package ExtUtils::Install;
use strict;

use Config qw(%Config);
use Cwd qw(cwd);
use Exporter ();
use File::Basename qw(dirname);
use File::Copy;
use File::Path;
use File::Spec;

our @ISA = ('Exporter');
our @EXPORT = ('install','uninstall','pm_to_blib', 'install_default');



=head1 NAME

ExtUtils::Install - install files from here to there


  use ExtUtils::Install;

  install({ 'blib/lib' => 'some/install/dir' } );


  pm_to_blib({ 'lib/Foo/' => 'blib/lib/Foo/' });

=head1 VERSION



our $VERSION = '2.20';  # <-- do not forget to update the POD section just above this line!



Handles the installing and uninstalling of perl modules, scripts, man
pages, etc...

Both install() and uninstall() are specific to the way
ExtUtils::MakeMaker handles the installation and deinstallation of
perl modules. They are not designed as general purpose tools.

On some operating systems such as Win32 installation may not be possible
until after a reboot has occurred. This can have varying consequences:
removing an old DLL does not impact programs using the new one, but if
a new DLL cannot be installed properly until reboot then anything
depending on it must wait. The package variable


is used to store this status.

If this variable is true then such an operation has occurred and
anything depending on this module cannot proceed until a reboot
has occurred.

If this value is defined but false then such an operation has
occurred, but should not impact later operations.

=begin _private

=head2 _chmod($$;$)

Wrapper to chmod() for debugging and error trapping.

=head2 _warnonce(@)

Warns about something only once.

=head2 _choke(@)

Dies with a special message.

=end _private


    *_Is_VMS        = $^O eq 'VMS'     ? sub(){1} : sub(){0};
    *_Is_Win32      = $^O eq 'MSWin32' ? sub(){1} : sub(){0};
    *_Is_cygwin     = $^O eq 'cygwin'  ? sub(){1} : sub(){0};
    *_CanMoveAtBoot = ($^O eq 'MSWin32' || $^O eq 'cygwin') ? sub(){1} : sub(){0};

my $Inc_uninstall_warn_handler;

# install relative to here

  if (!exists $ENV{PERL_INSTALL_QUIET} and
      defined $ENV{MAKEFLAGS} and
      $ENV{MAKEFLAGS} =~ /\b(s|silent|quiet)\b/);

my $Curdir = File::Spec->curdir;

sub _estr(@) {
    return join "\n",'!' x 72,@_,'!' x 72,'';

{my %warned;
sub _warnonce(@) {
    my $first=shift;
    my $msg=_estr "WARNING: $first",@_;
    warn $msg unless $warned{$msg}++;

sub _choke(@) {
    my $first=shift;
    my $msg=_estr "ERROR: $first",@_;
    require Carp;

sub _croak {
    require Carp;
sub _confess {
    require Carp;

sub _compare {
    # avoid loading File::Compare in the common case
    if (-f $_[1] && -s _ == -s $_[0]) {
        require File::Compare;
        return File::Compare::compare(@_);
    return 1;

sub _chmod($$;$) {
    my ( $mode, $item, $verbose )=@_;
    $verbose ||= 0;
    if (chmod $mode, $item) {
        printf "chmod(0%o, %s)\n",$mode, $item if $verbose > 1;
    } else {
        my $err="$!";
        _warnonce sprintf "WARNING: Failed chmod(0%o, %s): %s\n",
                  $mode, $item, $err
            if -e $item;

=begin _private

=head2 _move_file_at_boot( $file, $target, $moan  )

OS-Specific, Win32/Cygwin

Schedules a file to be moved/renamed/deleted at next boot.
$file should be a filespec of an existing file
$target should be a ref to an array if the file is to be deleted
otherwise it should be a filespec for a rename. If the file is existing
it will be replaced.

Sets $MUST_REBOOT to 0 to indicate a deletion operation has occurred
and sets it to 1 to indicate that a move operation has been requested.

returns 1 on success, on failure if $moan is false errors are fatal.
If $moan is true then returns 0 on error and warns instead of dies.

