NOTE to myself -- this pod needs to be updated to have option
patterns described!


=head1 NAME

Getopt::Tabular - table-driven argument parsing for Perl 5

=head1 SYNOPSIS

    use Getopt::Tabular;

(or)

    use Getopt::Tabular qw/GetOptions 
                           SetHelp SetHelpOption 
                           SetError GetError/;

    ...

    &Getopt::Tabular::SetHelp (long_help, usage_string);

    @opt_table = (
                  [section_description, "section"],
                  [option, type, num_values, option_data, help_string],
                  ...
                 );
    &GetOptions (\@opt_table, \@ARGV [, \@newARGV]) || exit 1;

=head1 DESCRIPTION

B<Getopt::Tabular> is a Perl 5 module for table-driven argument parsing,
vaguely inspired by John Ousterhout's Tk_ParseArgv.  All you really need
to do to use the package is set up a table describing all your
command-line options, and call &GetOptions with three arguments: a
reference to your option table, a reference to C<@ARGV> (or something
like it), and an optional third array reference (say, to C<@newARGV>).
&GetOptions will process all arguments in C<@ARGV>, and copy any
leftover arguments (i.e. those that are not options or arguments to some
option) to the C<@newARGV> array.  (If the C<@newARGV> argument is not
supplied, C<GetOptions> will replace C<@ARGV> with the stripped-down
argument list.)  If there are any invalid options, C<GetOptions> will
print an error message and return 0.

Before I tell you all about why Getopt::Tabular is a wonderful thing, let me
explain some of the terminology that will keep popping up here.

=over 4

=item argument

any single word appearing on the command-line, i.e. one element of the
C<@ARGV> array.

=item option

an argument that starts with a certain sequence of characters; the default
is "-".  (If you like GNU-style options, you can change this to "--".)  In
most Getopt::Tabular-based applications, options can come anywhere on the
command line, and their order is unimportant (unless one option overrides a
previous option).  Also, Getopt::Tabular will allow any non-ambiguous
abbreviation of options.

=item option argument

(or I<value>) an argument that immediately follows certain types of
options.  For instance, if C<-foo> is a scalar-valued integer option, and
C<-foo 3> appears on the command line, then C<3> will be the argument to
C<-foo>.

=item option type

controls how C<GetOptions> deals with an option and the arguments that
follow it.  (Actually, for most option types, the type interacts with the
C<num_values> field, which determines whether the option is scalar- or
vector-valued.  This will be fully explained in due course.)

=back

=head1 FEATURES

Now for the advertising, i.e. why Getopt::Tabular is a good thing.

=over 4

=item *

Command-line arguments are carefully type-checked, both by pattern and
number---e.g. if an option requires two integers, GetOptions makes sure
that exactly two integers follow it!

=item *

The valid command-line arguments are specified in a data structure
separate from the call to GetOptions; this makes it easier to have very
long lists of options, and to parse options from multiple sources (e.g. the
command line, an environment variable, and a configuration file).

=item *

Getopt::Tabular can intelligently generate help text based on your option
descriptions.

=item *

The type system is extensible, and if you can define your desired argument
type using a single Perl regular expression then it's particularly easy to
extend.

=item *

To make your program look smarter, options can be abbreviated and come in
any order.

=item *

 You can parse options in a "spoof" mode that has no side-effects -- this
is useful for making a validation pass over the command line without
actually doing anything.

=back

In general, I have found that Getopt::Tabular tends to encourage programs
with long lists of sophisticated options, leading to great flexibility,
intelligent operation, and the potential for insanely long command lines.

=head1 BASIC OPERATION

The basic operation of Getopt::Tabular is driven by an I<option table>,
which is just a list of I<option descriptions> (otherwise known as option
table entries, or just entries).  Each option description tells
C<GetOptions> everything it needs to know when it encounters a particular
option on the command line.  For instance,

    ["-foo", "integer", 2, \@Foo, "set the foo values"]

means that whenever C<-foo> is seen on the command line, C<GetOptions> is
to make sure that the next two arguments are integers, and copy them into
the caller's C<@Foo> array.  (Well, really into the C<@Foo> array where the
option table is defined.  This is almost always the same as C<GetOptions>'
caller, though.)

