does not look pretty, and
will not work without an Internet connection.

Since we do not want all future options of B<ExtUtils::AutoInstall> to
be painfully detected manually like above, this module provides a
I<bootstrapping> mechanism via the C<-version> flag.  If a newer version
is needed by the F<Makefile.PL>, it will go ahead to fetch a new
version, reload it into memory, and pass the arguments forward.

If you have any suggestions, please let me know.  Thanks.


B<ExtUtils::AutoInstall> uses a single environment variable,
C<PERL_EXTUTILS_AUTOINSTALL>.  It is taken as the command line argument
passed to F<Makefile.PL>; you could set it to either C<--defaultdeps> or
C<--skipdeps> to avoid interactive behaviour.


=head2 Using MakeMaker with AutoInstall

To use this module with L<ExtUtils::MakeMaker>, first make a
F<inc/ExtUtils/> subdirectory in the directory containing your
L<Makefile.PL>, and put a copy this module under it as
F<inc/ExtUtils/>.  You can find out where this module
has been installed by typing C<perldoc -l ExtUtils::AutoInstall>
in the command line.

Your F<Makefile.PL> should look like this:

    # pull in ExtUtils/ from 'inc'
    use lib 'inc';
    use ExtUtils::AutoInstall (
        -core           => [            # mandatory modules
            'Module0'   => '',          # any version would suffice
        'Feature1'      => [
            # do we want to install this feature by default?
            -default    => ( system('feature1 --version') == 0 ),
            Module1     => '0.01',
        'Feature2'      => [
            # associate tests to be disabled if this feature is missing
            -tests      => [ <t/feature2*.t> ],
            # associate tests to be disabled if this feature is present
            -skiptests  => [ <t/nofeature2*.t> ],
            Module2     => '0.02',
        'Feature3'      => {            # hash reference works, too
            # force installation even if tests fail
            Module2     => '0.03',

        AUTHOR          => 'Joe Hacker <>',
        ABSTRACT        => 'Perl Interface to Joe Hacker',
        NAME            => 'Joe::Hacker',
        VERSION_FROM    => '',
        DISTNAME        => 'Joe-Hacker',

=head2 Self-Download Code

If you do not wish to put a copy of L<ExtUtils::AutoInstall> under
F<inc/>, and are confident that users will have internet access, you
may replace the C<use lib 'inc';> line with this block of code:

    # ExtUtils::AutoInstall Bootstrap Code, version 7.
    or+eval"use $p $v;1"or+do{my$e=$ENV{PERL_EXTUTILS_AUTOINSTALL};
    (!defined($e)||$e!~m/--(?:default|skip|testonly)/and-t STDIN or
    eval"use ExtUtils::MakeMaker;WriteMakefile(PREREQ_PM=>{'$p',$v}
    );1"and exit)and print"==> $p $v required. Install it from CP".
    "AN? [Y/n] "and<STDIN>!~/^n/i and print"*** Installing $p\n"and
    do{if (eval '$>' and lc(`sudo -V`) =~ /version/){system('sudo',
    $^X,"-MCPANPLUS","-e","CPANPLUS::install $p");eval"use $p $v;1"
    ||system('sudo', $^X, "-MCPAN", "-e", "CPAN::install $p")}eval{
    require CPANPLUS;CPANPLUS::install$p};eval"use $p $v;1"or eval{
    require CPAN;CPAN::install$p};eval"use $p $v;1"||die"*** Please
    manually install $p $v from first...\n"}}}

If the user did not have L<ExtUtils::AutoInstall> installed, the
block of code above will automatically download and install it.

However, due to its space-compressed (and obfuscated) nature, you
should think twice before employing this block of code; it is usually
much more desirable to just use L<Module::Install> instead.


# special map on pre-defined feature sets
my %FeatureMap = (
    ''      => 'Core Features', # XXX: deprecated
    '-core' => 'Core Features',

# various lexical flags
my (@Missing, @Existing, %DisabledTests, $UnderCPAN, $HasCPANPLUS);
my ($Config, $CheckOnly, $SkipInstall, $AcceptDefault, $TestOnly);
my ($PostambleActions, $PostambleUsed);

_accept_default(!-t STDIN); # see if it's a non-interactive session

sub _accept_default {
    $AcceptDefault = shift;

sub missing_modules {
    return @Missing;

sub do_install {
        [ UNIVERSAL::isa($Config, 'HASH') ? %{$Config} : @{$Config}],

