=head1 NAME

perl - The Perl 5 language interpreter


B<perl>	S<[ B<-sTtuUWX> ]>
	S<[ B<-hv> ] [ B<-V>[:I<configvar>] ]>
	S<[ B<-cw> ] [ B<-d>[B<t>][:I<debugger>] ] [ B<-D>[I<number/list>] ]>
	S<[ B<-pna> ] [ B<-F>I<pattern> ] [ B<-l>[I<octal>] ] [ B<-0>[I<octal/hexadecimal>] ]>
	S<[ B<-I>I<dir> ] [ B<-m>[B<->]I<module> ] [ B<-M>[B<->]I<'module...'> ] [ B<-f> ]>
	S<[ B<-C [I<number/list>] >]>
	S<[ B<-S> ]>
	S<[ B<-x>[I<dir>] ]>
	S<[ B<-i>[I<extension>] ]>
	S<[ [B<-e>|B<-E>] I<'command'> ] [ B<--> ] [ I<programfile> ] [ I<argument> ]...>

For more information on these options, you can run C<perldoc perlrun>.


The F<perldoc> program gives you access to all the documentation that comes
with Perl.  You can get more documentation, tutorials and community support
online at L<https://www.perl.org/>.

If you're new to Perl, you should start by running C<perldoc perlintro>,
which is a general intro for beginners and provides some background to help
you navigate the rest of Perl's extensive documentation.  Run C<perldoc
perldoc> to learn more things you can do with F<perldoc>.

For ease of access, the Perl manual has been split up into several sections.

=begin buildtoc

# This section is parsed by Porting/pod_lib.pl for use by pod/buildtoc etc

flag =g  perluniprops perlmodlib perlapi perlintern
flag =go perltoc
flag =ro perlcn perljp perlko perltw
flag =   perlvms

path perlfaq.*               cpan/perlfaq/lib/
path perlglossary            cpan/perlfaq/lib/
path perlxs(?:tut|typemap)?  dist/ExtUtils-ParseXS/lib/
path perldoc                 cpan/Pod-Perldoc/

aux h2ph h2xs perlbug pl2pm pod2html pod2man splain xsubpp

=end buildtoc

=head2 Overview

    perl		Perl overview (this section)
    perlintro		Perl introduction for beginners
    perlrun		Perl execution and options
    perltoc		Perl documentation table of contents

=head2 Tutorials

    perlreftut		Perl references short introduction
    perldsc		Perl data structures intro
    perllol		Perl data structures: arrays of arrays

    perlrequick 	Perl regular expressions quick start
    perlretut		Perl regular expressions tutorial

    perlootut		Perl OO tutorial for beginners

    perlperf		Perl Performance and Optimization Techniques

    perlstyle		Perl style guide

    perlcheat		Perl cheat sheet
    perltrap		Perl traps for the unwary
    perldebtut		Perl debugging tutorial

    perlfaq		Perl frequently asked questions
      perlfaq1		General Questions About Perl
      perlfaq2		Obtaining and Learning about Perl
      perlfaq3		Programming Tools
      perlfaq4		Data Manipulation
      perlfaq5		Files and Formats
      perlfaq6		Regexes
      perlfaq7		Perl Language Issues
      perlfaq8		System Interaction
      perlfaq9		Networking

=head2 Reference Manual

    perlsyn		Perl syntax
    perldata		Perl data structures
    perlop		Perl operators and precedence
    perlsub		Perl subroutines
    perlfunc		Perl built-in functions
      perlopentut	Perl open() tutorial
      perlpacktut	Perl pack() and unpack() tutorial
    perlpod		Perl plain old documentation
    perlpodspec 	Perl plain old documentation format specification
    perldocstyle	Perl style guide for core docs
    perlpodstyle	Perl POD style guide
    perldiag		Perl diagnostic messages
    perldeprecation     Perl deprecations
    perllexwarn 	Perl warnings and their control
    perldebug		Perl debugging
    perlvar		Perl predefined variables
    perlre		Perl regular expressions, the rest of the story
    perlrebackslash	Perl regular expression backslash sequences
    perlrecharclass	Perl regular expression character classes
    perlreref		Perl regular expressions quick reference
    perlref		Perl references, the rest of the story
    perlform		Perl formats
    perlobj		Perl objects
    perltie		Perl objects hidden behind simple variables
    perlclass           Perl class syntax
      perldbmfilter	Perl DBM filters