Typically, you'll group a bunch of option descriptions together like
this:

    @options = 
        (["-range", "integer", 2, \@Range, 
          "set the range of allowed values"],
         ["-file", "string", 1, \$File,
           "set the output file"],
         ["-clobber", "boolean", 0, \$Clobber,
           "clobber existing files"], 
         ...
        );

and then call C<GetOptions> like this:

    &GetOptions (\@options, \@ARGV) || exit 1;

which replaces C<@ARGV> with a new array containing all the arguments
left-over after options and their arguments have been removed.  You can
also call C<GetOptions> with three arguments, like this:

    &GetOptions (\@options, \@ARGV, \@newARGV) || exit 1;

in which case C<@ARGV> is untouched, and C<@newARGV> gets the leftover
arguments.

In case of error, C<GetOptions> prints enough information for the user to
figure out what's going wrong.  If you supply one, it'll even print out a
brief usage message in case of error.  Thus, it's enough to just C<exit 1>
when C<GetOptions> indicates an error by returning 0.

Detailed descriptions of the contents of an option table entry are given
next, followed by the complete run-down of available types, full details on
error handling, and how help text is generated.

=head1 OPTION TABLE ENTRIES

The fields in the option table control how arguments are parsed, so it's
important to understand each one in turn.  First, the format of entries in
the table is fairly rigid, even though this isn't really necessary with
Perl.  It's done that way to make the Getopt::Tabular code a little easier;
the drawback is that some entries will have unused values (e.g. the
C<num_values> field is never used for boolean options, but you still have
to put something there as a place-holder).  The fields are as follows:

=over 4

=item option

This is the option name, e.g. "-verbose" or "-some_value".  For most option
types, this is simply an option prefix followed by text; for boolean
options, however, it can be a little more complicated.  (The exact rules
are discussed under L<"OPTION TYPES">.)  And yes, even though you tell
Getopt::Tabular the valid option prefixes, you still have to put one onto
the option names in the table.

=item type

The option type decides what action will be taken when this option is seen
on the command line, and (if applicable) what sort of values will be
accepted for this option.  There are three broad classes of types: those
that imply copying data from the command line into some variable in the
caller's space; those that imply copying constant data into the caller's
space without taking any more arguments from the command line; and those
that imply some other action to be taken.  The available option types are
covered in greater detail below (see L<OPTION TYPES>), but briefly:
C<string>, C<integer>, and C<float> all imply copying values from the
command line to a variable; C<constant>, C<boolean>, C<copy>,
C<arrayconst>, and C<hashconst> all imply copying some pre-defined data
into a variable; C<call> and C<eval> allow the execution of some arbitrary
subroutine or chunk of code; and C<help> options will cause C<GetOptions>
to print out all available help text and return 0.

=item num_values

for C<string>, C<integer>, and C<float> options, this determines whether
the option is a scalar (B<num_values> = 1) or vector (B<num_values> > 1)
option.  (Note that whether the option is scalar- or vector-valued has an
important influence on what you must supply in the B<option_data> field!)
For C<constant>, C<copy>, C<arrayconst>, and C<hashconst> option types,
B<num_values> is a bit of a misnomer: it actually contains the value (or a
reference to it, if array or hash) to be copied when the option is
encountered.  For C<call> options, B<num_values> can be used to supply
extra arguments to the called subroutine.  In any case, though, you can
think of B<num_values> as an input value.  For C<boolean> and C<eval>
options, B<num_values> is ignored and should be C<undef> or 0.

=item option_data

For C<string>, C<integer>, C<float>, C<boolean>, C<constant>, C<copy>,
C<arrayconst>, and C<hashconst> types, this must be a reference to the
variable into which you want C<GetOptions> to copy the appropriate thing.
The "appropriate thing" is either the argument(s) following the option, the
constant supplied as B<num_values>, or 1 or 0 (for boolean options).

For C<boolean>, C<constant>, C<copy>, and scalar-valued C<string>,
C<integer>, and C<float> options, this must be a scalar reference.  For
vector-valued C<string>, C<integer>, and C<float> options (B<num_values> >
1), and for C<arrayconst> options, this must be an array reference.  For
C<hashconst> options, this must be a hash reference.  

Finally, B<option_data> is also used as an input value for C<call> and
C<eval> options: for C<call>, it should be a subroutine reference, and for
C<eval> options, it should be a string containing valid Perl code to
evaluate when the option is seen.  The subroutine called by a C<call>
option should take at least two arguments: a string, which is the actual
option that triggered the call (because the same subroutine could be tied
to many options), and an array reference, which contains all command line
arguments after that option.  (Further arguments can be supplied in the
B<num_values> field.)  The subroutine may freely modify this array, and
those modifications will affect the behaviour of C<GetOptions> afterwards.