=end _private


    my $Has_Win32API_File;
    sub _move_file_at_boot { #XXX OS-SPECIFIC
        my ( $file, $target, $moan  )= @_;
        _confess("Panic: Can't _move_file_at_boot on this platform!")
             unless _CanMoveAtBoot;

        my $descr= ref $target
                    ? "'$file' for deletion"
                    : "'$file' for installation as '$target'";

        # *note* _CanMoveAtBoot is only incidentally the same condition as below
        # this needs not hold true in the future.
        $Has_Win32API_File = (_Is_Win32 || _Is_cygwin)
            ? (eval {require Win32API::File; 1} || 0)
            : 0 unless defined $Has_Win32API_File;
        if ( ! $Has_Win32API_File ) {

            my @msg=(
                "Cannot schedule $descr at reboot.",
                "Try installing Win32API::File to allow operations on locked files",
                "to be scheduled during reboot. Or try to perform the operation by",
                "hand yourself. (You may need to close other perl processes first)"
            if ( $moan ) { _warnonce(@msg) } else { _choke(@msg) }
            return 0;
        my $opts= Win32API::File::MOVEFILE_DELAY_UNTIL_REBOOT();
        $opts= $opts | Win32API::File::MOVEFILE_REPLACE_EXISTING()
            unless ref $target;

        _chmod( 0666, $file );
        _chmod( 0666, $target ) unless ref $target;

        if (Win32API::File::MoveFileEx( $file, $target, $opts )) {
            $MUST_REBOOT ||= ref $target ? 0 : 1;
            return 1;
        } else {
            my @msg=(
                "MoveFileEx $descr at reboot failed: $^E",
                "You may try to perform the operation by hand yourself. ",
                "(You may need to close other perl processes first).",
            if ( $moan ) { _warnonce(@msg) } else { _choke(@msg) }
        return 0;

=begin _private

=head2 _unlink_or_rename( $file, $tryhard, $installing )

OS-Specific, Win32/Cygwin

Tries to get a file out of the way by unlinking it or renaming it. On
some OS'es (Win32 based) DLL files can end up locked such that they can
be renamed but not deleted. Likewise sometimes a file can be locked such
that it cant even be renamed or changed except at reboot. To handle
these cases this routine finds a tempfile name that it can either rename
the file out of the way or use as a proxy for the install so that the
rename can happen later (at reboot).

  $file : the file to remove.
  $tryhard : should advanced tricks be used for deletion
  $installing : we are not merely deleting but we want to overwrite

When $tryhard is not true if the unlink fails its fatal. When $tryhard
is true then the file is attempted to be renamed. The renamed file is
then scheduled for deletion. If the rename fails then $installing
governs what happens. If it is false the failure is fatal. If it is true
then an attempt is made to schedule installation at boot using a
temporary file to hold the new file. If this fails then a fatal error is
thrown, if it succeeds it returns the temporary file name (which will be
a derivative of the original in the same directory) so that the caller can
use it to install under. In all other cases of success returns $file.
On failure throws a fatal error.

=end _private


sub _unlink_or_rename { #XXX OS-SPECIFIC
    my ( $file, $tryhard, $installing )= @_;

    # this chmod was originally unconditional. However, its not needed on
    # POSIXy systems since permission to unlink a file is specified by the
    # directory rather than the file; and in fact it screwed up hard- and
    # symlinked files. Keep it for other platforms in case its still
    # needed there.
    if ($^O =~ /^(dos|os2|MSWin32|VMS)$/) {
        _chmod( 0666, $file );
    my $unlink_count = 0;
    while (unlink $file) { $unlink_count++; }
    return $file if $unlink_count > 0;
    my $error="$!";

    _choke("Cannot unlink '$file': $!")
          unless _CanMoveAtBoot && $tryhard;

    my $tmp= "AAA";
    ++$tmp while -e "$file.$tmp";
    $tmp= "$file.$tmp";

    warn "WARNING: Unable to unlink '$file': $error\n",
         "Going to try to rename it to '$tmp'.\n";

    if ( rename $file, $tmp ) {
        warn "Rename successful. Scheduling '$tmp'\nfor deletion at reboot.\n";
        # when $installing we can set $moan to true.
        # IOW, if we cant delete the renamed file at reboot its
        # not the end of the world. The other cases are more serious
        # and need to be fatal.
        _move_file_at_boot( $tmp, [], $installing );
        return $file;
    } elsif ( $installing ) {
        _warnonce("Rename failed: $!. Scheduling '$tmp'\nfor".
             " installation as '$file' at reboot.\n");
        _move_file_at_boot( $tmp, $file );
        return $tmp;
    } else {
        _choke("Rename failed:$!", "Cannot proceed.");


=head1 Functions

=begin _private

=head2 _get_install_skip

Handles loading the INSTALL.SKIP file. Returns an array of patterns to use.