# initialize various flags, and/or perform install
sub _init {
    foreach my $arg (@ARGV, split(/[\s\t]+/, $ENV{PERL_EXTUTILS_AUTOINSTALL} || '')) {
        if ($arg =~ /^--config=(.*)$/) {
            $Config = [ split(',', $1) ];
        elsif ($arg =~ /^--installdeps=(.*)$/) {
            __PACKAGE__->install($Config, @Missing = split(/,/, $1));
            exit 0;
        elsif ($arg =~ /^--default(?:deps)?$/) {
            $AcceptDefault = 1;
        elsif ($arg =~ /^--check(?:deps)?$/) {
            $CheckOnly = 1;
        elsif ($arg =~ /^--skip(?:deps)?$/) {
            $SkipInstall = 1;
        elsif ($arg =~ /^--test(?:only)?$/) {
            $TestOnly = 1;

# overrides MakeMaker's prompt() to automatically accept the default choice
sub _prompt {
    goto &ExtUtils::MakeMaker::prompt unless $AcceptDefault;

    my ($prompt, $default) = @_;
    my $y = ($default =~ /^[Yy]/);

    print $prompt, ' [', ($y ? 'Y' : 'y'), '/', ($y ? 'n' : 'N'), '] ';
    print "$default\n";
    return $default;

# the workhorse
sub import {
    my $class = shift;
    my @args  = @_ or return;
    my $core_all;

    print "*** $class version ".$class->VERSION."\n";
    print "*** Checking for dependencies...\n";

    my $cwd = Cwd::cwd();

    $Config  = [];

    my $maxlen = length((sort { length($b) <=> length($a) }
        grep { /^[^\-]/ }
        map { ref($_) ? keys %{ref($_) eq 'HASH' ? $_ : +{@{$_}}} : '' }
        map { +{@args}->{$_} }
        grep { /^[^\-]/ or /^-core$/i } keys %{+{@args}})[0]);

    while (my ($feature, $modules) = splice(@args, 0, 2)) {
        my (@required, @tests, @skiptests);
        my $default  = 1;
        my $conflict = 0;

        if ($feature =~ m/^-(\w+)$/) {
            my $option = lc($1);

            # check for a newer version of myself
            _update_to($modules, @_) and return if $option eq 'version';

            # sets CPAN configuration options
            $Config = $modules                  if $option eq 'config';

            # promote every features to core status
            $core_all = ($modules =~ /^all$/i) and next
                if $option eq 'core';

            next unless $option eq 'core';

        print "[".($FeatureMap{lc($feature)} || $feature)."]\n";

        $modules = [ %{$modules} ] if UNIVERSAL::isa($modules, 'HASH');

        unshift @$modules, -default => &{shift(@$modules)}
            if (ref($modules->[0]) eq 'CODE'); # XXX: bugward combatability

        while (my ($mod, $arg) = splice(@$modules, 0, 2)) {
            if ($mod =~ m/^-(\w+)$/) {
                my $option = lc($1);

                $default   = $arg    if ($option eq 'default');
                $conflict  = $arg    if ($option eq 'conflict');
                @tests     = @{$arg} if ($option eq 'tests');
                @skiptests = @{$arg} if ($option eq 'skiptests');


            printf("- %-${maxlen}s ...", $mod);

            # XXX: check for conflicts and uninstalls(!) them.
            if (defined(my $cur = _version_check(_load($mod), $arg ||= 0))) {
                print "loaded. ($cur".($arg ? " >= $arg" : '').")\n";
                push @Existing, $mod => $arg;
                $DisabledTests{$_} = 1 for map { glob($_) } @skiptests;
            else {
                print "missing." . ($arg ? " (would need $arg)" : '') . "\n";
                push @required, $mod => $arg;

        next unless @required;

        my $mandatory = ($feature eq '-core' or $core_all);

        if (!$SkipInstall and ($CheckOnly or _prompt(
            qq{==> Auto-install the }. (@required / 2).
            ($mandatory ? ' mandatory' : ' optional').
            qq{ module(s) from CPAN?}, $default ? 'y' : 'n',
        ) =~ /^[Yy]/)) {
            push (@Missing, @required);
            $DisabledTests{$_} = 1 for map { glob($_) } @skiptests;

        elsif (!$SkipInstall and $default and $mandatory and _prompt(
            qq{==> The module(s) are mandatory! Really skip?}, 'n',
        ) =~ /^[Nn]/) {
            push (@Missing, @required);
            $DisabledTests{$_} = 1 for map { glob($_) } @skiptests;

        else {
            $DisabledTests{$_} = 1 for map { glob($_) } @tests;