The chunk of code passed to an C<eval> option is evaluated in the package
from which C<GetOptions> is called, and does not have access to any
internal Getopt::Tabular data.

=item help_string

(optional) a brief description of the option.  Don't worry about formatting
this in any way; when C<GetOptions> has to print out your help, it will do so
quite nicely without any intervention.  If the help string is not defined,
then that option will not be included in the option help text.  (However,
you could supply an empty string -- which is defined -- to make C<GetOptions>
just print out the option name, but nothing else.)

=item arg_desc

(optional) an even briefer description of the values that you expect to
follow your option.  This is mainly used to supply place-holders in the help
string, and is specified separately so that C<GetOptions> can act fairly
intelligently when formatting a help message.  See L<"HELP TEXT"> for more
information.

=back


=head1 OPTION TYPES

The option type field is the single-most important field in the table, as
the type for an option C<-foo> determines (along with B<num_values>) what
action C<GetOptions> takes when it sees C<-foo> on the command line: how many
following arguments become C<-foo>'s arguments, what regular expression
those arguments must conform to, or whether some other action should be
taken.

As mentioned above, there are three main classes of argument types:

=over 4

=item argument-driven options

These are options that imply taking one or more option arguments from
the command line after the option itself is taken.  The arguments are
then copied into some variable supplied (by reference) in the option
table entry.

=item constant-valued options

These are options that have a constant value associated with them; when
the option is seen on the command line, that constant is copied to some
variable in the caller's space.  (Both the constant and the value are
supplied in the option table entry.)  Constants can be scalars, arrays,
or hashes.

=item other options

These imply some other action to be taken, usually supplied as a string
to C<eval> or a subroutine to call.

=back

=head2 Argument-driven option types

=over 4

=item string, integer, float

These are the option types that imply "option arguments", i.e. arguments
after the option that will be consumed when that option is encountered on
the command line and copied into the caller's space via some reference.
For instance, if you want an option C<-foo> to take a single string as
an argument, with that string being copied to the scalar variable
C<$Foo>, then you would have this entry in your option table:

    ["-foo", "string", 1, \$Foo]

(For conciseness, I've omitted the B<help_string> and B<argdesc> entries
in all of the example entries in this section.  In reality, you should
religiously supply help text in order to make your programs easier to
use and easier to maintain.)

If B<num_values> is some I<n> greater than one, then the B<option_data>
field must be an I<array> reference, and I<n> arguments are copied from
the command line into that array.  (The array is clobbered each time
C<-foo> is encountered, not appended to.)  In this case, C<-foo> is
referred to as a I<vector-valued> option, as it must be followed by a
fixed number of arguments.  (Eventually, I plan to add I<list-valued>
options, which take a variable number of arguments.)  For example an
option table like

    ["-foo", "string", 3, \@Foo]

would result in the C<@Foo> array being set to the three strings
immediately following any C<-foo> option on the command line.

The only difference between B<string>, B<integer>, and B<float> options is
how picky C<GetOptions> is about the value(s) it will accept.  For
B<string> options, anything is OK; for B<integer> options, the values must
look like integers (i.e., they must match C</[+-]?\d+/>); for B<float>
options, the values must look like C floating point numbers (trust me, you
don't want to see the regexp for this).  Note that since string options
will accept anything, they might accidentally slurp up arguments that are
meant to be further options, if the user forgets to put the correct string.
For instance, if C<-foo> and C<-bar> are both scalar-valued string options,
and the arguments C<-foo -bar> are seen on the command-line, then "-bar"
will become the argument to C<-foo>, and never be processed as an option
itself.  (This could be construed as either a bug or a feature.  If you
feel really strongly that it's a bug, then complain and I'll consider doing
something about it.)

If not enough arguments are found that match the required regular
expression, C<GetOptions> prints to standard error a clear and useful error
message, followed by the usage summary (if you supplied one), and returns
0.  The error messages look something like "-foo option must be followed by
an integer", or "-foo option must be followed by 3 strings", so it really
is enough for your program to C<exit 1> without printing any further
message.