sub _get_install_skip {
    my ( $skip, $verbose )= @_;
        print "EU_INSTALL_IGNORE_SKIP is set, ignore skipfile settings\n"
            if $verbose>2;
        return [];
    if ( ! defined $skip ) {
        print "Looking for install skip list\n"
            if $verbose>2;
        for my $file ( 'INSTALL.SKIP', $ENV{EU_INSTALL_SITE_SKIPFILE} ) {
            next unless $file;
            print "\tChecking for $file\n"
                if $verbose>2;
            if (-e $file) {
                $skip= $file;
    if ($skip && !ref $skip) {
        print "Reading skip patterns from '$skip'.\n"
            if $verbose;
        if (open my $fh,$skip ) {
            my @patterns;
            while (<$fh>) {
                next if /^\s*(?:#|$)/;
                print "\tSkip pattern: $_\n" if $verbose>3;
                push @patterns, $_;
            $skip= \@patterns;
        } else {
            warn "Can't read skip file:'$skip':$!\n";
    } elsif ( UNIVERSAL::isa($skip,'ARRAY') ) {
        print "Using array for skip list\n"
            if $verbose>2;
    } elsif ($verbose) {
        print "No skip list found.\n"
            if $verbose>1;
        $skip= [];
    warn "Got @{[0+@$skip]} skip patterns.\n"
        if $verbose>3;
    return $skip

=head2 _have_write_access

Abstract a -w check that tries to use POSIX::access() if possible.


    my  $has_posix;
    sub _have_write_access {
        my $dir=shift;
        unless (defined $has_posix) {
            $has_posix = (!_Is_cygwin && !_Is_Win32
             && eval { local $^W; require POSIX; 1} ) || 0;
        if ($has_posix) {
            return POSIX::access($dir, POSIX::W_OK());
        } else {
            return -w $dir;

=head2 _can_write_dir(C<$dir>)

Checks whether a given directory is writable, taking account
the possibility that the directory might not exist and would have to
be created first.

Returns a list, containing: C<($writable, $determined_by, @create)>

C<$writable> says whether the directory is (hypothetically) writable

C<$determined_by> is the directory the status was determined from. It will be
either the C<$dir>, or one of its parents.

C<@create> is a list of directories that would probably have to be created
to make the requested directory. It may not actually be correct on
relative paths with C<..> in them. But for our purposes it should work ok


sub _can_write_dir {
    my $dir=shift;
        unless defined $dir and length $dir;

    my ($vol, $dirs, $file) = File::Spec->splitpath($dir,1);
    my @dirs = File::Spec->splitdir($dirs);
    unshift @dirs, File::Spec->curdir
        unless File::Spec->file_name_is_absolute($dir);

    my $path='';
    my @make;
    while (@dirs) {
        if (_Is_VMS) {
            $dir = File::Spec->catdir($vol,@dirs);
        else {
            $dir = File::Spec->catdir(@dirs);
            $dir = File::Spec->catpath($vol,$dir,'')
                    if defined $vol and length $vol;
        next if ( $dir eq $path );
        if ( ! -e $dir ) {
            unshift @make,$dir;
        if ( _have_write_access($dir) ) {
            return 1,$dir,@make
        } else {
            return 0,$dir,@make
    } continue {
        pop @dirs;
    return 0;

=head2 _mkpath($dir,$show,$mode,$verbose,$dry_run)

Wrapper around File::Path::mkpath() to handle errors.

If $verbose is true and >1 then additional diagnostics will be produced, also
this will force $show to true.

If $dry_run is true then the directory will not be created but a check will be
made to see whether it would be possible to write to the directory, or that
it would be possible to create the directory.

If $dry_run is not true dies if the directory can not be created or is not


sub _mkpath {
    my ($dir,$show,$mode,$verbose,$dry_run)=@_;
    if ( $verbose && $verbose > 1 && ! -d $dir) {
        $show= 1;
        printf "mkpath(%s,%d,%#o)\n", $dir, $show, $mode;
    if (!$dry_run) {
        my @created;
        eval {
            @created = File::Path::mkpath($dir,$show,$mode);
        } or _choke("Can't create '$dir'","$@");
        # if we created any directories, we were able to write and don't need
        # extra checks
        if (@created) {
    my ($can,$root,@make)=_can_write_dir($dir);
    if (!$can) {
        my @msg=(
            "Can't create '$dir'",
            $root ? "Do not have write permissions on '$root'"
                  : "Unknown Error"
        if ($dry_run) {
            _warnonce @msg;
        } else {
            _choke @msg;
    } elsif ($show and $dry_run) {
        print "$_\n" for @make;


=head2 _copy($from,$to,$verbose,$dry_run)

Wrapper around File::Copy::copy to handle errors.

If $verbose is true and >1 then additional diagnostics will be emitted.

If $dry_run is true then the copy will not actually occur.

Dies if the copy fails.


sub _copy {
    my ( $from, $to, $verbose, $dry_run)=@_;
    if ($verbose && $verbose>1) {
        printf "copy(%s,%s)\n", $from, $to;
    if (!$dry_run) {
            or _croak( _estr "ERROR: Cannot copy '$from' to '$to': $!" );


=head2 _chdir($from)

Wrapper around chdir to catch errors.

