- SEE ALSO
Apache::OpenIndex - Perl Open Index manager for a Apache Web server
PerlModule Apache::Icon PerlModule Apache::OpenIndex (PerlModule Apache::Language) optional (PerlModule Image::Magick) optional
OpenIndex provides a file manager for a web sites through a web browser. It is a extensive rewrite of the Apache::AutoIndex.pm module which in turn was a remake of the autoindex Apache module. OpenIndex can provide the same functionality as AutoIndex.pm and can be used to both navigate and manage the web site.
OpenIndex has dropped the mod_dir support provided by AutoIndex.
In order to activate the file manager functionality, two things have to happen. First, the proper http.conf directives need to be placed into a <Location area> section. Second, there has to be a directory stub (.XOI) created off of the directory where the file manager is to be provided.
Within the ROOT directory stub (.XOI), a MARK sub-directory (.XOI/.MARK) can also be provided to present a MARK directory tree by the file manager. The MARK (.XOI/.MARK) directory provides a physical directory where files can be managed, unzipped, moved, copied, deleted, and renamed. New directories can be created with the mkdir command. The MARK directory can be mapped to any path location on the Apache server or to any site path location. To activate the MARK directory access the "mark" directive needs to be set to '1'. The ROOT (.XOI) directory is actually a fake path of the site's root directory. For example to access "http://www.site.com/bob/" the following URL would be required:
This would in turn would display the file manager for bob. To Bob, the ROOT directory appears to be his actual web root directory.
If the above description does not make sense, just follow the examples provided, and perhaps it will become clearer once you see some results.
Since a URL fake path (.XOI) is provided, authentication and authorization can be used to only allow authorized users to have access to the OpenIndex module.
In short, you will no longer need to use ftp to upload and manage the web site files. Since OpenIndex is web based, you can use all of your other Apache functionality, such as SSL, proxies, and etc.
The best procedure to get OpenIndex loaded and working is to first have the Apache mod_perl and autoindex modules loaded and working properly. Then remove the httpd.conf "AddModule autoindex" directive and add the Apache::Icon and Apache::OpenIndex module directives.
The following describes what httpd.conf directives you need in your httpd.conf file to load OpenIndex and it's companion modules.
First or all you must have mod_perl loaded, with the following:
You will also need to load the following mod_perl modules, with:
PerlModule Apache::Icon PerlModule Apache::OpenIndex
in your httpd.conf file or with:
use Apache::Icon(); use Apache::OpenIndex();
in your startup.pl file.
It is best to put the OpenIndex directives is in a <Location area> section of your httpd.conf file, because it is the highest priority Apache httpd.conf section. This way, other directives will not get in the way of (ahead of) OpenIndex during the Apache request processing. Apache 1.3.x the directive section priorities are (in increasing order):
<Directory> <Files> <Location>
Here is an example of a <Location area> directive:
<LocationMatch /.*/\.XOI> SetHandler perl-script PerlHandler Apache::OpenIndex </LocationMatch>
Notice that a regular expression Location form was used. This will provide a file manager for each 1-level deep sub-directory of the site's document root which have a .XOI stub directory in them. For example:
If a browser in turn accesses:
The OpenIndex file manager would be activated for "/friends/bob".
Even though the .XOI directory is a fake reference for the real directory tree, it must exist in order to activate the file manager. If a ".XOI/.MARK" directory is also present, and the "mark" directive is set to '1', access to any location on the Apache server can be managed.
You will probably want to provide authentication and authorization for the .XOI fake location. For example, I have used Apache::AuthenDBI and Apache::AuthzDBI with the following additions to the same <Location> as above:
PerlAuthenHandler Apache::AuthenDBI PerlAuthzHandler Apache::AuthzDBI AuthName DBI AuthType Basic PerlSetVar Auth_DBI_data_source dbi:Pg:dbname=webdb PerlSetVar Auth_DBI_username webuser PerlSetVar Auth_DBI_password webpass PerlSetVar Auth_DBI_pwd_table users PerlSetVar Auth_DBI_uid_field username PerlSetVar Auth_DBI_grp_field GID PerlSetVar Auth_DBI_pwd_field password PerlSetVar Auth_DBI_encrypted on require group webgroup friends propellers
If you only want to provide the AutoIndex functionality, just place the following into either a <Directory area>, or <Location area> directive and don't bother to create the .XOI directory.
