=head1 NAME

zoiduser - Extended user documentation for zoid

=head1 DESCRIPTION

=head2 Configuration

The location of config and data files can be installation specific.
You can check the location where zoid looks for them with the command C<zoid --config>.

By default zoid uses two run control files:
F</etc/zoidrc> and F<~/.zoidrc> or F<~/.zoid/zoidrc>,
these are ordinary perl scripts that can interface with zoid.
In general data files are found in F<~/.zoid/>, F</usr/local/share/zoid/>
or F</usr/share/zoid/> these are called 'data_dirs'.

The sub dir F<plugins> can contains config files
for various plugins or directories with all files belonging to a plugin.
The following plugins are included in the standard distribution:

FIXME tell which builtins are provided by each plugin
FIXME tell commands provided by Zoidberg.pm

=over 4

=item Commands

Ships a collection of standard builtin commands that one 
would expects to have in a shell.

Provides: B<cd>, B<pwd>, B<exec>, B<eval>, B<source>, B<true>, B<false>,
B<newgrp>, B<umask>, B<read>, B<wait>, B<fg>, B<bg>, B<kill>, B<jobs>,
B<set>, B<export>, B<setenv>, B<unsetenv>, B<alias>, B<unalias>, B<dirs>,
B<popd>, B<pushd> and B<symbols>

=item Log

Keeps a history of your doings.

=item Intel

Takes care of tab expansion.

Provides: B<complete>

=item ReadLine

Tries to load a module from the L<Term::ReadLine> family of modules.

Provides: B<readline>, B<readmore> and B<select>

=item CPAN

Adds a 'CPAN mode' which uses CPAN::Shell.

=back

In theory you should be able to remove or replace any of these plugins,
but you better not try this till a more stable version of zoid.

=head2 Key Bindings

Key bindings depend on the ReadLine module that is loaded. See for example
L<Term::ReadLine::Zoid>.

=head2 Settings

The following settings supported by (some) Zoidberg modules.
They are housed in the hash C<< ->{settings} >>.
Also the builtin C<set> command acts on this hash.

( FIXME link to doc on set command )

More advanced settings can be found in L<zoiddevel>.

=over 4

=item noglob

Disable path expansion for shell-like syntax.

=item nocaseglob

When set makes globs case insensitive.

=item nullglob

It allows to have wildcard patterns that expand into an empty list.
The default behavior is to leave the pattern unchanged  
when it is syntactically incorrect, or when the list of matching pathnames is empty.

=item voidbraces

Do brace expansion posix compliant instead of bash compatible. This means
that braces will be removed even if there is just one word between them.

=item hide_private_method

Hide all object methods and data structures which have a name starting with an '_'
unless they are asked for explicitly.

=item hide_hidden_files

Hide all filesystem nodes which have a name starting with a '.'
unless they are asked for explicitly.

=item ignoreeof

When this setting is in effect a ^D char, also known as EOF or EOT,
won't exit the shell.

=item naked_zoid

Don't hide the root object behind clothes for things like tab
completion and the single arrow operator, but show it in full glory.

=item notify

Asynchronous notification, don't wait for the respawning of a prompt
before notifying the user about background jobs that have finished.

This option should be named 'notify_async' for clearity, but 'notify' is
the proper name according to POSIX.

=item notify_verbose

When you stop a job the shell will show all jobs instead of just notifying
just of the one you stopped; makes the behaviour more tcsh(1) like.

=back

=head2 Syntax

Since the syntax of the Zoidberg shell is completely configurable
we can only comment on the syntax as defined by the default
config files. The general structure will be the same for most user defined
configuration but any markup or token could be changed to render the syntax
completely unrecognizable.

The Zoidberg syntax consists of three levels of grouping:

=over 4

=item Logical grouping

First the syntax is split into blocks with logical/script delimiters

	[block] && [block] || [block] ; [block]

=item Pipes and redirections

Once the string is cut into logical blocks each
of these blocks is split in sub blocks by pipes
and.

	[sub_block] | [sub_block] | [sub_block]

The exit status of a pipeline is the exit status of the last command in the 
pipeline.

=item Context blocks

At last for each of these sub-blocks a context is decided like:

	CMD	- commands sytax (like sh syntax)
	PERL	- blocks of perl code

Each is executed differently by a suitable subroutine or application, and all
are glued together to form a pipeline.