If not called in void context returns the cwd from before the chdir.

dies on error.


sub _chdir {
    my ($dir)= @_;
    my $ret;
    if (defined wantarray) {
        $ret= cwd;
    chdir $dir
        or _choke("Couldn't chdir to '$dir': $!");
    return $ret;

=end _private

=head2 install

    # deprecated forms
    install(\%from_to, $verbose, $dry_run, $uninstall_shadows,
                $skip, $always_copy, \%result);

    # recommended form as of 1.47
        from_to => \%from_to,
        verbose => 1,
        dry_run => 0,
        uninstall_shadows => 1,
        skip => undef,
        always_copy => 1,
        result => \%install_results,

Copies each directory tree of %from_to to its corresponding value
preserving timestamps and permissions.

There are two keys with a special meaning in the hash: "read" and
"write".  These contain packlist files.  After the copying is done,
install() will write the list of target files to $from_to{write}. If
$from_to{read} is given the contents of this file will be merged into
the written file. The read and the written file may be identical, but
on AFS it is quite likely that people are installing to a different
directory than the one where the files later appear.

If $verbose is true, will print out each file removed.  Default is
false.  This is "make install VERBINST=1". $verbose values going
up to 5 show increasingly more diagnostics output.

If $dry_run is true it will only print what it was going to do
without actually doing it.  Default is false.

If $uninstall_shadows is true any differing versions throughout @INC
will be uninstalled.  This is "make install UNINST=1"

As of 1.37_02 install() supports the use of a list of patterns to filter out
files that shouldn't be installed. If $skip is omitted or undefined then
install will try to read the list from INSTALL.SKIP in the CWD. This file is
a list of regular expressions and is just like the MANIFEST.SKIP file used
by L<ExtUtils::Manifest>.

A default site INSTALL.SKIP may be provided by setting then environment
variable EU_INSTALL_SITE_SKIPFILE, this will only be used when there isn't a
distribution specific INSTALL.SKIP. If the environment variable
EU_INSTALL_IGNORE_SKIP is true then no install file filtering will be

If $skip is undefined then the skip file will be autodetected and used if it
is found. If $skip is a reference to an array then it is assumed the array
contains the list of patterns, if $skip is a true non reference it is
assumed to be the filename holding the list of patterns, any other value of
$skip is taken to mean that no install filtering should occur.

B<Changes As of Version 1.47>

As of version 1.47 the following additions were made to the install interface.
Note that the new argument style and use of the %result hash is recommended.

The $always_copy parameter which when true causes files to be updated
regardless as to whether they have changed, if it is defined but false then
copies are made only if the files have changed, if it is undefined then the
value of the environment variable EU_INSTALL_ALWAYS_COPY is used as default.

The %result hash will be populated with the various keys/subhashes reflecting
the install. Currently these keys and their structure are:

    install             => { $target    => $source },
    install_fail        => { $target    => $source },
    install_unchanged   => { $target    => $source },

    install_filtered    => { $source    => $pattern },

    uninstall           => { $uninstalled => $source },
    uninstall_fail      => { $uninstalled => $source },

where C<$source> is the filespec of the file being installed. C<$target> is where
it is being installed to, and C<$uninstalled> is any shadow file that is in C<@INC>
or C<$ENV{PERL5LIB}> or other standard locations, and C<$pattern> is the pattern that
caused a source file to be skipped. In future more keys will be added, such as to
show created directories, however this requires changes in other modules and must
therefore wait.

These keys will be populated before any exceptions are thrown should there be an

Note that all updates of the %result are additive, the hash will not be
cleared before use, thus allowing status results of many installs to be easily


If there is only one argument and it is a reference to an array then
the array is assumed to contain a list of key-value pairs specifying
the options. In this case the option "from_to" is mandatory. This style
means that you do not have to supply a cryptic list of arguments and can
use a self documenting argument list that is easier to understand.

This is now the recommended interface to install().


If all actions were successful install will return a hashref of the results
as described above for the $result parameter. If any action is a failure
then install will die, therefore it is recommended to pass in the $result
parameter instead of using the return value. If the result parameter is
provided then the returned hashref will be the passed in hashref.


sub install { #XXX OS-SPECIFIC
    my($from_to,$verbose,$dry_run,$uninstall_shadows,$skip,$always_copy,$result) = @_;
    if (@_==1 and eval { 1+@$from_to }) {
        my %opts        = @$from_to;
        $from_to        = $opts{from_to}
                            or _confess("from_to is a mandatory parameter");
        $verbose        = $opts{verbose};
        $dry_run        = $opts{dry_run};
        $uninstall_shadows  = $opts{uninstall_shadows};
        $skip           = $opts{skip};
        $always_copy    = $opts{always_copy};
        $result         = $opts{result};