SetHandler perl-script PerlHandler Apache::OpenIndex
Mod_perl does not provide configuration merging for Apache virtual hosts. Therefore, you have to maintain a complete set of OpenIndex directives for each virtual host, if any of the virtual host configurations are different.
When using OpenIndex as a file manager, understanding and implementing the file permissions is the hardest concept. First, you need to have a good understanding of your operating system's (OS) file permissions.
OpenIndex can allow groups of users to share the same web server file space (tree), such that individuals can be prevented from changing each others files and directories. An "admin" group can also be specified, which allows certain users to be able to modify all the files and directories within the tree, as well as, assign GID access to the files and directories.
File permissions are controlled by a group ID (GID) provided by an authorization module for the user. It is assigned to the files and directories that that user creates.
An Apache environment variable must be set prior to each OpenIndex request. This environment variable would normally be set by an authorization module.
For example, the Apache::AuthzDBI module (presented above) can provide an environment variable "REMOTE_GROUP" which contains the group ID of the authorized user. The following OpenIndex directive tells it which environment variable contains the user's GID for the request:
For example, if the authorization module sets the environment variable:
OpenIndex would set the GID for that user to 1000. If the GID is valid (for Apache and it's OS), all files and directories created by that user will have their GID set to 1000.
HINT: If you set the "OpenIndexOptions Debug 1" directive, the environment variables will be listed along with other debugging information. You can then spot your GID environment variable set by your authorization module in order to verify it's existence and OpenIndex operation.
An admin directive can also be specified which enables a user with the specified admin GID to access and control all files and directories within the current file manager directory (.XOI) tree.
In summary, if the following directives are provided:
OpenIndexOptions GIDEnv=REMOTE_GROUP OpenIndexOptions Admin=1000
The GIDEnv directive tells OpenIndex which environment variable contains the GID (REMOTE_GROUP in this example). [This variable would have been set by an authorization module.] If the GID for the user happens to be 1000, then that user will have "admin" privileges and it's commands (SetGID).
The operating system (OS) rules still apply to all of the GID operations. For example (OS=UNIX), if Apache's program ID (PID) is 100 and a file is owned by user 200, Apache can not change the GID of file unless the Apache process is also a member of the GID 200 group.
If a "group name" (instead of a number) is provided, the GID name is looked-up in the /etc/group file in order to obtain the numeric GID. This is very UNIX like and my not work for other operating systems.
HINT: Any environment variable can be used to contain the GID. Therefore, you can trick the authorization module into coughing up a GID by using the REMOTE_USER (user) environment variable and then simply create a group with the same name. Don't forget to make the Apache's process user ID (PUID) a member of the group (in /etc/group).
When a .XOI directory is not present in the URL, OpenIndex will function like AutoIndex. Note that the .XOI directory name can be changed with a directive. This is explain later on in the text.
The display options (directives) are a composite of autoindex, AutoIndex, and OpenIndex's own module directives.
The original module directives are maintained by OpenIndex, so that any existing directives that you may have, can be used to maintain the status quo.
Apache normally comes with mod_autoindex C module. A number of it's httpd.conf directives are provided when Apache is installed.
Documentation for autoindex can be found at:
An incomplete (no Alt directives) and a very brief description of the autoindex (used by Apache::Icon) directives is provided below.
These directives are processed by Apache::Icon.pm which provides icons to Apache::AutoIndex and Apache::OpenIndex.
The FancyIndexing directive tells OpenIndex to present a robust display which can include permissions, an icon, name, date, size, and description for each file and directory. All of the following autoindex and AutoIndex directives require FancyIndexing.