    perlipc		Perl interprocess communication
    perlfork		Perl fork() information
    perlnumber		Perl number semantics

    perlthrtut		Perl threads tutorial

    perlport		Perl portability guide
    perllocale		Perl locale support
    perluniintro	Perl Unicode introduction
    perlunicode 	Perl Unicode support
    perlunicook 	Perl Unicode cookbook
    perlunifaq		Perl Unicode FAQ
    perluniprops	Index of Unicode properties in Perl
    perlunitut		Perl Unicode tutorial
    perlebcdic		Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms

    perlsec		Perl security
    perlsecpolicy	Perl security report handling policy

    perlmod		Perl modules: how they work
    perlmodlib		Perl modules: how to write and use
    perlmodstyle	Perl modules: how to write modules with style
    perlmodinstall	Perl modules: how to install from CPAN
    perlnewmod		Perl modules: preparing a new module for distribution
    perlpragma		Perl modules: writing a user pragma

    perlutil		utilities packaged with the Perl distribution

    perlfilter		Perl source filters

    perldtrace		Perl's support for DTrace

    perlglossary	Perl Glossary

=head2 Internals and C Language Interface

    perlembed		Perl ways to embed perl in your C or C++ application
    perldebguts 	Perl debugging guts and tips
    perlxstut		Perl XS tutorial
    perlxs		Perl XS application programming interface
    perlxstypemap	Perl XS C/Perl type conversion tools
    perlclib		Internal replacements for standard C library functions
    perlguts		Perl internal functions for those doing extensions
    perlcall		Perl calling conventions from C
    perlmroapi		Perl method resolution plugin interface
    perlreapi		Perl regular expression plugin interface
    perlreguts		Perl regular expression engine internals
    perlclassguts	Internals of class syntax

    perlapi		Perl API listing (autogenerated)
    perlintern		Perl internal functions (autogenerated)
    perliol		C API for Perl's implementation of IO in Layers
    perlapio		Perl internal IO abstraction interface

    perlhack		Perl hackers guide
    perlsource		Guide to the Perl source tree
    perlinterp		Overview of the Perl interpreter source and how it works
    perlhacktut 	Walk through the creation of a simple C code patch
    perlhacktips	Tips for Perl core C code hacking
    perlpolicy		Perl development policies
    perlgov		Perl Rules of Governance
    perlgit		Using git with the Perl repository

