NAME

URI::Router - highest performance powerful URI router (URI path to value lookup) for HTTP frameworks

SYNOPSIS

    use URI::Router;

    my $router = URI::Router->new(
        "/items/list"        => sub { ... },
        "POST/avatar/upload" => sub { ... },
        "/user/*/info"       => sub { ... },
        "/file/..."          => sub { ... },
        "/user/*/..."        => sub { ... },
        qr#/img/(.+\.jpg)#   => sub { ... },
    );

    my $sub = $router->route("/items/list");
    my ($sub, @args) = $router->route("/user/10/info");         # @args = ("10")
    my ($sub, @args) = $router->route("/file/folder/data.txt"); # @args = ("folder", "data.txt")
    my ($sub, @args) = $router->route("/user/10/view");         # @args = ("10", "view")
    my ($sub, @args) = $router->route("/img/avatar/foo.jpg");   # @args = ("avatar/foo.jpg")
    my $sub = $router->route("/avatar/upload", METHOD_POST);    # ok
    my $sub = $router->route("/avatar/upload", METHOD_GET);     # undef
    my $sub = $router->route("/nonexistent");                   # undef

DESCRIPTION

URI::Router maps a path pattern to a specific value. It routes a path in a constant time (no matter how many and how complex the routes are). It supports static, pattern and regexp routes. URI::Router is written in C++ and performs very fast. For static routes it uses hash and for dynamic routes it uses custom DFA which searches all routes at once.

Module supports different values for different http methods and capturing dynamic part from url paths.

The value associated with a pattern doesn't have to be a subroutine reference, it can be any perl scalar.

Module supports 3 different types of routes and they have different priorities.

ROUTES

STATIC ROUTES

    my $router = URI::Router->new(
        "/foo/bar" => 1,
        ...
    );
    

This type of route has maximum performance. It will match only exact the same path with exclusion that it's insensitive to slashes (both in route and in tested path).

    $router->route("/foo/bar") == 1;
    $router->route("/foo/bar/") == 1;
    $router->route("////foo////bar////") == 1;

Also this type of route has maximum priority in case of ambiguity, see "RELEVANCE" in URI::Router

SIMPLE PATTERN

    my $router = URI::Router->new(
        "/user/*/info"         => 1,
        "/user/*/gifts_from/*" => 2,
        "/file/..."            => 3,
        "/a/*/b/*/c/..."       => 4,
    );

Simple patterns can include:

"*"

This is a placeholder for the whole (but single) path segment. This segment can't be empty. It is logically the same as ([^/]+).

Every "*" in pattern will result in exactly one captured arg being returned from route() method.

    my ($value, @args) = $router->route("/user/123/info");           # $value = 1, @args = (123);
    my ($value, @args) = $router->route("/user/123/gifts_from/321"); # $value = 2, @args = (123, 321);
"..."

Ellipsis is a placeholder for zero or more trailing path segments. It can only appear at the end of the pattern and will result in zero or more additional arguments being returned from route() method.

    my ($value, @args) = $router->route("/file");             # $value = 3, @args = ()
    my ($value, @args) = $router->route("/file/foo.txt");     # $value = 3, @args = ("foo.txt")
    my ($value, @args) = $router->route("/file/foo/bar.txt"); # $value = 3, @args = ("foo", "bar.txt")
    my ($value, @args) = $router->route("/a/1/b/2/c/3/4");    # $value = 4, @args = (1,2,3,4)

Simple patterns are insensitive to slashes (both in route and in tested path).

All of these lines adds the same route (the latest added will replace others)

    $router->add("/user/*/info", 1);
    $router->add("/user/*/info/", 1);
    $router->add("/user/*///info///", 1);

All of these will find the same route

    $router->route("/user/10/info");
    $router->route("/user/10/info/");
    $router->route("//user//10//info");

REGEXP PATTERN

    my $router = URI::Router->new(
        qr#/user/(\d+)/info#             => 1,
        qr#/user/(\d+)/gifts_from/(\d+)# => 2,
        qr#/file/(.+)#                   => 3,
    );

Regexp patterns have lower priory and will only match if no static or simple patterns match.

Regexp engines are too slow for the purpose of this module and under the hood no regexp engines are involved. Instead URI::Router constructs a custom DFA from all the regexps and patterns supplied and tests all at once in a single pass. Therefore in the sake of performance it can't support all the functionality of perl regexps and its features are limited to a basic set.