=item User-defined patterns

Since the three option types described above are defined by nothing more
than a regular expression, it's easy to define your own option types.  For
instance, let's say you want an option to accept only strings of upper-case
letters.  You could then call C<&Getopt::Tabular::AddPatternType> as
follows:

    &Getopt::Tabular::AddPatternType
      ("upperstring", "[A-Z]+", "uppercase string")

Note that the third parameter is optional, and is only supplied to make
error messages clearer.  For instance, if you now have a scalar-valued
option C<-zap> of type C<upperstring>:

   ["-zap", "upperstring", 1, \$Zap]

and the user gets it wrong and puts an argument that doesn't consist of
all uppercase letters after C<-zap>, then C<GetOptions> will complain
that "-zap option must be followed by an uppercase string".  If you
hadn't supplied the third argument to C<&AddType>, then the error
message would have been the slightly less helpful "-zap option must be
followed by an upperstring".  Also, you might have to worry about how
C<GetOptions> pluralizes your description: in this case, it will simply
add an "s", which works fine much of the time, but not always.
Alternately, you could supply a two-element list containing the singular
and plural forms:

    &Getopt::Tabular::AddPatternType
      ("upperstring", "[A-Z]+", 
        ["string of uppercase letters", "strings of uppercase letters"])

So, if C<-zap> instead expects three C<upperstring>s, and the user
goofs, then the error message would be (in the first example) "-zap
option must be followed by 3 uppercase strings" or "-zap option must be
followed by three strings of uppercase letters" (second example).

Of course, if you don't intend to have vector-valued options of your new
type, pluralization hardly matters.  Also, while it might seem that this
is a nice stab in the direction of multi-lingual support, the error
messages are still hard-coded to English in other places.  Maybe in the
next version...

=back

=head2 Constant-valued option types

=over 4

=item boolean

For B<boolean> options, B<option_data> must be a scalar reference;
B<num_values> is ignored (you can just set it to C<undef> or 0).
Booleans are slightly weird in that every boolean option implies I<two>
possible arguments that will be accepted on the command line, called the
positive and negative alternatives.  The positive alternative (which is
what you specify as the option name) results in a true value, while the
negative alternative results in false.  Most of the time, you can let
C<GetOptions> pick the negative alternative for you: it just inserts
"no" after the option prefix, so "-clobber" becomes "-noclobber".  (More
precisely, C<GetOptions> tests all option prefixes until one of them
matches at the beginning of the option name.  It then inserts "no"
between this prefix and the rest of the string.  So, if you want to
support both GNU-style options (like C<--clobber>) and one-hyphen
options (C<-c>), be sure to give "--" I<first> when setting the option
patterns with C<&SetOptionPatterns>.  Otherwise, the negative
alternative to "--clobber" will be "-no-clobber", which might not be
what you wanted.)  Sometimes, though, you want to explicitly specify the
negative alternative.  This is done by putting both alternatives in the
option name, separated by a vertical bar, e.g. "-verbose|-quiet".

For example, the above two examples might be specified as

    ["-clobber", "boolean", undef, \$Clobber],
    ["-verbose|-quiet", "boolean", undef, \$Verbose],...);

If C<-clobber> is seen on the command line, C<$Clobber> will be set to 1;
if C<-noclobber> is seen, then C<$Clobber> will be set to 0.  Likewise,
C<-verbose> results in C<$Verbose> being set to 1, and C<-quiet> will set
C<$Verbose> to 0.

=item const

For B<const> options, put a scalar value (I<not> reference) in
B<num_values>, and a scalar reference in B<option_data>.  For example:

    ["-foo", "const", "hello there", \$Foo]

On encountering C<-foo>, C<GetOptions> will copy "hello there" to C<$Foo>.

=item arrayconst

For B<arrayconst> options, put an array reference (input) (I<not> an array
value) in B<num_values>, and another array reference (output) in
B<option_data>.  For example:

    ["-foo", "arrayconst", [3, 6, 2], \@Foo]

On encountering C<-foo>, C<GetOptions> will copy the array C<(3,6,2)> into
C<@Foo>. 

=item hashconst

For B<hashconst> options, put a hash reference (input) (I<not> a hash
value) in B<num_values>, and another hash reference (output) in
B<option_data>.  For example:

    ["-foo", "hashconst", { "Perl"   => "Larry Wall",
                            "C"      => "Dennis Ritchie",
                            "Pascal" => "Niklaus Wirth" },
     \%Inventors]

On encountering C<-foo>, C<GetOptions> will copy into C<%Inventors> a hash
relating various programming languages to the culprits primarily
responsible for their invention.

