Net::Twitter::Manual::MigratingToV1_1 - Migrating from Twitter API v1 to v1.1


version 4.01043


    use Net::Twitter

    my $nt = Net::Twitter->new(
        traits              => [qw/API::RESTv1_1/],
        consumer_key        => $consumer_key,
        consumer_secret     => $consumer_secret,
        access_token        => $access_token,
        access_token_secret => $access_token_secret,


Net::Twitter prior to version 4.0 used Twitter API version 1. Twitter API v1.1 introduced changes that are not entirely backwards compatible, requiring some changes to calling code.

Net::Twitter attempts to provided backwards compatibility where possible. This document describes the changes required to your existing application code, using Net::Twitter, for use with Twitter's API v1.1.


Include the API::RESTv1_1 trait

Wherever you create a Net::Twitter object by calling new, replace trait API::REST with API::RESTv1_1. For most applications, that's all that is required.


Trait RateLimit incompatible with API::RESTv1_1

The RateLimit trait is incompatible with Twitter API v1.1. Rate limiting is one of the most extensive changes in v1.1. In v1 there were two hourly rate limits, one per IP address for unauthenticated calls, and one per-user/application for authenticated calls. In v1.1, all calls must be authenticated, and each API endpoint (i.e., each method) has it's own rate limit. Rather than hourly, the new rate limits operate on a 15 minute window.

If your code currently uses the RateLimit role, you'll need to write some custom code provide equivalent functionality.


The return value for rate_limit_status is entirely different. See Twitter's API rate_limit_status documentation for details.


With API v1.1, these methods use cursor based paging. If you do not pass a cursor parameter, Twitter assumes cursor => -1>. Existing code that expects an arrayref return value must be modified to expect a hashref and dereference the users slot:

    # With API v1
    my $r = $nt->friends;
    my @friends = @$r;

    # With API v1.1
    my $r = $nt->friends;
    my @friends = @{$r->{users}};

The search method semantics and return value are substantially different between Twitter API v1 and v1.1. In v1, search was provided by the API::Search trait. In v1.1, search is included in the API::RESTv1_1 trait.

So, first, drop API::Search from your calls to new. The API::Search trait is incompatible with API::RESTv1_1.

In v1, Twitter returned a hashref with several keys containing meta data. The actual array of results were contained in the results slot:

    # With Twitter API v1
    my $nt = Net::Twitter->new(traits => [qw/API::REST API::Search/]);

    my $r = $nt->search('perl hacker');
    for my $status ( @{$r->{results} ) {
        # process each status...

In v1.1, Twitter returns a hash with 2 slots: search_metadata and statuses.

    # With Twitter API v1.1
    my $nt = Net::Twitter->new(traits => [qw/API::RESTv1_1/], %oauth_credentials);

    my $r = $nt->search('perl hacker');
    for my $status ( @{$r->{statuses} ) {
        # process each status...

Paging through search results works differently in v1.1. In v1, Twitter offered a page parameter:

    # With Twitter API v1
    for ( my $page = 1; $page <= 10; ++$page ) {
        my $r = $nt->search({ q => $query, page => $page, rpp => 100 });
        last unless @{$r->{results}};

        # process a page of results...

In v1.1, use max_id and count to get paged results:

    # With Twitter API v1.1
    for ( my %args = ( q => $query, count => 100 ), my $n = 0; $n < 1000; ) {
        my $r = $nt->search({ %args });
        last unless @{$r->{statuses}};

        $args{max_id} = $r->{statuses}[-1]{id} - 1;
        $n += @{$r->{statuses}};

        # process a page of results...


Some Twitter API v1 methods are not available in v1.1:


Use home_timeline instead.


friendship_exists and it's aliases are not supported in API v1.1. Use show_friendship instead:

    my $r = $nt->show_relationship({
        source_screen_name => $user_a,
        target_screen_name => $user_b,
    if ( $r->{relationship}{source}{following} ) {
        # $user_a follows $user_b