    _check_lock(); # check for $UnderCPAN

    if (@Missing and not ($CheckOnly or $UnderCPAN)) {
        require Config;
        print "*** Dependencies will be installed the next time you type '$Config::Config{make}'.\n";
        # make an educated guess of whether we'll need root permission.
        print "    (You may need to do that as the 'root' user.)\n" if eval '$>';
    print "*** $class configuration finished.\n";

    chdir $cwd;

    # import to main::
    no strict 'refs';
    *{'main::WriteMakefile'} = \&Write if caller(0) eq 'main';

# is non-reentrant, so check if we're under it and have no CPANPLUS
sub _check_lock {
    return unless @Missing;
    return if _has_cpanplus();

    require CPAN; CPAN::Config->load;
    my $lock = MM->catfile($CPAN::Config->{cpan_home}, ".lock");

    if (-f $lock and open(LOCK, $lock)
        and ($^O eq 'MSWin32' ? _under_cpan() : <LOCK> == getppid())
        and ($CPAN::Config->{prerequisites_policy} || '') ne 'ignore'
    ) {
        print << '.';

*** Since we're running under CPAN, I'll just let it take care
    of the dependency's installation later.
        $UnderCPAN = 1;

    close LOCK;

sub install {
    my $class  = shift;

    my $i; # used below to strip leading '-' from config keys
    my @config = (map { s/^-// if ++$i; $_ } @{+shift});

    my (@modules, @installed);
    while (my ($pkg, $ver) = splice(@_, 0, 2)) {
        # grep out those already installed
        if (defined(_version_check(_load($pkg), $ver))) {
            push @installed, $pkg;
        else {
            push @modules, $pkg, $ver;

    return @installed unless @modules; # nothing to do

    print "*** Installing dependencies...\n";

    return unless _connected_to('');

    my %args = @config;
    my %failed;
    local *FAILED;
    if ($args{do_once} and open(FAILED, '.#autoinstall.failed')) {
        while (<FAILED>) { chomp; $failed{$_}++ }
        close FAILED;

        my @newmod;
        while (my ($k, $v) = splice(@modules, 0, 2)) {
            push @newmod, ($k => $v) unless $failed{$k};
        @modules = @newmod;

    if (_has_cpanplus()) {
        _install_cpanplus(\@modules, \@config);
    else {
        _install_cpan(\@modules, \@config);

    print "*** $class installation finished.\n";

    # see if we have successfully installed them
    while (my ($pkg, $ver) = splice(@modules, 0, 2)) {
        if (defined(_version_check(_load($pkg), $ver))) {
            push @installed, $pkg;
        elsif ($args{do_once} and open(FAILED, '>> .#autoinstall.failed')) {
            print FAILED "$pkg\n";

    close FAILED if $args{do_once};

    return @installed;

sub _install_cpanplus {
    my @modules = @{+shift};
    my @config  = @{+shift};
    my $installed = 0;

    require CPANPLUS::Backend;
    my $cp   = CPANPLUS::Backend->new;
    my $conf = $cp->configure_object;

    return unless _can_write(
            ? $conf->get_conf('base')       # 0.05x+
            : $conf->_get_build('base')     # 0.04x

    # if we're root, set UNINST=1 to avoid trouble unless user asked for it.
    my $makeflags = $conf->get_conf('makeflags') || '';
    if (UNIVERSAL::isa($makeflags, 'HASH')) {
        # 0.03+ uses a hashref here
        $makeflags->{UNINST} = 1 unless exists $makeflags->{UNINST};
    else {
        # 0.02 and below uses a scalar
        $makeflags = join(' ', split(' ', $makeflags), 'UNINST=1')
            if ($makeflags !~ /\bUNINST\b/ and eval qq{ $> eq '0' });
    $conf->set_conf(makeflags => $makeflags);
    $conf->set_conf(prereqs => 1);

    while (my ($key, $val) = splice(@config, 0, 2)) {
        eval { $conf->set_conf($key, $val) };

    my $modtree = $cp->module_tree;
    while (my ($pkg, $ver) = splice(@modules, 0, 2)) {
        print "*** Installing $pkg...\n";

        MY::preinstall($pkg, $ver) or next if defined &MY::preinstall;

        my $success;
        my $obj = $modtree->{$pkg};

        if ($obj and defined(_version_check($obj->{version}, $ver))) {
            my $pathname = $pkg; $pathname =~ s/::/\\W/;

            foreach my $inc (grep { m/$ } keys(%INC)) {
                delete $INC{$inc};

            my $rv = $cp->install( modules => [ $obj->{module} ]);

            if ($rv and ($rv->{$obj->{module}} or $rv->{ok})) {
                print "*** $pkg successfully installed.\n";
                $success = 1;
            else {
                print "*** $pkg installation cancelled.\n";
                $success = 0;

            $installed += $success;
        else {
            print << ".";
*** Could not find a version $ver or above for $pkg; skipping.