=item copy

B<copy> options act just like B<const> options, except when
B<num_values> is undefined.  In that case, the option name itself will
be copied to the scalar referenced by B<option_data>, rather than the
C<undef> value that would be copied under these circumstances with a
B<const> option.  This is useful when one program accepts options that
it simply passes to a sub-program; for instance, if F<prog1> calls
F<prog2>, and F<prog2> might be run with the -foo option, then
F<prog1>'s argument table might have this option:

    ["-foo", "copy", undef, \$Foo, 
     "run prog2 with the -foo option"]

and later on, you would run F<prog2> like this:

    system ("prog2 $Foo ...");

That way, if C<-foo> is never seen on F<prog1>'s command line, C<$Foo> will
be untouched, and will expand to the empty string when building the command
line for F<prog2>.

If B<num_values> is anything other than C<undef>, then B<copy> options
behave just like B<constant> options.

=back

=head2 Other option types

=over 4

=item call

For B<call> options, B<option_data> must be a reference to a subroutine.
The subroutine will be called with at least two arguments: a string
containing the option that triggered the call (because the same
subroutine might be activated by many options), a reference to an array
containing all remaining command-line arguments after the option, and
other arguments specified using the B<num_values> field.  (To be used
for this purpose, B<num_values> must be an array reference; otherwise,
it is ignored.)  For example, you might define a subroutine

    sub process_foo
    {
       my ($opt, $args, $dest) = @_;

       $$dest = shift @$args;    # not quite right! (see below)
    }

with a corresponding option table entry:

    ["-foo", "call", [\$Foo], \&process_foo]

and then C<-foo> would act just like a scalar-valued string option that
copies into C<$Foo>.  (Well, I<almost> ... read on.)

A subtle point that might be missed from the above code: the value returned
by C<&process_foo> I<does> matter: if it is false, then C<GetOptions> will
return 0 to its caller, indicating failure.  To make sure that the user
gets a useful error message, you should supply one by calling C<SetError>;
doing so will prevent C<GetOptions> from printing out a rather mysterious
(to the end user, at least) message along the lines of "subroutine call
failed".  The above example has two subtle problems: first, if the argument
following C<-foo> is an empty string, then C<process_foo> will return
the empty string---a false value---thus causing C<GetOptions> to fail
confusingly.  Second, if there no arguments after C<-foo>, then
C<process_foo> will return C<undef>---again, a false value, causing
C<GetOptions> to fail.

To solve these problems, we have to define the requirements for the
C<-foo> option a little more rigorously.  Let's say that any string
(including the empty string) is valid, but that there must be something
there.  Then C<process_foo> is written as follows:

    sub process_foo
    {
       my ($opt, $args, $dest) = @_;

       $$dest = shift @$args;
       (defined $$dest) && return 1;
       &Getopt::Tabular::SetError 
         ("bad_foo", "$opt option must be followed by a string");
       return 0;
    }

The C<SetError> routine actually takes two arguments: an error class and
an error message.  This is explained fully in the L<ERROR HANDLING>
section, below.  And, if you find yourself writing a lot of routines
like this, C<SetError> is optionally exported from C<Getopt::Tabular>,
so you can of course import it into your main package like this:

    use Getopt::Tabular qw/GetOptions SetError/;

=item eval

An B<eval> option specifies a chunk of Perl code to be executed
(C<eval>'d) when the option is encountered on the command line.  The
code is supplied (as a string) in the B<option_data> field; again,
B<num_values> is ignored.  For example:

    ["-foo", "eval", undef, 
     'print "-foo seen on command line\n"']

will cause C<GetOptions> to print out (via an C<eval>) the string "-foo seen
on the command line\n" when -foo is seen.  No other action is taken
apart from what you include in the eval string.  The code is evaluated
in the package from which C<GetOptions> was called, so you can access
variables and subroutines in your program easily.  If any error occurs
in the C<eval>, C<GetOptions> complains loudly and returns 0.

Note that the supplied code is always evaluated in a C<no strict>
environment---that's because F<Getopt::Tabular> is itself C<use
strict>-compliant, and I didn't want to force strictness on every quick
hack that uses the module.  (Especially since B<eval> options seem to be
used mostly in quick hacks.)  (Anyone who knows how to fetch the
strictness state for another package or scope is welcome to send me
hints!)  However, the B<-w> state is untouched.

=item section

B<section> options are just used to help formatting the help text.  See
L<HELP TEXT> below for more details.

=back


=head1 ERROR HANDLING

Generally, handling errors in the argument list is pretty transparent:
C<GetOptions> (or one of its minions) generates an error message and
assigns an error class, C<GetOptions> prints the message to the standard
error, and returns 0.  You can access the error class and error message
using the C<GetError> routine:

    ($err_class, $err_msg) = &Getopt::Tabular::GetError ();

(Like C<SetError>, C<GetError> can also be exported from
F<Getopt::Tabular>.)  The error message is pretty simple---it is an
explanation for the end user of what went wrong, which is why
C<GetOptions> just prints it out and forgets about it.  The error class
is further information that might be useful for your program; the
current values are:

=over 4

=item bad_option

set when something that looks like an option is found on the command
line, but it's either unknown or an ambiguous abbreviation.