Regexp features supported: "\d\D\w\W\s\S\t\r\n", ".", "[symbol class]", "(capturing)", "(?:non-capturing)", "|", "?", "*", "+", "{x}", "{x,}", "{,y}", "{x,y}"

Every capturing group in matched regexp route will result in additinal argument being returned from route() method. No attempts are made to split any argument by slash.

    my ($value, @args) = $router->route("/user/123/info");           # $value = 1, @args = (123)
    my ($value, @args) = $router->route("/user/123/gifts_from/321"); # $value = 2, @args = (123, 321)
    my ($value, @args) = $router->route("/file/foo.txt");            # $value = 3, @args = ("foo.txt")
    my ($value, @args) = $router->route("/file/foo/bar.txt");        # $value = 3, @args = ("foo/bar.txt")

Regexp patterns are insensitive only to slashes in path being tested (because it gets normalized during search). Regexp itself must start with slash (or accept it via ".+" and so on), must not require trailing slash and must not have empty segments (repeating slashes).

    $router->route("/user/123/info"); # finds 1
    $router->route("/user/123/info/"); # finds 1
    $router->route("/user/123//info"); # finds 1

    $route->add(qr#abc/def#, $val); # will not match anything
    $route->add(qr#.+abc/def#, $val); # ok
    $route->add(qr#/abc/def/#, $val); # will not match anything
    $route->add(qr#/abc/def/?#, $val); # ok, but does not make sense (tested paths never have trailing slashes)
    $route->add(qr#/abc//def#, $val); # will not match anything
    $route->add(qr#/abc/.*/def#, $val); # ok, but will not match /abc/def
    $route->add(qr#/abc/(.+/)?def#, $val); # ok

RELEVANCE

If there are more than one route that matches a given path, URI::Router returns the most relevant match.

The rules are as following:

Static route has the highest priority
    my $router = URI::Router->new(
        "/foo/*"   => 1,
        "/foo/bar" => 2,
    );
    $r->route("/foo/bar"); # matches 2
    $r->route("/foo/baz"); # matches 1
Then simple pattern routes

If several pattern routes match then more relevant is the one with more static part in the beginning of the path.

    my $router = URI::Router->new(
        "/foo/bar/*" => 1,
        "/foo/*/*"   => 2,
        "/x/*/*/b"   => 3,
        "/x/*/y/*"   => 4,
    );
    $r->route("/foo/bar/baz"); # matches 1
    $r->route("/foo/abc/bar"); # matches 2
    $r->route("/x/a/y/b");     # matches 4
    $r->route("/x/a/z/b");     # matches 3

The number of "*" in pattern doesn't matter as well as its order of adding into the router, only position in path does

    my $router = URI::Router->new(
        "/*/1/2/3"   => 1,
        "/foo/*/*/*" => 2,
    );
    $r->route("/foo/1/2/3"); # matches 2

If keeping in mind the above, two routes still have the same priority (the only case for that is "*" vs "..."), then "*" wins.

    my $router = URI::Router->new(
        "/foo/..." => 1,
        "/foo/*"   => 2,
    );
    $r->route("/foo/bar");     # matches 2
    $r->route("/foo");         # matches 1
    $r->route("/foo/bar/baz"); # matches 1
And finally, regexp routes

If several regexp routes match, then the earliest added to the router is more relevant.

HTTP METHODS

Method route() accepts 2 arguments - a path and an http method of the request made. If http method is not passed as in examples above, method GET is assumed by default.

If the found route doesn't support that method, the result of the routing is "not found".

Http method can be specified for each route as a prefix before path NOT starting with "/". Accepted methods are "OPTIONS", "GET", "HEAD", "POST", "PUT", "DELETE", "TRACE", "CONNECT".

If no method is specified for a certain route in config, it will accept any http method.

    my $router = URI::Router->new(
        "GET/foo/*"   => 1, # accepts only GET
        "POST/foo/*"  => 2, # accepts only POST
        "/x/y"        => 3, # accepts any method
        qr#POST/\d+#  => 4, # accepts only POST
    );
    
    $router->route("/foo/bar", METHOD_GET);  # matches 1
    $router->route("/foo/bar");              # matches 1
    $router->route("/foo/bar", METHOD_POST); # matches 2
    $router->route("/foo/bar", METHOD_PUT);  # no match
    $router->route("/x/y", METHOD_POST);     # matches 3
    $router->route("/x/y", METHOD_PUT);      # matches 3
    $router->route("/123", METHOD_POST);     # matches 4
    $router->route("/123", METHOD_HEAD);     # no match

If the matched most relevant route doesn't accept specified http method, then the result is no-match. No attempts are made to fallback to less relevant route to inspect if it has specified http method.