    $result ||= {};
    $verbose ||= 0;
    $dry_run  ||= 0;

    $skip= _get_install_skip($skip,$verbose);
    $always_copy =  $ENV{EU_INSTALL_ALWAYS_COPY}
                 || $ENV{EU_ALWAYS_COPY}
                 || 0
        unless defined $always_copy;

    my(%from_to) = %$from_to;
    my(%pack, $dir, %warned);
    require ExtUtils::Packlist;
    my($packlist) = ExtUtils::Packlist->new();

    for (qw/read write/) {
        delete $from_to{$_};
    my $tmpfile = install_rooted_file($pack{"read"});
    $packlist->read($tmpfile) if (-f $tmpfile);
    my $cwd = cwd();
    my @found_files;
    my %check_dirs;
    require File::Find;

    my $blib_lib  = File::Spec->catdir('blib', 'lib');
    my $blib_arch = File::Spec->catdir('blib', 'arch');

    # File::Find seems to always be Unixy except on MacPerl :(
    my $current_directory = $^O eq 'MacOS' ? $Curdir : '.';

    MOD_INSTALL: foreach my $source (sort keys %from_to) {
        #copy the tree to the target directory without altering
        #timestamp and permission and remember for the .packlist
        #file. The packlist file contains the absolute paths of the
        #install locations. AFS users may call this a bug. We'll have
        #to reconsider how to add the means to satisfy AFS users also.

        #October 1997: we want to install .pm files into archlib if
        #there are any files in arch. So we depend on having ./blib/arch
        #hardcoded here.

        my $targetroot = install_rooted_dir($from_to{$source});

        if ($source eq $blib_lib and
            exists $from_to{$blib_arch} and
            $targetroot = install_rooted_dir($from_to{$blib_arch});
            print "Files found in $blib_arch: installing files in $blib_lib into architecture dependent library tree\n";

        next unless -d $source;
        # 5.5.3's File::Find missing no_chdir option
        File::Find::find(sub {
            my ($mode,$size,$atime,$mtime) = (stat)[2,7,8,9];

            return if !-f _;
            my $origfile = $_;

            return if $origfile eq ".exists";
            my $targetdir  = File::Spec->catdir($targetroot, $File::Find::dir);
            my $targetfile = File::Spec->catfile($targetdir, $origfile);
            my $sourcedir  = File::Spec->catdir($source, $File::Find::dir);
            my $sourcefile = File::Spec->catfile($sourcedir, $origfile);

            for my $pat (@$skip) {
                if ( $sourcefile=~/$pat/ ) {
                    print "Skipping $targetfile (filtered)\n"
                        if $verbose>1;
                    $result->{install_filtered}{$sourcefile} = $pat;
            # we have to do this for back compat with old File::Finds
            # and because the target is relative
            my $save_cwd = File::Spec->catfile($cwd, $sourcedir);
            my $diff = $always_copy || _compare($sourcefile, $targetfile);
                unless -w $targetfile;

            push @found_files,
                [ $diff, $File::Find::dir, $origfile,
                  $mode, $size, $atime, $mtime,
                  $targetdir, $targetfile, $sourcedir, $sourcefile,

            #restore the original directory we were in when File::Find
            #called us so that it doesn't get horribly confused.
        }, $current_directory );
    foreach my $targetdir (sort keys %check_dirs) {
        _mkpath( $targetdir, 0, 0755, $verbose, $dry_run );
    foreach my $found (@found_files) {
        my ($diff, $ffd, $origfile, $mode, $size, $atime, $mtime,
            $targetdir, $targetfile, $sourcedir, $sourcefile)= @$found;

        my $realtarget= $targetfile;
        if ($diff) {
            eval {
                if (-f $targetfile) {
                    print "_unlink_or_rename($targetfile)\n" if $verbose>1;
                    $targetfile= _unlink_or_rename( $targetfile, 'tryhard', 'install' )
                        unless $dry_run;
                } elsif ( ! -d $targetdir ) {
                    _mkpath( $targetdir, 0, 0755, $verbose, $dry_run );
                print "Installing $targetfile\n";

                _copy( $sourcefile, $targetfile, $verbose, $dry_run, );

                #XXX OS-SPECIFIC
                print "utime($atime,$mtime,$targetfile)\n" if $verbose>1;
                utime($atime,$mtime + _Is_VMS,$targetfile) unless $dry_run>1;

                $mode = 0444 | ( $mode & 0111 ? 0111 : 0 );
                $mode = $mode | 0222
                    if $realtarget ne $targetfile;
                _chmod( $mode, $targetfile, $verbose );
                $result->{install}{$targetfile} = $sourcefile;
            } or do {
                $result->{install_fail}{$targetfile} = $sourcefile;
                die $@;
        } else {
            $result->{install_unchanged}{$targetfile} = $sourcefile;
            print "Skipping $targetfile (unchanged)\n" if $verbose;

        if ( $uninstall_shadows ) {
            inc_uninstall($sourcefile,$ffd, $verbose,
                          $realtarget ne $targetfile ? $realtarget : "",