=item bad_value

set when an option is followed by an invalid argument (i.e., one that
doesn't match the regexp for that type), or the wrong number of
arguments.

=item bad_call

set when a subroutine called via a B<call> option or the code evaluated
for an B<eval> option returns a false value.  The subroutine or eval'd
code can override this by calling C<SetError> itself.

=item bad_eval

set when the code evaluted for an B<eval> option has an error in it.

=item help

set when the user requests help

=back

Note that most of these are errors on the end user's part, such as bad
or missing arguments.  There are also errors that can be caused by you,
the programmer, such as bad or missing values in the option table; these
generally result in C<GetOptions> croaking so that your program dies
immediately with enough information that you can figure out where the
mistake is.  B<bad_eval> is a borderline case; there are conceivably
cases where the end user's input can result in bogus code to evaluate,
so I grouped this one in the "user errors" class.  Finally, asking for
help isn't really an error, but the assumption is that you probably
shouldn't continue normal processing after printing out the help---so
C<GetOptions> returns 0 in this case.  You can always fetch the error
class with C<GetError> if you want to treat real errors differently from
help requests.

=head1 HELP TEXT

One of Getopt::Tabular's niftier features is the ability to generate and
format a pile of useful help text from the snippets of help you include
in your option table.  The best way to illustrate this is with a couple
of brief examples.  First, it's helpful to know how the user can trigger
a help display.  This is quite simple: by default, C<GetOptions> always
has a "-help" option, presence of which on the command line triggers a
help display.  (Actually, the help option is really your preferred
option prefix plus "help".  So, if you like to make GNU-style options to
take precedence as follows:

    &Getopt::Tabular::SetOptionPatterns qw|(--)([\w-]+) (-)(\w+)|;

then the help option will be "--help".  There is only one help option
available, and you can set it by calling C<&SetHelpOption> (another
optional export).

Note that in addition to the option help embedded in the option table,
C<GetOptions> can optionally print out two other messages: a descriptive
text (usually a short paragraph giving a rough overview of what your
program does, possibly referring the user to the fine manual page), and
a usage text.  These are both supplied by calling C<&SetHelp>, e.g.

    $Help = <<HELP;
    This is the foo program.  It reads one file (specified by -infile),
    operates on it some unspecified way (possibly modified by
    -threshold), and does absolutely nothing with the results.
    (The utility of the -clobber option has yet to be established.)
    HELP

    $Usage = <<USAGE;
    usage: foo [options]
           foo -help to list options
    USAGE

    &Getopt::Tabular::SetHelp ($Help, $Usage)

Note that either of the long help or usage strings may be empty, in
which case C<GetOptions> simply won't print them.  In the case where both
are supplied, the long help message is printed first, followed by the
option help summary, followed by the usage.  C<GetOptions> inserts enough
blank lines to make the output look just fine on its own, so you
shouldn't pad either the long help or usage message with blanks.  (It
looks best if each ends with a newline, though, so setting the help
strings with here-documents---as in this example---is the recommended
approach.)

As an example of the help display generated by a typical option table,
let's take a look at the following:

    $Verbose = 1;
    $Clobber = 0;
    undef $InFile;
    @Threshold = (0, 1);

    @argtbl = (["-verbose|-quiet", "boolean", 0, \$Verbose,
                "be noisy"],
               ["-clobber", "boolean", 0, \$Clobber,
                "overwrite existing files"],
               ["-infile", "string", 1, \$InFile,
                "specify the input file from which to read a large " .
                "and sundry variety of data, to which many " .
                "interesting operations will be applied", "<f>"],
               ["-threshold", "float", 2, \@Threshold,
                "only consider values between <v1> and <v2>",
                "<v1> <v2>"]);


Assuming you haven't supplied long help or usage strings, then when
C<GetOptions> encounters the help option, it will immediately stop
parsing arguments and print out the following option summary:

    Summary of options:
       -verbose    be noisy [default]
       -quiet      opposite of -verbose
       -clobber    overwrite existing files
       -noclobber  opposite of -clobber [default]
       -infile <f> specify the input file from which to read a large and
                   sundry variety of data, to which many interesting
                   operations will be applied
       -threshold <v1> <v2>
                   only consider values between <v1> and <v2> [default: 0 1]

There are a number of interesting things to note here.  First, there are
three option table fields that affect the generation of help text:
B<option>, B<help_string>, and B<argdesc>.  Note how the B<argdesc>
strings are simply option placeholders, usually used to 1) indicate how
many values are expected to follow an option, 2) (possibly) imply what
form they take (although that's not really shown here), and 3) explain
the exact meaning of the values in the help text.  B<argdesc> is just a
string like the help string; you can put whatever you like in it.  What
I've shown above is just my personal preference (which may well evolve).