=back

=head2 Contexts

The contexts named below are hardcoded, others can be added by plugins.
To disable hardcoded contexts see the L<_no_hardcoded_context> setting.

=over 4

=item PERL

Perl is the default context if the whole block is between curly brackets, when
the first non-whitespace char of the block matches $,@ or % , 
when the first word seems to be a subroutine because it has parenthesis
or when the first word is a perl keyword like 'if', 'while', 'for' etc.
These keywords can be configured with the array in C<< ->{settings}{perl}{keywords} >>

	# perl because of reserved word
	zoid$ for (0..3) { sleep 1; print $_ . "\n" }
	
	# perl because of dollar sign
	zoid$ $self->{settings}{naked_zoid}++
	
	# perl because of parenthesis
	zoid$ ls(qw/-al/)
	
	# perl because of curlies
	zoid$ { open TEST, '<test.dat' }

Perl code can have modifiers after the last curly. The default can be set
with C<< ->{settings}{perl}{opts} >>. Currently supported are :

	n: enclose the expression in a "while STDIN" loop
	p: like 'n' but also print $_ at the end of each loop
	g: grep lines from STDIN that make the expression return non-zero
	z: use strict
	Z: no strict, the default
	
	# example
	zoid$ ls -al | { s/^(d)\S+/DIR:/ }g

Zoidberg applies a bit of source filtering is applied to the perl code.
This renders a lonesome dereference operator C<< -> >> into C<< $self-> >>.

	# Thus
	zoid$ ->kill('1230')
	
	# is the same as
	zoid$ $self->kill('1230')

Variables in that match the name of an environment variable get translated to the environment
varriable, arrays cause a tied array to be imported from L<Env>. You can manipulate the existence
of an environment variable with the 'export' builtin.

	# Thus
	zoid$ print $PATH
	
	# is (if $ENV{PATH} exists) the same as
	zoid$ print $ENV{PATH}
	
	# and this also works
	zoid$ push @PATH, '/usr/X11R6/bin/'

To avoid source filtering use the 'z' option.
( Although once a tied array is imported, it's there. )

Non-existent sub routines are AUTOLOAD'ed to be built-in or system commands,
alias- and other expansions apply.

	# Thus
	zoid$ ls('*')
	# is perl, but does exactly the same as
	zoid$ ls *

When such a AUTOLOAD'ed routine is used in scalar or list context it's output will
be captured and returned as scalar or list.

	# examples
	zoid$ ls($_) for cat('MANIFEST')
	zoid$ mplayer( locate('blinkenlights.mpg') )

For this "capturing mode" the record separator (C<$/>) can be set by using C<$ENV{RS}>.

=item CMD

This context is intended to make the Zoidberg shell a little friendlier to
people used to shells like bash(1). Also this syntax requires less chars to
execute a system or built-in command. Only the most basic stuff is implemented, you should 
use perl for things like flow control. Since the default syntax for pipelines and 
logic lists is also the same as in "sh like" shells a lot of simple constructs
will work as expected.

	# this does what it would in /.*sh/
	zoid$ ls -al | grep -v CVS | grep ^d > dirs.txt

Quoting does not entirely work like in "sh like" shells. Most importantly, you can't
start a quoted block in the middle of a word, if you use quotes you need to quote
an entire word. (The exception to this rule is syntax like C<export var='val'>.)
Also be aware that within single quotes the backslash is still recognised as an escape,
but only for the quote itself, the same way perl does.

All words, are subject to parameter- and path-expansion unless
they are quoted. For double quoted words only parameter expansion is performed, for single
quoted words no expansion is performed at all. Parameter expansion interpolates
environment variables. (Path expansion is sometimes also called 'glob expansion')

All parameters can be used as arrays, the colon ':' will be used as element separator.
To get one element the form C<$VAR[$i]> is recognized by the parameter expansion,
where C<$i> is a null-based integer.
The form  C<@VAR> is a special case that will be expanded to a word list of all the
array elements. 
To avoid conflicts with things like the 'user@host' format used by many 
applications this special case can only be used as a separate unquoted word.

	zoid$ echo $PATH
	/bin:/usr/bin/:/usr/local/bin
	zoid$ echo $PATH[2]
	/usr/local/bin
	zoid$ echo @PATH
	/bin /usr/bin/ /usr/local/bin

If the command matches an entry in the C<$$shell{commands}> hash, it is taken to be
a built-in command and the job is not forked to a seperate process.