        MY::postinstall($pkg, $ver, $success) if defined &MY::postinstall;

    return $installed;

sub _install_cpan {
    my @modules = @{+shift};
    my @config  = @{+shift};
    my $installed = 0;
    my %args;

    require CPAN; CPAN::Config->load;
    require Config;

    return unless _can_write(MM->catfile($CPAN::Config->{cpan_home}, 'sources'))
              and _can_write($Config::Config{sitelib});

    # if we're root, set UNINST=1 to avoid trouble unless user asked for it.
    my $makeflags = $CPAN::Config->{make_install_arg} || '';
    $CPAN::Config->{make_install_arg} = join(' ', split(' ', $makeflags), 'UNINST=1')
        if ($makeflags !~ /\bUNINST\b/ and eval qq{ $> eq '0' });

    # don't show start-up info
    $CPAN::Config->{inhibit_startup_message} = 1;

    # set additional options
    while (my ($opt, $arg) = splice(@config, 0, 2)) {
        ($args{$opt} = $arg, next)
            if $opt =~ /^force$/; # pseudo-option
        $CPAN::Config->{$opt} = $arg;

    local $CPAN::Config->{prerequisites_policy} = 'follow';

    while (my ($pkg, $ver) = splice(@modules, 0, 2)) {
        MY::preinstall($pkg, $ver) or next if defined &MY::preinstall;

        print "*** Installing $pkg...\n";

        my $obj = CPAN::Shell->expand(Module => $pkg);
        my $success = 0;

        if ($obj and defined(_version_check($obj->cpan_version, $ver))) {
            my $pathname = $pkg; $pathname =~ s/::/\\W/;

            foreach my $inc (grep { m/$ } keys(%INC)) {
                delete $INC{$inc};

            $obj->force('install') if $args{force};

            my $rv = $obj->install || eval { 
                )->{install} if $CPAN::META

            if ($rv eq 'YES') {
                print "*** $pkg successfully installed.\n";
                $success = 1;
            else {
                print "*** $pkg installation failed.\n";
                $success = 0;

            $installed += $success;
        else {
            print << ".";
*** Could not find a version $ver or above for $pkg; skipping.

        MY::postinstall($pkg, $ver, $success) if defined &MY::postinstall;

    return $installed;

sub _has_cpanplus {
    return (
        $HasCPANPLUS = (
            $INC{'CPANPLUS/'} or

# make guesses on whether we're under the CPAN installation directory
sub _under_cpan {
    require Cwd;
    require File::Spec;

    my $cwd  = File::Spec->canonpath(Cwd::cwd());
    my $cpan = File::Spec->canonpath($CPAN::Config->{cpan_home});

    return (index($cwd, $cpan) > -1);

sub _update_to {
    my $class = __PACKAGE__;
    my $ver   = shift;

    return if defined(_version_check(_load($class), $ver)); # no need to upgrade

    if (_prompt(
        "==> A newer version of $class ($ver) is required. Install?", 'y'
    ) =~ /^[Nn]/) {
        die "*** Please install $class $ver manually.\n";

    print << ".";
*** Trying to fetch it from CPAN...

    # install ourselves
    _load($class) and return $class->import(@_)
        if $class->install([], $class, $ver);

    print << '.'; exit 1;

*** Cannot bootstrap myself. :-( Installation terminated.

# check if we're connected to some host, using inet_aton
sub _connected_to {
    my $site = shift;

    return (
        ( _load('Socket') and Socket::inet_aton($site) ) or _prompt(qq(
*** Your host cannot resolve the domain name '$site', which
    probably means the Internet connections are unavailable.
==> Should we try to install the required module(s) anyway?), 'n'
        ) =~ /^[Yy]/

# check if a directory is writable; may create it on demand
sub _can_write {
    my $path = shift;
    mkdir ($path, 0755) unless -e $path;

    return 1 if -w $path;

    print << ".";
*** You are not allowed to write to the directory '$path';
    the installation may fail due to insufficient permissions.