A new feature with version 0.3 of Getopt::Tabular is the inclusion of
default values with the help for certain options.  A number of
conditions must be fulfilled for this to happen for a given option:
first, the option type must be one of the "argument-driven" types, such
as C<integer>, C<float>, C<string>, or a user-defined type.  Second, the
option data field must refer either to a defined scalar value (for
scalar-valued options) or to a list of one or more defined values (for
vector-valued options).  Thus, in the above example, the C<-infile>
option doesn't have its default printed because the C<$InFile> scalar is
undefined.  Likewise, if the C<@Threshold> array were the empty list
C<()>, or a list of undefined values C<(undef,undef)>, then the default
value for C<-threshold> also would not have been printed.

The formatting is done as follows: enough room is made on the right hand
side for the longest option name, initially omitting the argument
placeholders.  Then, if an option has placeholders, and there is room
for them in between the option and the help string, everything (option,
placeholders, help string) is printed together.  An example of this is
the C<-infile> option: here, "-infile <f>" is just small enough to fit
in the 12-character column (10 characters because that is the length of
the longest option, and 2 blanks), so the help text is placed right
after it on the same line.  However, the C<-threshold> option becomes
too long when its argument placeholders are appended to it, so the help
text is pushed onto the next line.

In any event, the help string supplied by the caller starts at the same
column, and is filled to make a nice paragraph of help.  C<GetOptions> will
fill to the width of the terminal (or 80 columns if it fails to find the
terminal width).

Finally, you can have pseudo entries of type B<section>, which are
important to make long option lists readable (and one consequence of
using Getopt::Tabular is programs with ridiculously long option lists -- not
altogether a bad thing, I suppose).  For example, this table fragment:

    @argtbl = (...,
               ["-foo", "integer", 1, \$Foo,
                "set the foo value", "f"],
               ["-enterfoomode", "call", 0, \&enter_foo_mode,
                "enter foo mode"],
               ["Non-foo related options", "section"],
               ["-bar", "string", 2, \@Bar,
                "set the bar strings (which have nothing whatsoever " .
                "to do with foo", "<bar1> <bar2>"], 
               ...);

results in the following chunk of help text:

       -foo f         set the foo value
       -enterfoomode  enter foo mode
    
    -- Non-foo related options ---------------------------------
       -bar b1 b2     set the bar strings (which have nothing
                      whatsoever to do with foo

(This example also illustrates a slightly different style of argument
placeholder.  Take your pick, or invent your own!)

=head1 SPOOF MODE

Since callbacks from the command line (C<call> and C<eval> options) can
do anything, they might be quite expensive.  In certain cases, then, you
might want to make an initial pass over the command line to ensure that
everything is OK before parsing it "for real" and incurring all those
expensive callbacks.  Thus, C<Getopt::Tabular> provides a "spoof" mode
for parsing a command line without side-effects.  In the simplest case,
you can access spoof mode like this:

   use Getopt::Tabular qw(SpoofGetOptions GetOptions);
     .
     .
     .
   &SpoofGetOptions (\@options, \@ARGV, \@newARGV) || exit 1;

and then later on, you would call C<GetOptions> with the I<original>
C<@ARGV> (so it can do what C<SpoofGetOptions> merely pretended to do):

   &GetOptions (\@options, \@ARGV, \@newARGV) || exit 1;

For most option types, any errors that C<GetOptions> would catch should
also be caught by C<SpoofGetOptions> -- so you might initially think
that you can get away without that C<|| exit 1> after calling
C<GetOptions>.  However, it's a good idea for a couple of reasons.
First, you might inadvertently changed C<@ARGV> -- this is usually a bug
and a silly thing to do, so you'd probably want your program to crash
loudly rather than fail mysteriously later on.  Second, and more likely,
some of those expensive operations that you're initially avoiding by
using C<SpoofGetOptions> might themselves fail -- which would cause
C<GetOptions> to return false where C<SpoofGetOption> completes without
a problem.  (Finally, there's the faint possiblity of bugs in
C<Getopt::Tabular> that would cause different behaviour in spoof mode
and real mode -- this really shouldn't happen, though.)