=head2 History

    perlhist		Perl history records
    perldelta		Perl changes since previous version
    perl5381delta	Perl changes in version 5.38.1
    perl5380delta	Perl changes in version 5.38.0
    perl5363delta	Perl changes in version 5.36.3
    perl5362delta	Perl changes in version 5.36.2
    perl5361delta	Perl changes in version 5.36.1
    perl5360delta	Perl changes in version 5.36.0
    perl5343delta	Perl changes in version 5.34.3
    perl5342delta	Perl changes in version 5.34.2
    perl5341delta	Perl changes in version 5.34.1
    perl5340delta	Perl changes in version 5.34.0
    perl5321delta	Perl changes in version 5.32.1
    perl5320delta	Perl changes in version 5.32.0
    perl5303delta	Perl changes in version 5.30.3
    perl5302delta	Perl changes in version 5.30.2
    perl5301delta	Perl changes in version 5.30.1
    perl5300delta	Perl changes in version 5.30.0
    perl5283delta	Perl changes in version 5.28.3
    perl5282delta	Perl changes in version 5.28.2
    perl5281delta	Perl changes in version 5.28.1
    perl5280delta	Perl changes in version 5.28.0
    perl5263delta	Perl changes in version 5.26.3
    perl5262delta	Perl changes in version 5.26.2
    perl5261delta	Perl changes in version 5.26.1
    perl5260delta	Perl changes in version 5.26.0
    perl5244delta	Perl changes in version 5.24.4
    perl5243delta	Perl changes in version 5.24.3
    perl5242delta	Perl changes in version 5.24.2
    perl5241delta	Perl changes in version 5.24.1
    perl5240delta	Perl changes in version 5.24.0
    perl5224delta	Perl changes in version 5.22.4
    perl5223delta	Perl changes in version 5.22.3
    perl5222delta	Perl changes in version 5.22.2
    perl5221delta	Perl changes in version 5.22.1
    perl5220delta	Perl changes in version 5.22.0
    perl5203delta	Perl changes in version 5.20.3
    perl5202delta	Perl changes in version 5.20.2
    perl5201delta	Perl changes in version 5.20.1
    perl5200delta	Perl changes in version 5.20.0
    perl5184delta	Perl changes in version 5.18.4
    perl5182delta	Perl changes in version 5.18.2
    perl5181delta	Perl changes in version 5.18.1
    perl5180delta	Perl changes in version 5.18.0
    perl5163delta	Perl changes in version 5.16.3
    perl5162delta	Perl changes in version 5.16.2
    perl5161delta	Perl changes in version 5.16.1
    perl5160delta	Perl changes in version 5.16.0
    perl5144delta	Perl changes in version 5.14.4
    perl5143delta	Perl changes in version 5.14.3
    perl5142delta	Perl changes in version 5.14.2
    perl5141delta	Perl changes in version 5.14.1
    perl5140delta	Perl changes in version 5.14.0
    perl5125delta	Perl changes in version 5.12.5
    perl5124delta	Perl changes in version 5.12.4
    perl5123delta	Perl changes in version 5.12.3
    perl5122delta	Perl changes in version 5.12.2
    perl5121delta	Perl changes in version 5.12.1
    perl5120delta	Perl changes in version 5.12.0
    perl5101delta	Perl changes in version 5.10.1
    perl5100delta	Perl changes in version 5.10.0
    perl589delta	Perl changes in version 5.8.9
    perl588delta	Perl changes in version 5.8.8
    perl587delta	Perl changes in version 5.8.7
    perl586delta	Perl changes in version 5.8.6
    perl585delta	Perl changes in version 5.8.5
    perl584delta	Perl changes in version 5.8.4
    perl583delta	Perl changes in version 5.8.3
    perl582delta	Perl changes in version 5.8.2
    perl581delta	Perl changes in version 5.8.1
    perl58delta 	Perl changes in version 5.8.0
    perl561delta	Perl changes in version 5.6.1
    perl56delta 	Perl changes in version 5.6
    perl5005delta	Perl changes in version 5.005
    perl5004delta	Perl changes in version 5.004

=head2 Miscellaneous

    perlbook		Perl book information
    perlcommunity	Perl community information

    perldoc		Look up Perl documentation in Pod format

    perlexperiment	A listing of experimental features in Perl

    perlartistic	Perl Artistic License
    perlgpl		GNU General Public License

=head2 Language-Specific

=for buildtoc flag +r

    perlcn		Perl for Simplified Chinese (in UTF-8)
    perljp		Perl for Japanese (in EUC-JP)
    perlko		Perl for Korean (in EUC-KR)
    perltw		Perl for Traditional Chinese (in Big5)

=head2 Platform-Specific

    perlaix		Perl notes for AIX
    perlamiga		Perl notes for AmigaOS
    perlandroid		Perl notes for Android
    perlbs2000		Perl notes for POSIX-BC BS2000
    perlcygwin		Perl notes for Cygwin
    perlfreebsd 	Perl notes for FreeBSD
    perlhaiku		Perl notes for Haiku
    perlhpux		Perl notes for HP-UX
    perlhurd		Perl notes for Hurd
    perlirix		Perl notes for Irix
    perllinux		Perl notes for Linux
    perlmacosx		Perl notes for Mac OS X
    perlopenbsd 	Perl notes for OpenBSD
    perlos2		Perl notes for OS/2
    perlos390		Perl notes for OS/390
    perlos400		Perl notes for OS/400
    perlplan9		Perl notes for Plan 9
    perlqnx		Perl notes for QNX
    perlriscos		Perl notes for RISC OS
    perlsolaris 	Perl notes for Solaris
    perlsynology 	Perl notes for Synology
    perltru64		Perl notes for Tru64
    perlvms		Perl notes for VMS
    perlvos		Perl notes for Stratus VOS
    perlwin32		Perl notes for Windows

=for buildtoc flag -r

=head2 Stubs for Deleted Documents


=for buildtoc __END__

On a Unix-like system, these documentation files will usually also be
available as manpages for use with the F<man> program.

Some documentation is not available as man pages, so if a
cross-reference is not found by man, try it with L<perldoc>.  Perldoc can
also take you directly to documentation for functions (with the B<-f>
switch). See S<C<perldoc --help>> (or S<C<perldoc perldoc>> or
S<C<man perldoc>>) for other helpful options L<perldoc> has to offer.