        # Record the full pathname.

    if ($pack{'write'}) {
        $dir = install_rooted_dir(dirname($pack{'write'}));
        _mkpath( $dir, 0, 0755, $verbose, $dry_run );
        print "Writing $pack{'write'}\n" if $verbose;
        $packlist->write(install_rooted_file($pack{'write'})) unless $dry_run;

    return $result;

=begin _private

=head2 _do_cleanup

Standardize finish event for after another instruction has occurred.
Handles converting $MUST_REBOOT to a die for instance.

=end _private


sub _do_cleanup {
    my ($verbose) = @_;
    if ($MUST_REBOOT) {
        die _estr "Operation not completed! ",
            "You must reboot to complete the installation.",
    } elsif (defined $MUST_REBOOT & $verbose) {
        warn _estr "Installation will be completed at the next reboot.\n",
             "However it is not necessary to reboot immediately.\n";

=begin _undocumented

=head2 install_rooted_file( $file )

Returns $file, or catfile($INSTALL_ROOT,$file) if $INSTALL_ROOT
is defined.

=head2 install_rooted_dir( $dir )

Returns $dir, or catdir($INSTALL_ROOT,$dir) if $INSTALL_ROOT
is defined.

=end _undocumented


sub install_rooted_file {
    if (defined $INSTALL_ROOT) {
        File::Spec->catfile($INSTALL_ROOT, $_[0]);
    } else {

sub install_rooted_dir {
    if (defined $INSTALL_ROOT) {
        File::Spec->catdir($INSTALL_ROOT, $_[0]);
    } else {

=begin _undocumented

=head2 forceunlink( $file, $tryhard )

Tries to delete a file. If $tryhard is true then we will use whatever
devious tricks we can to delete the file. Currently this only applies to
Win32 in that it will try to use Win32API::File to schedule a delete at
reboot. A wrapper for _unlink_or_rename().

=end _undocumented


sub forceunlink {
    my ( $file, $tryhard )= @_; #XXX OS-SPECIFIC
    _unlink_or_rename( $file, $tryhard, not("installing") );

=begin _undocumented

=head2 directory_not_empty( $dir )

Returns 1 if there is an .exists file somewhere in a directory tree.
Returns 0 if there is not.

=end _undocumented


sub directory_not_empty ($) {
  my($dir) = @_;
  my $files = 0;
  require File::Find;
  File::Find::find(sub {
           return if $_ eq ".exists";
           if (-f) {
             $files = 1;
       }, $dir);
  return $files;

=head2 install_default



Calls install() with arguments to copy a module from blib/ to the
default site installation location.

$fullext is the name of the module converted to a directory
(ie. Foo::Bar would be Foo/Bar).  If $fullext is not specified, it
will attempt to read it from @ARGV.

This is primarily useful for install scripts.

B<NOTE> This function is not really useful because of the hard-coded
install location with no way to control site vs core vs vendor
directories and the strange way in which the module name is given.
Consider its use discouraged.


sub install_default {
  @_ < 2 or _croak("install_default should be called with 0 or 1 argument");
  my $FULLEXT = @_ ? shift : $ARGV[0];
  defined $FULLEXT or die "Do not know to where to write install log";
  my $INST_LIB = File::Spec->catdir($Curdir,"blib","lib");
  my $INST_ARCHLIB = File::Spec->catdir($Curdir,"blib","arch");
  my $INST_BIN = File::Spec->catdir($Curdir,'blib','bin');
  my $INST_SCRIPT = File::Spec->catdir($Curdir,'blib','script');
  my $INST_MAN1DIR = File::Spec->catdir($Curdir,'blib','man1');
  my $INST_MAN3DIR = File::Spec->catdir($Curdir,'blib','man3');

  my @INST_HTML;
  if($Config{installhtmldir}) {
      my $INST_HTMLDIR = File::Spec->catdir($Curdir,'blib','html');
      @INST_HTML = ($INST_HTMLDIR => $Config{installhtmldir});

           read => "$Config{sitearchexp}/auto/$FULLEXT/.packlist",
           write => "$Config{installsitearch}/auto/$FULLEXT/.packlist",
           $INST_LIB => (directory_not_empty($INST_ARCHLIB)) ?
                         $Config{installsitearch} :
           $INST_ARCHLIB => $Config{installsitearch},
           $INST_BIN => $Config{installbin} ,
           $INST_SCRIPT => $Config{installscript},
           $INST_MAN1DIR => $Config{installman1dir},
           $INST_MAN3DIR => $Config{installman3dir},

=head2 uninstall

    uninstall($packlist_file, $verbose, $dont_execute);

Removes the files listed in a $packlist_file.

