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Text::Markdown - Convert Markdown syntax to (X)HTML


    use Text::Markdown 'markdown';
    my $html = markdown($text);

    use Text::Markdown 'markdown';
    my $html = markdown( $text, {
        empty_element_suffix => '>',
        tab_width => 2,
    } );

    use Text::Markdown;
    my $m = Text::Markdown->new;
    my $html = $m->markdown($text);

    use Text::Markdown;
    my $m = Text::MultiMarkdown->new(
        empty_element_suffix => '>',
        tab_width => 2,
    my $html = $m->markdown( $text );


Markdown is a text-to-HTML filter; it translates an easy-to-read / easy-to-write structured text format into HTML. Markdown's text format is most similar to that of plain text email, and supports features such as headers, *emphasis*, code blocks, blockquotes, and links.

Markdown's syntax is designed not as a generic markup language, but specifically to serve as a front-end to (X)HTML. You can use span-level HTML tags anywhere in a Markdown document, and you can use block level HTML tags (like <div> and <table> as well).


This module implements the 'original' Markdown markdown syntax from:

Note that Text::Markdown ensures that the output always ends with one newline. The fact that multiple newlines are collapsed into one makes sense, because this is the behavior of HTML towards whispace. The fact that there's always a newline at the end makes sense again, given that the output will always be nested in a block-level element (as opposed to an inline element). That block element can be a <p> (most often), or a <table>.

Markdown is not interpreted in HTML block-level elements, in order for chunks of pasted HTML (e.g. JavaScript widgets, web counters) to not be magically (mis)interpreted. For selective processing of Markdown in some, but not other, HTML block elements, add a markdown attribute to the block element and set its value to 1, on or yes:

    <div markdown="1" class="navbar">
    * Home
    * About
    * Contact

The extra markdown attribute will be stripped when generating the output.


Text::Markdown supports a number of options to its processor which control the behaviour of the output document.

These options can be supplied to the constructor, or in a hash within individual calls to the "markdown" method. See the SYNOPSIS for examples of both styles.

The options for the processor are:


This option controls the end of empty element tags:

    '/>' for XHTML (default)
    '>' for HTML

Controls indent width in the generated markup. Defaults to 4.


If true, ordered lists will use the first number as the starting point for numbering. This will let you pick up where you left off by writing:

  1. foo
  2. bar

  some paragraph

  3. baz
  6. quux

(Note that in the above, quux will be numbered 4.)



A simple constructor, see the SYNTAX and OPTIONS sections for more information.


The main function as far as the outside world is concerned. See the SYNOPSIS for details on use.


Returns a reference to a hash with the key being the markdown reference and the value being the URL.

Useful for building scripts which preprocess a list of links before the main content. See t/05options.t for an example of this hashref being passed back into the markdown method to create links.


Markdown has been re-implemented in a number of languages, and with a number of additions.

Those that I have found are listed below:

C - <>

Discount - Original Markdown, but in C. Fastest implementation available, and passes MDTest. Adds its own set of custom features.

python - <>

Python Markdown which is mostly compatible with the original, with an interesting extension API.

ruby (maruku) - <>

One of the nicest implementations out there. Builds a parse tree internally so very flexible.

php - <>

A direct port of, also has a separately maintained 'extra' version, which adds a number of features that were borrowed by MultiMarkdown.

lua - <>

Port to lua. Simple and lightweight (as lua is).

haskell - <>

Pandoc is a more general library, supporting Markdown, reStructuredText, LaTeX and more.

javascript - <>

Direct(ish) port of to JavaScript


To file bug reports or feature requests please send email to:

Please include with your report: (1) the example input; (2) the output you expected; (3) the output Markdown actually produced.


See the Changes file for detailed release notes for this version.


    John Gruber

    PHP port and other contributions by Michel Fortin

    MultiMarkdown changes by Fletcher Penney

    CPAN Module Text::MultiMarkdown (based on Text::Markdown by Sebastian
    Riedel) originally by Darren Kulp (
    Support for markdown="1" by Dan Dascalescu (

    This module is maintained by: Tomas Doran


Please note that this distribution is a fork of John Gruber's original Markdown project, and it *is not* in any way blessed by him.

Whilst this code aims to be compatible with the original (and incorporates and passes the Markdown test suite) whilst fixing a number of bugs in the original - there may be differences between the behaviour of this module and If you find any differences where you believe Text::Markdown behaves contrary to the Markdown spec, please report them as bugs.

Text::Markdown *does not* extend the markdown dialect in any way from that which is documented at daringfireball. If you want additional features, you should look at Text::MultiMarkdown.


You can find the source code repository for Text::Markdown and Text::MultiMarkdown on GitHub at <>.


Original Code Copyright (c) 2003-2004 John Gruber <> All rights reserved.

MultiMarkdown changes Copyright (c) 2005-2006 Fletcher T. Penney <> All rights reserved.

Text::MultiMarkdown changes Copyright (c) 2006-2009 Darren Kulp <> and Tomas Doran <>

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

* Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

* Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

* Neither the name "Markdown" nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.

This software is provided by the copyright holders and contributors "as is" and any express or implied warranties, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose are disclaimed. In no event shall the copyright owner or contributors be liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special, exemplary, or consequential damages (including, but not limited to, procurement of substitute goods or services; loss of use, data, or profits; or business interruption) however caused and on any theory of liability, whether in contract, strict liability, or tort (including negligence or otherwise) arising in any way out of the use of this software, even if advised of the possibility of such damage.