In general, if something strange has gone wrong with your program and you're
not sure where you should look for help, try making your code comply with
B<use strict> and B<use warnings>.  These will often point out exactly
where the trouble is.


Perl officially stands for Practical Extraction and Report Language,
except when it doesn't.

Perl was originally a language optimized for scanning arbitrary
text files, extracting information from those text files, and printing
reports based on that information.  It quickly became a good language
for many system management tasks. Over the years, Perl has grown into
a general-purpose programming language. It's widely used for everything
from quick "one-liners" to full-scale application development.

The language is intended to be practical (easy to use, efficient,
complete) rather than beautiful (tiny, elegant, minimal).  It combines
(in the author's opinion, anyway) some of the best features of B<sed>,
B<awk>, and B<sh>, making it familiar and easy to use for Unix users to
whip up quick solutions to annoying problems.  Its general-purpose
programming facilities support procedural, functional, and
object-oriented programming paradigms, making Perl a comfortable
language for the long haul on major projects, whatever your bent.

Perl's roots in text processing haven't been forgotten over the years.
It still boasts some of the most powerful regular expressions to be
found anywhere, and its support for Unicode text is world-class.  It
handles all kinds of structured text, too, through an extensive
collection of extensions.  Those libraries, collected in the CPAN,
provide ready-made solutions to an astounding array of problems.  When
they haven't set the standard themselves, they steal from the best
-- just like Perl itself.


Perl is available for most operating systems, including virtually
all Unix-like platforms.  See L<perlport/"Supported Platforms">
for a listing.


See L<perlrun/ENVIRONMENT>.

=head1 AUTHOR

Larry Wall <larry@wall.org>, with the help of oodles of other folks.

If your Perl success stories and testimonials may be of help to others 
who wish to advocate the use of Perl in their applications, 
or if you wish to simply express your gratitude to Larry and the 
Perl developers, please write to perl-thanks@perl.org .

=head1 FILES

 "@INC"			locations of perl libraries

"@INC" above is a reference to the built-in variable of the same name;
see L<perlvar> for more information.

=head1 SEE ALSO

 https://www.perl.org/       the Perl homepage
 https://www.perl.com/       Perl articles
 https://www.cpan.org/       the Comprehensive Perl Archive
 https://www.pm.org/         the Perl Mongers


Using the C<use strict> pragma ensures that all variables are properly
declared and prevents other misuses of legacy Perl features.
These are enabled by default within the scope of
C<L<use v5.12|perlfunc/use VERSION>> (or higher).

The C<use warnings> pragma produces some lovely diagnostics.
It is enabled by default when you say C<use v5.35> (or higher).
One can also use the B<-w> flag, but its use is normally discouraged,
because it gets applied to all executed Perl code, including that not under
your control.

See L<perldiag> for explanations of all Perl's diagnostics.  The C<use
diagnostics> pragma automatically turns Perl's normally terse warnings
and errors into these longer forms.

Compilation errors will tell you the line number of the error, with an
indication of the next token or token type that was to be examined.
(In a script passed to Perl via B<-e> switches, each
B<-e> is counted as one line.)

Setuid scripts have additional constraints that can produce error
messages such as "Insecure dependency".  See L<perlsec>.

Did we mention that you should definitely consider using the B<use warnings>

=head1 BUGS

The behavior implied by the B<use warnings> pragma is not mandatory.

Perl is at the mercy of your machine's definitions of various
operations such as type casting, atof(), and floating-point
output with sprintf().

If your stdio requires a seek or eof between reads and writes on a
particular stream, so does Perl.  (This doesn't apply to sysread()
and syswrite().)

While none of the built-in data types have any arbitrary size limits
(apart from memory size), there are still a few arbitrary limits:  a
given variable name may not be longer than 251 characters.  Line numbers
displayed by diagnostics are internally stored as short integers,
so they are limited to a maximum of 65535 (higher numbers usually being
affected by wraparound).

You may submit your bug reports (be sure to include full configuration
information as output by the myconfig program in the perl source
tree, or by C<perl -V>) to L<https://github.com/Perl/perl5/issues>.

Perl actually stands for Pathologically Eclectic Rubbish Lister, but
don't tell anyone I said that.

=head1 NOTES

The Perl motto is "There's more than one way to do it."  Divining
how many more is left as an exercise to the reader.

The three principal virtues of a programmer are Laziness,
Impatience, and Hubris.  See the Camel Book for why.