HeaderName file file ...
Inserts a list of files displayed at the top of the document After Apache 1.3.5 the filename can be a relative URI. If the file name extention is '.html' it will be sent as is.
IndexIgnore file file
A list of files not to be displayed. The files can specify extensions, partial names, wild card expressions, or full filenames. Multiple IndexIgnore directives add to the list.
IndexOptions [+|-]option [+|-]option ...
There are several options. Please refer to the above URL: http://www.apache.org/docs/mod/mod_autoindex.html for the complete list.
IndexOrderDefault Ascending|Descending|Extension Name|Date|Size|Description
IndexOrderDefault takes two arguments. The first must be either Ascending, Descending, or Extension indicating the direction of the sort. Only Name can have the Extension specified, which will sort on the file extension. The second argument must be one of the keywords: Name, Date, Size, or Description. It identifies the primary sort key.
ReadmeName file file ...
A list of text files that will be displayed to the end of the document. If the file mime type is text/html it will be sent as is.
AddDescription "string" file file...
The file description displayed for the given file (file name wild cards).
AddIconByEncoding (alttext, url) MIME-encoding MIME-encoding ...
The file icon (alttext, url) to be displayed according to the MIME-encoding (mime-encoding).
AddIconByType (alttext, url) MIME-type MIME-type ...
The file icon (alttext, url) to be displayed according to the MIME-type (mime-type).
AddIcon (alttext, url) name name ...
The file icon (alttext, url) to be displayed according to file name extension.
The file icon to be displayed if no other icon can be found. (default icon)
The listing will include thumbnails for pictures. Defaults to false.
Print file permissions. Defaults to false.
When a header or footer file is included with the HeaderName file file ... ReadmeName file file ... directives, the <HTML> <HEAD> and <BODY> tags are striped.
The folders will be presented first in the index listings.
The HideExt directive tells OpenIndex to not display the file extention within the index display.
IndexHtmlTag tag attributes
This directive specifies the tag's attributes that will be inserted into the tag. For example: <TAG attributes> If the first character of attributes is a '+', it will append the following attributes to the current tag's attributes. If the first character of attributes is a '-' or not a '+', the current tag's attributes will be set to the following attributes string. Note that an initial '+' or '-' character is always striped. HINT: If you need to have the first line start with a '+' or a '-' character, use "-+ . . ." or "-- . . .".
IndexHtmlText tag [+|-]text
This directive specifies the tag text that will be inserted within the tag. For example: <TAG> text </TAG> If the first character of text is a '+', it will append the following text to the current tag's text. If the first character of text is a '-' or not a '+', the current tag's text will be set to the following text. Note that an initial '+' or '-' character is always striped. HINT: If you need to have the first line start with a '+' or a '-' character, use "-+ . . ." or "-- . . .". The frameset tag is special in that you will need to place <mainframe> in the position where the index (main) frame is to be placed In this way any arbitrary frameset can be supported. HTML text can also be inserted just before each of the form text and submit buttons by appending 'insert' before it's name. For example to insert "Hello World" just before 'Browse' text field specify: IndexHtmlText InsertBrowse Hello World HINT: If the language option is enabled, the text will be looked up in order to support multiple languages.
Value should be the uri (absolute or relative) of a resource that would be inserted right after the <BODY> tag and just before anything else.
Value should be the uri (absolute or relative) of a resource that would be inserted right before the ending </BODY> tag and after everything else.
Value is a string that will be inserted after the main frame. The Frame option has to activated in order for this to work. The main frame contains the index table and is always inserted into the frameset. A NOFRAME tag is also always included.
Value is a string that will be inserted inside the <Style> tag.
OpenIndexOptions Admin n
Sets the admin GID to n. If the user's GID equals the admin GID, the "SetGID" command will be provided and file access control will be provided for all files and directories in both the MARK and ROOT directory trees.