    if (eval '$>' and lc(`sudo -V`) =~ /version/ and _prompt(qq(
==> Should we try to re-execute the autoinstall process with 'sudo'?), 'y'
    ) =~ /^[Yy]/) {
        # try to bootstrap ourselves from sudo
        print << ".";
*** Trying to re-execute the autoinstall process with 'sudo'...
        my $missing = join(',', @Missing);
        my $config  = join(',',
            UNIVERSAL::isa($Config, 'HASH') ? %{$Config} : @{$Config}
        ) if $Config;

        return unless system('sudo', $^X, $0, "--config=$config", "--installdeps=$missing");

        print << ".";
*** The 'sudo' command exited with error!  Resuming...

    return _prompt(qq(
==> Should we try to install the required module(s) anyway?), 'n'
    ) =~ /^[Yy]/

# load a module and return the version it reports
sub _load {
    my $mod = pop; # class/instance doesn't matter
    my $file = $mod;

    $file =~ s|::|/|g;
    $file .= '.pm';

    local $@;
    return eval { require $file; $mod->VERSION } || ($@ ? undef : 0);

# compare two versions, either use Sort::Versions or plain comparison
sub _version_check {
    my ($cur, $min) = @_;
    return unless defined $cur;

    $cur =~ s/\s+$//;

    # check for version numbers that are not in decimal format
    if (ref($cur) or ref($min) or $cur =~ /v|\..*\./ or $min =~ /v|\..*\./) {
        if ($version::VERSION or defined(_load('version'))) {
            # use if it is installed.
            return ((version->new($cur) >= version->new($min)) ? $cur : undef);
        elsif ($Sort::Versions::VERSION or defined(_load('Sort::Versions'))) {
            # use Sort::Versions as the sorting algorithm for a.b.c versions
            return ((Sort::Versions::versioncmp($cur, $min) != -1) ? $cur : undef);

        warn "Cannot reliably compare non-decimal formatted versions.\n".
             "Please install or Sort::Versions.\n";

    # plain comparison
    local $^W = 0; # shuts off 'not numeric' bugs
    return ($cur >= $min ? $cur : undef);

# nothing; this usage is deprecated.
sub main::PREREQ_PM { return {}; }

sub _make_args {
    my %args = @_;

    $args{PREREQ_PM} = { %{$args{PREREQ_PM} || {} }, @Existing, @Missing }
        if $UnderCPAN or $TestOnly;

    if ($args{EXE_FILES}) {
        require ExtUtils::Manifest;
        my $manifest = ExtUtils::Manifest::maniread('MANIFEST');

        $args{EXE_FILES} = [
            grep { exists $manifest->{$_} } @{$args{EXE_FILES}}

    $args{test}{TESTS} ||= 't/*.t';
    $args{test}{TESTS} = join(' ', grep {
    } map { glob($_) } split(/\s+/, $args{test}{TESTS}));

    my $missing = join(',', @Missing);
    my $config  = join(',',
        UNIVERSAL::isa($Config, 'HASH') ? %{$Config} : @{$Config}
    ) if $Config;

    $PostambleActions = (
        $missing ? "\$(PERL) $0 --config=$config --installdeps=$missing"
                 : "\@\$(NOOP)"

    return %args;

# a wrapper to ExtUtils::MakeMaker::WriteMakefile
sub Write {
    require Carp;
    Carp::croak "WriteMakefile: Need even number of args" if @_ % 2;

    if ($CheckOnly) {
        print << ".";
*** Makefile not written in check-only mode.

    my %args = _make_args(@_);

    no strict 'refs';

    $PostambleUsed = 0;
    local *MY::postamble = \&postamble unless defined &MY::postamble;

    print << "." unless $PostambleUsed;
*** WARNING: Makefile written with customized MY::postamble() without
    including contents from ExtUtils::AutoInstall::postamble() --
    auto installation features disabled.  Please contact the author.

    return 1;

sub postamble {
    $PostambleUsed = 1;

    return << ".";

config :: installdeps

checkdeps ::
\t\$(PERL) $0 --checkdeps

installdeps ::





=head1 SEE ALSO

L<perlmodlib>, L<ExtUtils::MakeMaker>, L<Sort::Versions>, L<CPAN>,
L<CPANPLUS>, L<Module::Install>


The test script included in the B<ExtUtils::AutoInstall> distribution
contains code adapted from Michael Schwern's B<Test::More> under the
I<Perl License>.  Please consult to F<t/AutoInstall.t> for details.

See the F<AUTHORS> file in this module's source distribution for the
list of contributors.

=head1 AUTHORS

Autrijus Tang E<lt>autrijus@autrijus.orgE<gt>


Copyright 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2016
by Autrijus Tang E<lt>autrijus@autrijus.orgE<gt>.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

See L<>