If $verbose is true, will print out each file removed.  Default is

If $dont_execute is true it will only print what it was going to do
without actually doing it.  Default is false.


sub uninstall {
    my($fil,$verbose,$dry_run) = @_;
    $verbose ||= 0;
    $dry_run  ||= 0;

    die _estr "ERROR: no packlist file found: '$fil'"
        unless -f $fil;
    # my $my_req = $self->catfile(qw(auto ExtUtils Install;
    # require $my_req; # Hairy, but for the first
    require ExtUtils::Packlist;
    my ($packlist) = ExtUtils::Packlist->new($fil);
    foreach (sort(keys(%$packlist))) {
        print "unlink $_\n" if $verbose;
        forceunlink($_,'tryhard') unless $dry_run;
    print "unlink $fil\n" if $verbose;
    forceunlink($fil, 'tryhard') unless $dry_run;

=begin _undocumented

=head2 inc_uninstall($filepath,$libdir,$verbose,$dry_run,$ignore,$results)

Remove shadowed files. If $ignore is true then it is assumed to hold
a filename to ignore. This is used to prevent spurious warnings from
occurring when doing an install at reboot.

We now only die when failing to remove a file that has precedence over
our own, when our install has precedence we only warn.

$results is assumed to contain a hashref which will have the keys
'uninstall' and 'uninstall_fail' populated with  keys for the files
removed and values of the source files they would shadow.

=end _undocumented


sub inc_uninstall {
    my($filepath,$libdir,$verbose,$dry_run,$ignore,$results) = @_;
    my $file = (File::Spec->splitpath($filepath))[2];
    my %seen_dir = ();

    my @PERL_ENV_LIB = split $Config{path_sep}, defined $ENV{'PERL5LIB'}
      ? $ENV{'PERL5LIB'} : $ENV{'PERLLIB'} || '';

    my @dirs=( @PERL_ENV_LIB,

    #warn join "\n","---",@dirs,"---";
    my $seen_ours;
    foreach $dir ( @dirs ) {
        my $canonpath = _Is_VMS ? $dir : File::Spec->canonpath($dir);
        next if $canonpath eq $Curdir;
        next if $seen_dir{$canonpath}++;
        my $targetfile = File::Spec->catfile($canonpath,$libdir,$file);
        next unless -f $targetfile;

        # The reason why we compare file's contents is, that we cannot
        # know, which is the file we just installed (AFS). So we leave
        # an identical file in place
        my $diff = _compare($filepath,$targetfile);

        print "#$file and $targetfile differ\n" if $diff && $verbose > 1;

        if (!$diff or $targetfile eq $ignore) {
            $seen_ours = 1;
        if ($dry_run) {
            $results->{uninstall}{$targetfile} = $filepath;
            if ($verbose) {
                $Inc_uninstall_warn_handler ||= ExtUtils::Install::Warn->new();
                $libdir =~ s|^\./||s ; # That's just cosmetics, no need to port. It looks prettier.
                                     File::Spec->catfile($libdir, $file),
            # if not verbose, we just say nothing
        } else {
            print "Unlinking $targetfile (shadowing?)\n" if $verbose;
            eval {
                die "Fake die for testing"
                    if $ExtUtils::Install::Testing and
                       ucase(File::Spec->canonpath($ExtUtils::Install::Testing)) eq ucase($targetfile);
                $results->{uninstall}{$targetfile} = $filepath;
            } or do {
                $results->{fail_uninstall}{$targetfile} = $filepath;
                if ($seen_ours) {
                    warn "Failed to remove probably harmless shadow file '$targetfile'\n";
                } else {
                    die "$@\n";

=begin _undocumented

=head2 run_filter($cmd,$src,$dest)

Filter $src using $cmd into $dest.

=end _undocumented


sub run_filter {
    my ($cmd, $src, $dest) = @_;
    local(*CMD, *SRC);
    open(CMD, "|$cmd >$dest") || die "Cannot fork: $!";
    open(SRC, $src)           || die "Cannot open $src: $!";
    my $buf;
    my $sz = 1024;
    while (my $len = sysread(SRC, $buf, $sz)) {
        syswrite(CMD, $buf, $len);
    close SRC;
    close CMD or die "Filter command '$cmd' failed for $src";

=head2 pm_to_blib

    pm_to_blib(\%from_to, $autosplit_dir);
    pm_to_blib(\%from_to, $autosplit_dir, $filter_cmd);

Copies each key of %from_to to its corresponding value efficiently.
If an $autosplit_dir is provided, all .pm files will be autosplit into it.
Any destination directories are created.