OpenIndexOptions Debug [0|1]
If set to 1, the listing displayed will print debugging information if the user is set to Admin. The default is 0.
OpenIndexOptions Frames [0|1]
If set to 1, the output will use HTLM horizontal frames. The default is 0.
OpenIndexOptions Menu command1 command2 . . .
Allows you to add and remove commands from the menu. The default menu is: "Browse", "Upload", "Unzip", "Delete", "MkDir", "MkFile","Copy", "Move","Edit","Rename","Help". If the first command is preceded by '+' the following commands will be added to the existing list of the menu. If it is preceded by '-' they well be removed from the list. The sign can only be used as the first argument, while the remaining arguments are a list of the items to either add or remove. If no sign is provided the menu list is replaced by the list provided.
OpenIndexOptions AdmnMenu command1 command2 . . .
AdmnMenu allows you to modify the admin command menu. When a user is an admin, as defined by the: "OpenIndexOptions Admin" directive, the AdmnMenu is provided. The default menu is: "SetGID", "Revoke", and "Debug". Note that the "Debug" command only is displayed if the: "OpenIndexOptions Debug 1" directive is also provided. If the first command is preceded by '+' the following commands will be added to the existing list of the menu. If it is preceded by '-' they well be removed from the list. The sign can only be used as the first argument, while the remaining arguments are a list of the items to either add or remove. If no sign is provided the menu list is replaced by the list provided.
OpenIndexOptions Root Directory
When operating in the AutoIndex mode, this option allows you to specify the root directory where OpenIndex will not display the "Parent directory" item (the root). The string is compared with Perl regular expressions.
OpenIndexOptions FakeDir Directory
Sets the FakeDir directory stub name from which the files can be managed. The default is ".XOI". You should probably consider changing this value to something else if you do not want people probing your web site. You may want to prefix the name with a '.' in order to hide it from view.
OpenIndexOptions MarkDir SubDirectory
Set the mark subdirectory stub name of the where OpenIndex stores the Mark directory files. The default is ".MARK". Note that this is the fake name used to reference the MARK directory. The MARK directory can be designated to be anywhere on the web server.
OpenIndexOptions MarkRoot syspath
Set the rooted MARK path location to "syspath". The path is from the Apache server's root path, that is it must contain the initial '/'. It can allow the client to get to any file on the web server. The browser client will not be able to go below this directory.
OpenIndexOptions UserDir pattern
If you use the userdir_module and you want OpenIndex to manage the files accessed there, then you will need to duplicate it's UserDir translation directive using this directive. For example: OpenIndexOptions UserDir /home/*/htdocs will translate /~bob to /home/bob/htdocs
OpenIndexOptions UserSite rootpath
This directive restricts a user to a particular site path. This is useful because it allow one group id to be used for a group of users by restricting which path particular each use can access. For example, if you have two user sites which use the following URLs: http://www.thesite.com/friends/ed http://www.thesite.com/friends/steve You could create a group, named 'friends' for both users and restrict each user to their own site, by specifying: OpenIndexOptions UserSite /friends Then when 'ed' tries to access any URL outside of '/friends/ed', OpenIndex will deny the request.
OpenIndexOptions TextLen n
Sets the text entry field of the command form to length n. The default value is 49. The "SetGID" text length is almost one-half this value (default 25).
OpenIndexOptions EditMax n
Sets the maximum edit file byte size to n. This is the maximum file size that can be edited. The default value is 131072 bytes.
OpenIndexOptions PostMax n
Sets the http maximum post byte size to n. This is also the maximum file size that can be uploaded. The default value is 4,194,304 bytes.
OpenIndexOptions umask n
Allows you to set the umask for the files and directories created. Generally n is an octal number starting with a '0'.
OpenIndexOptions Help URL
Sets the URL of the user help command. The default URL is: http://www.xorgate.com/help/OpenIndex
OpenIndexOptions language [0|no|off]
Tells OpenIndex not to use the Apache::Language module to translate messages. ('0', 'no', or 'off') Defaults 'off'. When enabled the Apache::Language module must be loaded. Make sure if you set language on that you load the negotiation module and either use the Multiviews option or the *.var method.