In reality, using spoof mode requires a bit more work.  In particular,
the whole reason for spoof argument parsing is to avoid expensive
callbacks, but since callbacks can eat any number of command line
arguments, you have to emulate them in some way.  It's not possible for
C<SpoofGetOptions> to do this for you, so you have to help out by
supplying "spoof" callbacks.  As an example, let's say you have a
callback option that eats one argument (a filename) and immediately
reads that file:

   @filedata = ();

   sub read_file
   {
      my ($opt, $args) = @_;

      warn ("$opt option requires an argument\n"), return 0 unless @$args;
      my $file = shift @$args;
      open (FILE, $file) ||
         (warn ("$file: $!\n"), return 0);
      push (@filedata, <FILE>);
      close (FILE);
      return 1;
   }

   @options = 
      (['-read_file', 'call', undef, \&read_file]);

Since C<-read_file> could occur any number of times on the command line,
we might end up reading an awful lot of files, and thus it might be a
long time before we catch errors late in the command line.  Thus, we'd
like to do a "spoof" pass over the command line to catch all errors.  A
simplistic approach would be to supply a spoof callback that just eats
one argument and returns success:

   sub spoof_read_file
   {
      my ($opt, $args) = @_;
      (warn ("$opt option requires an argument\n"), return 0)
         unless @$args;
      shift @$args;
      return 1;
   }

Then, you have to tell C<Getopt::Tabular> about this alternate callback
with no side-effects (apart from eating that one argument):

   &Getopt::Tabular::SetSpoofCodes (-read_file => \&spoof_read_file);

(C<SetSpoofCodes> just takes a list of key/value pairs, where the keys
are C<call> or C<eval> options, and the values are the "no side-effects"
callbacks.  Naturally, the replacement callback for an C<eval> option
should be a string, and for a C<call> option it should be a code
reference.  This is not actually checked, however, until you call
C<SpoofGetOptions>, because C<SetSpoofCodes> doesn't know whether
options are C<call> or C<eval> or what.)

A more useful C<spoof_read_file>, however, would actually check if the
requested file exists -- i.e., we should try to catch as many errors as
possible, as early as possible:

   sub spoof_read_file
   {
      my ($opt, $args) = @_;
      warn ("$opt option requires an argument\n"), return 0
         unless @$args;
      my $file = shift @$args;
      warn ("$file does not exist or is not readable\n"), return 0
         unless -r $file;
      return 1;
   }

Finally, you can frequently merge the "real" and "spoof" callback into
one subroutine:

   sub read_file
   {
      my ($opt, $args, $spoof) = @_;

      warn ("$opt option requires an argument\n"), return 0 unless @$args;
      my $file = shift @$args;
      warn ("$file does not exist or is not readable\n"), return 0
         unless -r $file;
      return 1 if $spoof;
      open (FILE, $file) ||
         (warn ("$file: $!\n"), return 0);
      push (@filedata, <FILE>);
      close (FILE);
      return 1;
   }

And then, when specifying the replacement callback to C<SetSpoofCodes>,
just create an anonymous sub that calls C<read_file> with C<$spoof>
true:

   &Getopt::Tabular::SetSpoofCodes 
      (-read_file => sub { &read_file (@_[0,1], 1) });
   
Even though this means a bigger and more complicated callback, you only
need I<one> such callback -- the alternative is to carry around both
C<read_file> and C<spoof_read_file>, which might do redundant processing
of the argument list.

=head1 AUTHOR

Greg Ward <greg@bic.mni.mcgill.ca>

Started in July, 1995 as ParseArgs.pm, with John Ousterhout's
Tk_ParseArgv.c as a loose inspiration.  Many many features added over
the ensuing months; documentation written in a mad frenzy 16-18 April,
1996.  Renamed to Getopt::Tabular, revamped, reorganized, and
documentation expanded 8-11 November, 1996.

Copyright (c) 1995-97 Greg Ward. All rights reserved.  This is
free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
terms as Perl itself.

=head1 BUGS

The documentation is bigger than the code, and I still haven't covered
option patterns or extending the type system (apart from pattern types).
Yow!

No support for list-valued options, although you can roll your own with
B<call> options.  (See the demo program included with the distribution
for an example.)

Error messages are hard-coded to English.