package Wasm;

use strict;
use warnings;
use 5.008004;
use Ref::Util qw( is_plain_arrayref );
use Carp ();
use Wasm::Trap;

# ABSTRACT: Write Perl extensions using Wasm
our $VERSION = '0.21'; # VERSION

our %WASM;
my $linker;
my %inst;
my %pp;
my $wasi;
my @keep;

sub _linker
  require Wasm::Wasmtime;
  $linker ||= do {
    my $linker = Wasm::Wasmtime::Linker->new(

sub import
  my $class = shift;
  my($caller, $fn) = caller;

  return unless @_;

  if(defined $_[0] && $_[0] ne '-api')
    Carp::croak("You MUST specify an api level as the first option");

  my $api;
  my $exporter;
  my @module;
  my $package = $caller;
  my $file    = $fn;

  my @global;

    my $key = shift;
    if($key eq '-api')
      if(defined $api)
        Carp::croak("Specified -api more than once");
      $api = shift;
      unless(defined $api && $api == 0)
        Carp::croak("Currently only -api => 0 is supported");
    elsif($key eq '-wat')
      my $wat = shift;
      Carp::croak("-wat undefined") unless defined $wat;
      @module = (wat => $wat);
    elsif($key eq '-file')
      my $path = shift;
      unless(defined $path && -f $path)
        $path = 'undef' unless defined $path;
        Carp::croak("no such file $path");
      $file = "$path";
      @module = (file => $file);
    elsif($key eq '-self')
      require Path::Tiny;
      my $perl_path = Path::Tiny->new($fn);
      my $basename = $perl_path->basename;
      $basename =~ s/\.(pl|pm)$//;
      my @maybe = sort { $b->stat->mtime <=> $a->stat->mtime } grep { -f $_ } (
        $perl_path->parent->child($basename . ".wasm"),
        $perl_path->parent->child($basename . ".wat"),
      if(@maybe == 0)
        Carp::croak("unable to find .wasm or .wat file relative to Perl source");
        $file = shift @maybe;
        @module = (file => $file);
    elsif($key eq '-exporter')
      $exporter = shift;
    elsif($key eq '-package')
      $package = shift;
    elsif($key eq '-global')
      if(is_plain_arrayref $_[0])
        push @global, shift;
        Carp::croak("-global should be an array reference");
    elsif($key eq '-imports')
      Carp::croak("-imports was removed in 0.08");
      Carp::croak("Unknown Wasm option: $key");


    Carp::croak("Cannot specify both Wasm and -global") if @module;
    foreach my $spec (@global)
      my($name, $content, $mutability, $value) = @$spec;
      my $global = Wasm::Wasmtime::Global->new(
        Wasm::Wasmtime::GlobalType->new($content, $mutability),
      no strict 'refs';
      *{"${package}::$name"} = $global->tie;
      $pp{$package} = $file;

  @module = (wat => '(module)') unless @module;

  Carp::croak("The wasm_ namespace is reserved for internal use") if $package =~ /^wasi_/;
  Carp::croak("Wasm for $package already loaded") if $inst{$package};

  my $module = Wasm::Wasmtime::Module->new($linker->store->engine, @module);

  foreach my $import (@{ $module->imports })

    my $module = $import->module;

    if($module =~ /^(wasi_unstable|wasi_snapshot_preview1)$/)
      next if $WASM{$module};
        $wasi ||= Wasm::Wasmtime::WasiInstance->new(
            ->set_argv($0, @ARGV)
            ->preopen_dir("/", "/"),
      $WASM{$module} = __FILE__;  # Maybe Wasi::Snapshot::Preview1 etc.

    if($module ne 'main' && !$inst{$module} && !$pp{$module})
      my $pm = "$";
      $pm =~ s{::}{/}g;
      eval { require $pm };
      if(my $error = $@)
        $error =~ s/ at (.*?)$//;
        $error .= " module required by WebAssembly at $file";

    next if $inst{$module};

    my $name = $import->name;
    my $type = $import->type;
    my $kind = $type->kind;

    my $extern;

    if($kind eq 'functype')
      if(my $f = $module->can("${module}::$name"))
        $extern = Wasm::Wasmtime::Func->new(
        push @keep, $extern;
    elsif($kind eq 'globaltype')
      if(my $global = do { no strict 'refs'; tied ${"${module}::$name"} })
        $extern = $global;