OpenIndexOptions GIDEnv name
If an authorization module provides an environment variable (name) with the user's GID, the GIDEnv directive tells OpenIndex which variable contains the GID for the current request. The GID is then retrieved from the environment variable and is applied to the user's commands. For each command the source GID is checked to make sure that the GID matches each file and directory created. If a name (not a number) is provided, it is looked up in the /etc/group file to obtain the GID number.
OpenIndexOptions UserEnv name
An environment variable can be specified which holds the user name of the request. If 'Basic' authorization is being used, the user name will be recovered from Apache, regardless of what ever is specified for 'UserEnv name'.
OpenIndexOptions Revoke [1|0]
A boolean value which tells OpenIndex to check the file "revoked" in the root fake directory (FakeDir) for users and groups that will not be allowed to execute commands. This file is maintained by OpenIndex for the admin user through "Enable" and "Disable" commands provide in the Revoke form. Note that Apache will need to have read and write access in this file ("revoked") and root fake directory (.XOI).
OpenIndexOptions Mark [1|0]
A boolean value which tells OpenIndex to use and process the MARK (mark) directory (tree), if it exists. ('1', 'yes', or 'on') Default 0. If the MARK directory does not exist, it will not use it :-).
OpenIndexOptions NoTitle [1|0]
If set to 1, the header title will not be displayed. The default is 0.
OpenIndexOptions NoCache [1|0]
A boolean value which tells OpenIndex to have the expire time of the http header to zero so that browsers will not cache OpenIndex's output. Default 0.
OpenIndexOptions Import package subroutine limit_arguments
"This is are real cool directive!" It allows you to add new commands and routines to OpenIndex. Look in the OpenIndex/OpenIndex directory and you will find an external command "MD5.pm". This command calculates and displays the MD5 hash of the files selected, stores them in the file entered into the "Destination" form text field, and displays the results. This directive can provide the full subroutine name including the '::'s. For example, for the MD5 command the following directive is used: OpenIndexOptions \ import MD5 MD5 before=>MD5before after=>MD5after \ back=>MD5back min=>1 max=>0 NOTE: that the escape character '\' is used to indicate that the the line continues. Do not use the '/' character in your conf file. The interesting arguments are as follows: The first argument is the package name that contains the subroutines. If it is not fully specified with '::' it is preappended with "Apache::OpenIndex::". The second argument is the menu command name of the routine. The command is added to the menu by using either the 'Menu' or the 'AdmnMenu' directive. before=>subroutine Is the name of the subroutine to run just before the menu command subroutine (Apache::OpenIndex::MD5before in the example). This command allows any initialization work to be done before the main command. The main command (Apache::OpenIndex::MD5 in the example) is called once for each file/directory item selected from the directory index listing within the browser window. after=>subroutine This is the subroutine executed just after the last item is processed. This routine will normally do cleanup of anything required from the before routine. back=>subroutine This subroutine is executed after a SUBMIT from the menu command. It is a call back routine that depends on the 'proc' HIDDEN field from your HTML form. The 'proc' should contain the cmd name. min=>number Is the minimum number of items that must be selected by the OpenIndex user. max=>number Is the maximum number of items that must be selected by the OpenIndex user. A value of 0, means there is no maximum number. src=>arg This tells OpenIndex which argument contains the source string for the command. Normally this is the list of items from the directory index listing. However, you can use any input you like by perhaps setting an @args string in the before=>routine. dst=>arg This tells OpenIndex which argument contains the destination string for the command. Normally this is the text in "Destination" text form field. However, you can use any input you like by perhaps setting an @args string in the before=>routine. req=>arg This tells OpenIndex to check and make sure that a value is contained in the argument. The default is to have an item selected from the directory index listing. admin=>1 Requires that user is the admin user in order to execute the commands submitted.