$filter_cmd is an optional shell command to run each .pm file through
prior to splitting and copying.  Input is the contents of the module,
output the new module contents.

You can have an environment variable PERL_INSTALL_ROOT set which will
be prepended as a directory to each installed file (and directory).

By default verbose output is generated, setting the PERL_INSTALL_QUIET
environment variable will silence this output.


sub pm_to_blib {
    my($fromto,$autodir,$pm_filter) = @_;

    my %dirs;
    _mkpath($autodir,0,0755) if defined $autodir;
    while(my($from, $to) = each %$fromto) {
        if( -f $to && -s $from == -s $to && -M $to < -M $from ) {
            print "Skip $to (unchanged)\n" unless $INSTALL_QUIET;

        # When a pm_filter is defined, we need to pre-process the source first
        # to determine whether it has changed or not.  Therefore, only perform
        # the comparison check when there's no filter to be ran.
        #    -- RAM, 03/01/2001

        my $need_filtering = defined $pm_filter && length $pm_filter &&
                             $from =~ /\.pm$/;

        if (!$need_filtering && !_compare($from,$to)) {
            print "Skip $to (unchanged)\n" unless $INSTALL_QUIET;
        if (-f $to){
            # we wont try hard here. its too likely to mess things up.
        } else {
            my $dirname = dirname($to);
            if (!$dirs{$dirname}++) {
        if ($need_filtering) {
            run_filter($pm_filter, $from, $to);
            print "$pm_filter <$from >$to\n";
        } else {
            _copy( $from, $to );
            print "cp $from $to\n" unless $INSTALL_QUIET;
        my($mode,$atime,$mtime) = (stat $from)[2,8,9];
        _chmod(0444 | ( $mode & 0111 ? 0111 : 0 ),$to);
        next unless $from =~ /\.pm$/;
        _autosplit($to,$autodir) if defined $autodir;

=begin _private

=head2 _autosplit

From 1.0307 back, AutoSplit will sometimes leave an open filehandle to
the file being split.  This causes problems on systems with mandatory
locking (ie. Windows).  So we wrap it and close the filehandle.

=end _private


sub _autosplit { #XXX OS-SPECIFIC
    require AutoSplit;
    my $retval = AutoSplit::autosplit(@_);
    close *AutoSplit::IN if defined *AutoSplit::IN{IO};

    return $retval;

package ExtUtils::Install::Warn;

sub new { bless {}, shift }

sub add {
    my($self,$file,$targetfile) = @_;
    push @{$self->{$file}}, $targetfile;

    unless(defined $INSTALL_ROOT) {
        my $self = shift;
        foreach $file (sort keys %$self) {
            $plural = @{$self->{$file}} > 1 ? "s" : "";
            print "## Differing version$plural of $file found. You might like to\n";
            for (0..$#{$self->{$file}}) {
                print "rm ", $self->{$file}[$_], "\n";
        $plural = $i>1 ? "all those files" : "this file";
        my $inst = (_invokant() eq 'ExtUtils::MakeMaker')
                 ? ( $Config::Config{make} || 'make' ).' install'
                     . ( ExtUtils::Install::_Is_VMS ? '/MACRO="UNINST"=1' : ' UNINST=1' )
                 : './Build install uninst=1';
        print "## Running '$inst' will unlink $plural for you.\n";

=begin _private

=head2 _invokant

Does a heuristic on the stack to see who called us for more intelligent
error messages. Currently assumes we will be called only by Module::Build
or by ExtUtils::MakeMaker.

=end _private


sub _invokant {
    my @stack;
    my $frame = 0;
    while (my $file = (caller($frame++))[1]) {
        push @stack, (File::Spec->splitpath($file))[2];

    my $builder;
    my $top = pop @stack;
    if ($top =~ /^Build/i || exists($INC{'Module/'})) {
        $builder = 'Module::Build';
    } else {
        $builder = 'ExtUtils::MakeMaker';
    return $builder;


=over 4


Will be prepended to each install path.


Will prevent the automatic use of INSTALL.SKIP as the install skip file.


If there is no INSTALL.SKIP file in the make directory then this value
can be used to provide a default.


If this environment variable is true then normal install processes will
always overwrite older identical files during the install process.

Note that the alias EU_ALWAYS_COPY will be supported if EU_INSTALL_ALWAYS_COPY
is not defined until at least the 1.50 release. Please ensure you use the


=head1 AUTHOR

Original author lost in the mists of time.  Probably the same as Makemaker.

Production release currently maintained by demerphq C<yves at>,
extensive changes by Michael G. Schwern.

Send bug reports via  Please send your
generated Makefile along with your report.

=head1 LICENSE

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

See L<>