      # TODO: check that the store is the same?
      eval {
      if(my $error = $@)
          # TODO: if we can do a get on the define that would
          # be better than doing this regex on the diagnostic.
          # this is available in the rust api, but not the c api
          # as of this writing.
          die $error unless $error =~ /defined twice/;
          # TODO: also for the prod version of wasmtime we don't
          # have an error so we end up swallowing other types
          # of errors, if there are any.

  my $instance = $inst{$package} = $linker->instantiate($module);
  $linker->define_instance($package, $instance);
  $WASM{$package} = "$file";

  my @me = @{ $module->exports   };
  my @ie = @{ $instance->exports };

  my @function_names;

  for my $i (0..$#ie)
    my $exporttype = $me[$i];
    my $name = $me[$i]->name;
    my $externtype = $exporttype->type;
    my $extern = $ie[$i];
    my $kind = $extern->kind;
    if($kind eq 'func')
      my $func = $extern;
      $func->attach($package, $name);
      push @function_names, $name;
    elsif($kind eq 'global')
      my $global = $extern;
      no strict 'refs';
      *{"${package}::$name"} = $global->tie;
    elsif($kind eq 'memory')
      require Wasm::Memory;
      my $memory = Wasm::Memory->new($extern);
      no strict 'refs';
      *{"${package}::$name"} = \$memory;

    require Exporter;
    no strict 'refs';
    push @{ "${package}::ISA"       }, 'Exporter';
    if($exporter eq 'all')
      push @{ "${package}::EXPORT" }, @function_names;
      push @{ "${package}::EXPORT_OK" }, @function_names;




=encoding UTF-8

=head1 NAME

Wasm - Write Perl extensions using Wasm

=head1 VERSION

version 0.21



 package MathStuff;
 use strict;
 use warnings;
 use base qw( Exporter );
 use Wasm
   -api => 0,
   -exporter => 'ok',
   -wat => q{
       (func (export "add") (param i32 i32) (result i32)
         local.get 0
         local.get 1
       (func (export "subtract") (param i32 i32) (result i32)
         local.get 0
         local.get 1
       (memory (export "frooble") 2 3)

 use MathStuff qw( add subtract );
 print add(1,2), "\n";      # prints 3
 print subtract(3,2), "\n", # prints 1


B<WARNING>: WebAssembly and Wasmtime are a moving target and the
interface for these modules is under active development.  Use with

The goal of this project is for Perl and WebAssembly to be able to call
each other transparently without having to know or care which module is
implemented in which language.  Perl subroutines and WebAssembly functions
can easily be imported and exported between Perl and WebAssembly
(see L<Wasm::Func> for details).  WebAssembly global variables can be
imported into Perl using tied scalars (see L<Wasm::Global> for details).
WebAssembly linear memory can be queried and manipulated by Perl
(see L<Wasm::Memory> for details).  Perl can throw or catch traps into
or out of WebAssembly (see L<Wasm::Trap> for details).  WebAssembly can
optionally be loaded directly by Perl without writing any Perl wrappers
at all (see L<Wasm::Hook> for details).

The example above shows WebAssembly Text (WAT) inlined into the
Perl code for readability. In most cases you will want to compile your
WebAssembly from a higher level language (Rust, C, Go, etc.), and
install it alongside your Perl Module (.pm file) and use the C<-self>
option below.  That is for C<lib/> you would install the Wasm
file into C<lib/Math.wasm>, and use the C<-self> option.

Modules using L<Wasm> can optionally use L<Exporter> to export WebAssembly
functions into other modules.  Using C<-export 'ok'> functions can be
imported from a calling module on requests.  C<-export 'all'> will
export all exported functions by default.