OpenIndexOptions Always package subroutine arguments
"This is another real cool directive!" It allows you to specify an external command to run before each OpenIndex managed page is processed. This is where you would hook in a quota check routine and so forth. The arguments are only for use by the command specified.
Generation of thumbnails is possible. This means that listing a directory that contains images can be listed with little reduced thumbnails beside each image name instead of the standard 'image' icon.
To enable this you simply need to preload Image::Macick in Apache. The IndexOption option Thumbnails controls thumbnails generation for specific directories like any other IndexOption directive.
The way thumbnails are generated/produced can be configured in many ways. A general overview of the procedure follows.
For each directory containing pictures, there will be a .thumbnails directory created in it that will hold the thumbnails. Each time the directory is accessed, and if thumbnail generation is active, small thumbnails will be produced, shown beside each image name, instead of the normal , generic, image icon.
That can be done in 2 ways. In the case the image is pretty small, no actual thumbnail will be created. Instead the image will resize the HEIGHT and WIDTH attributes of the IMG tag.
If the image is big enough, Image::Magick will resize it and save (cache) it in the .thumbnails directory for the next requests.
Changing configuration options will correctly refresh the cached thumbnails. Also, if the original image is modified, the thumbnail will be updated accordingly. Still, the browser might screw things up if it preserves the cached images.
This is the name of the directory where the generated thumbnails will be created. Make sure the user under which the web server runs has read and write permissions. Defaults to .thumbnails
Specifies that when a cache directory isn't found, should an attempt to be made to create it. Defaults to 1(true), meaning if possible, a missing cache directories will be created.
This value fixes the maximum size of an image at which thumbnail processing isn't even attempted. Trying to process a few very big images could bring a server down to it's knees. Defaults to 500,000
This value fixes the minimum size of an image at which thumbnail processing isn't actually done. Since trying to process already very small images could be an overkill, the image is simply resized with the size attributes of the IMG tag. Defaults to 5,000.
This value fixes the maximum x-size of an image at which thumbnail processing isn't actually done. Since trying to process already very small images would be an overkill, the image is simply resized with the size attributes of the IMG tag. Defaults to 4 times the default icon width.
This value fixes the maximum y-size of an image at which thumbnail processing isn't actually done. Since trying to process already very small images would be an overkill, the image is simply resized with the size attributes of the IMG tag. Defaults to 4 times the default icon height
Preserved only if there is no scaling factor for the other axis of the image.
This value fixes an y-scaling factor between 0 and 1 to resize the images. The image ratio will be preserved only if there is no scaling factor for the other axis of the image.
This value fixes a fixed x-dimension to resize the image. The image ratio will be preserved only if there is no fixed scaling factor for the other axis of the image. This has no effect if a scaling factor is defined.
This value fixes a fixed x-dimension to resize the image. The image ratio will be preserved only if there is no fixed scaling factor for the other axis of the image. This has no effect if a scaling factor is defined.
The thumbnail support needs to be tested. It was provide with Apache:: AutoIndex, but I have not tested it yet.
Some minor changes to the thumbnails options will still have the thumbnails regenerated. This should be avoided by checking the attributes of the already existing thumbnail.
Some form of garbage collection should be performed on thumbnail cache or the directories will fill up.
Please send any questions or comments to the Apache modperl mailing list <firstname.lastname@example.org> or to me at <email@example.com>
This code was made possible by :
- Philippe M. Chiasson
<firstname.lastname@example.org> Creator of Apache::AutoIndex.
- Doug MacEachern
<email@example.com> Creator of Apache::Icon, and of course, mod_perl.
- Rob McCool
Who produced the final mod_autoindex.c I copied, hrm.., well, translated to perl.
- The mod_perl mailing-list
at <firstname.lastname@example.org> for all your mod_perl related problems.
George Sanderson <email@example.com>
Copyright (c) 2000-2001 George Sanderson All rights reserved. This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.
Copyright (c) 1999 Philippe M. Chiasson. All rights reserved. This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.