=back

=head3 FIXME

FIXME comment on custom defined contexts

FIXME comment on aliases

=head3 variables

Like most shells zoid mixes the use of it's own variables with the use of environment
variables. You can use the C<export> builtin to move variables from the perl namespace
to the environment.

=head3 mode

While in normal use zoid tries to determine which context a statement belongs to
automaticly there are also situations in which you want to force one context for all 
commands. In these cases you can set the 'mode' of the shell. The "mode" builtin
is provided to do this a little more intelligent.

For example the CPAN plugin provides an interactive interface to the CPAN::Shell module.

	# enter cpan mode
	zoid$ mode cpan
	zoid$ i /Zoidberg/
	# use a "normal" shell command
	zoid$ !df -h /
	zoid$ install Bundle::Zoidberg
	# return to the "normal" mode
	zoid$ mode -

Modes can be either the name of a custom context (probably defined by a plugin),
or the name of a perl module (matching a '::').
If the mode is a module name all commands are mapped to methods in that namespace;
in this case you can postfix the module name with '->' if the module expects the
class name as first argument to all calls.

	# set mode the hard way
	zoid$ mode CPAN::Shell->
	zoid$ i /Zoidberg/
	zoid$ mode -

=head3 Examples

Some system command:

	zoid$ mplayer -vo sdl -ao sdl my_favorite_movie.avi

Perl code between brackets:

	zoid$ { print "This is perl code." }

A subroutine call to an object loaded in Zoidberg, 
perl code with a little source filtering:

	zoid$ ->Help->help
	 -or-
	zoid$ ->Help->help('objects')

A builtin command:

	zoid$ cd ..

A custom syntax (SQL) enforced on a block:

	zoid$ sql{ SELECT * FROM users WHERE clue > 0 }

And as said all of these can be combined:

	zoid$ cd /usr/local && { print "This is perl code." } | less || sql{SELECT * FROM users WHERE clue > 0}

This will first execute C<cd /usr/local>, on succes followed by C<{ print "This is perl code." } | less>
and if one of these failed we get to see the result of C<< sql{SELECT * FROM users WHERE clue > 0} >>

This makes the precedence of this example as follows.

	( ( 1 and ( 2 pipe 3 ) ) or 4 )

	1 = cd /usr/local
	2 = { print "This is perl code." }
	3 = less 
	4 = sql{SELECT * FROM users WHERE clue > 0}

=head2 Notes

(random notes that probably belong elsewhere in this document)

Files starting with a '-' are ignored in globs unless the glob starts with a '-', this is to
prevent globs from accidentally adding switches to a command.

=head1 ENVIRONMENT

The variables $PWD, $HOME and $USER are set to default values if not
yet set by the parent process.

The variable $ZOID will point to the location of the zoid executable,
it is similar to $SHELL for POSIX compliant shells. zoid uses a differ-
ent variable because some programs seem to expect $SHELL to point to a
POSIX compliant shell.

To switch off ansi colours on the terminal set $CLICOLOR to 0 (null).

The variable $RS (record seperator) is used to split lines when 
capturing ouput from a command in list context.
It defaults to the newline character.

The variable $IFS (input field seperators) is used to split words after
several expansions. It defaults to C<< <space><tab><return> >>.

This list probably isn't complete.

=head1 FILES

Zoidberg uses rc files, data files and plugin files, use the --config
switch to check the search paths used.

Which rcfiles are loaded is controlled be the 'rcfiles' and 'norc' set-
tings, try "zoid -o norc" to skip all rcfiles or "zoid -o
rcfiles=file1:file2:file3" to use files other then the default.

The runtime search path for plugins etc. can be controlled with the
'data_dirs' setting, try "zoid -o data_dirs=dir1:dir2:dir3".


=head1 SEE ALSO

L<zoidbuiltins>(1), L<zoiddevel>(1), L<zoidfaq>(1), L<perl>(1), 
L<http://github.com/jberger/Zoidberg>