The current implementation uses L<Wasm::Wasmtime>, which is itself based
on the Rust project Wasmtime.  This module doesn't expose the
L<Wasm::Wasmtime> interface, and implementation could be changed in the

=head1 OPTIONS

=head2 -api

 use Wasm -api => 0;

As of this writing, since the API is subject to change, this must be
provided and set to C<0>.

=head2 -exporter

 use Wasm -api => 0, -exporter => 'all';
 use Wasm -api => 0, -exporter => 'ok';

Configure the caller as an L<Exporter>, with all the functions in the
WebAssembly either C<@EXPORT> (C<all>) or C<@EXPORT_OK> (C<ok>).

=head2 -file

 use Wasm -api => 0, -file => $file;

Path to a WebAssembly file in either WebAssembly Text (.wat) or
WebAssembly binary (.wasm) format.

=head2 -global

 use Wasm -api => 0, -global => [ $name, $type, $mutability, $init ];

Creates a global variable for the calling Pure-Perl module that can
be imported into WebAssembly.  If you use this option you cannot
specify the C<-wat> or C<-file> or C<-self> options.  For a detailed
example see L<Wasm::Global>.

=head2 -package

 use Wasm -api => 0, -package => $package;

Install subroutines in to C<$package> namespace instead of the calling

=head2 -self

 use Wasm -api => 0, -self;

Look for a WebAssembly Text (.wat) or WebAssembly binary (.wasm) file
with the same base name as the Perl source this is called from.

For example if you are calling this from C<lib/Foo/>, it will look
for C<lib/Foo/Bar.wat> and C<lib/Foo/Bar.wasm>.  If both exist, then it
will use the newer of the two.

=head2 -wat

 use Wasm -api => 0, -wat => $wat;

String containing WebAssembly Text (WAT).  Helpful for inline
WebAssembly inside your Perl source file.

=head1 GLOBALS

=head2 %Wasm::WASM

This hash maps the Wasm module names to the files from which the Wasm
was loaded. It is roughly analogous to the C<%INC> hash in Perl.

=head1 CAVEATS

As mentioned before as of this writing this dist is a work in progress.
I won't intentionally break stuff without a compelling reason, but
practicality may demand it in some situations.

This interface is implemented using the bundled L<Wasm::Wasmtime> family
of modules, which depends on the Wasmtime project.

The default way of handling out-of-bounds memory errors is to allocate
large C<PROT_NONE> pages at startup.  While these pages do not consume
many resources in practice (at least in the way that they are used by
Wasmtime), they can cause out-of-memory errors on Linux systems with
virtual memory limits (C<ulimit -v> in the C<bash> shell).  Similar
techniques are common in other modern programming languages, and this is
more a limitation of the Linux kernel than anything else.  Setting the
limits on the virtual memory address size probably doesn't do what you
think it is doing and you are probably better off finding a way to place
limits on process memory.

However, as a workaround for environments that choose to set a virtual
memory address size limit anyway, Wasmtime provides configurations to
not allocate the large C<PROT_NONE> pages at some performance cost.  The
testing plugin L<Test2::Plugin::Wasm> tries to detect environments that
have the virtual memory address size limits and sets this configuration
for you.  For production you can set the environment variable
C<PERL_WASM_WASMTIME_MEMORY> to tune the appropriate memory settings
exactly as you want to (see the environment section of

=head1 SEE ALSO

=over 4

=item L<Wasm::Func>

Interface to WebAssembly functions from Perl, and Perl subroutines
from WebAssembly.

=item L<Wasm::Global>

Interface to WebAssembly globals from Perl, and Perl globals from

=item L<Wasm::Memory>

Interface to WebAssembly memory from Perl.

=item L<Wasm::Trap>

Interface to WebAssembly traps.

=item L<plasm>

Perl WebAssembly command line tool.  Run WebAssembly programs from
the command line, or dump their export/import interfaces.

=item L<Wasm::Wasmtime>

Low level interface to C<wasmtime>.

=item L<Wasm::Hook>

Load WebAssembly modules as though they were Perl modules.


=head1 AUTHOR

Graham Ollis <>


This software is copyright (c) 2020 by Graham Ollis.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.