METHODS

new([$pattern1 => $value1, ...])

Constructs router object and adds routes via add() method, see below for details

add($pattern, $value)

Adds a route to the router.

$pattern can be of the following:

Static path
    $router->add("/foo/bar", 1);
Simple pattern
    $router->add("/user/*/info", 2);
    $router->add("/file/...", 3);
Regex pattern
    $router->add(qr#/img/(.+\.jpg)#, 4);

$value can be any perl scalar

This method can be called at any time, URI::Router will recompile its DFA machine on the nearest route() call.

route($path, [$method = METHOD_GET])

Finds the most relevant route for the path and http method and returns the value associated with it or undef if no match is found.

If called in list context, additinaly returns all captured values for placeholders in simple pattern or capturing groups in regexps if any.

    my $router = URI::Router->new(
        "/user/*/info" => 1,
    );
    
    my $val = $router->route("/hello"); # undef
    my $val = $router->route("/user/123/info"); # $val = 1
    my ($val, @args) = $router->route("/user/123/info"); # $val = 1, @args = (123)

PERFORMANCE

URI::Router's performance is constant (only depends on the length of the path being tested). It doesn't matter how many routes there are even if all of them are regexps (actually, it translates all routes to regexps).

However, URI::Router finds paths that match static routes significantly faster (performance is constant).

Benchmark script can be found in "misc/bench.pl", it configures about 700 routes (static routes, with placeholders and regexps) and matches with 3 different paths.

Benchmark matching with static route "/social/v2/auth":

                        Rate http_router router_simple router_boom router_r3 (router_xs)* uri_router
    http_router        207/s          --          -94%       -100%     -100%        -100%      -100%
    router_simple     3319/s       1500%            --        -99%     -100%        -100%      -100%
    router_boom     455111/s     219329%        13614%          --      -68%         -95%       -97%
    router_r3      1442616/s     695447%        43372%        217%        --         -83%       -89%
    (router_xs)*   8738132/s    4212928%       263214%       1820%      506%           --       -35%
    uri_router    13467948/s    6493375%       405742%       2859%      834%          54%         --

Benchmark matching with pattern route with capture "/ai/scans/penalty/xx/ban" matching "/ai/scans/penalty/*/ban"

                       Rate http_router router_simple router_boom router_r3 (router_xs)* uri_router
    http_router       615/s          --          -94%       -100%     -100%        -100%      -100%
    router_simple   10960/s       1681%            --        -95%      -99%        -100%      -100%
    router_boom    236307/s      38300%         2056%          --      -82%         -94%       -96%
    router_r3     1279827/s     207872%        11578%        442%        --         -69%       -78%
    (router_xs)*  4095999/s     665500%        37274%       1633%      220%           --       -28%
    uri_router    5716536/s     928837%        52060%       2319%      347%          40%         --

Benchmark matching with regexp route "/shop/cart.php" mathing "/.+\.php" (only for those who can handle that)

                       Rate router_simple   router_boom     router_r3    uri_router
    router_simple    3258/s            --          -98%         -100%         -100%
    router_boom    183794/s         5541%            --          -90%          -98%
    router_r3     1787345/s        54757%          872%            --          -79%
    uri_router    8495407/s       260641%         4522%          375%            --

Tests were performed on AMD Ryzen 3970x

P.S.

(router_xs)*: Router::XS doesn't actually work and is completely useless and can't be used in production because it is buggy (it core dumps if any path segment is more than 32 bytes, or path segments count > 32), so that using it makes a huge security hole in your project. Also it returns incorrect captured args (not the ones that matched with "*"). Additionaly it can't handle overlapping routes, such as "/path/*" and "/path/foo"

Router::R3 is also not a stable product, it segfaults on duplicate paths and also do not accept the tested set of urls unless it is sorted alphabetically. Some regexps doesn't work at all (no matches were found) in Router::R3.

AUTHOR

Pronin Oleg <syber@crazypanda.ru>, Crazy Panda LTD

LICENSE

You may distribute this code under the same terms as Perl itself.