NAME

upf - Manipulate /etc/{passwd,shadow,group,gshadow} entries

VERSION

This document describes version 0.050 of upf (from Perl distribution App-upf), released on 2020-04-29.

SYNOPSIS

Usage:

 % upf add-delete-user-groups [--add-to-json=s] [--add-to=s+]
     [--config-path=path | -c] [--config-profile=profile | -P]
     [--delete-from-json=s] [--delete-from=s+] [--etc-dir=s]
     [--format=name] [--json] [--(no)naked-res] [--no-config | -C]
     [--no-env] [--page-result[=program]] <user>
 % upf add-group [--backup] [--config-path=path | -c]
     [--config-profile=profile | -P] [--etc-dir=s] [--format=name]
     [--gid=s] [--json] [--max-gid=s] [--members-json=s] [--members=s]
     [--min-gid=s] [--(no)naked-res] [--no-backup] [--no-config | -C]
     [--no-env] [--nobackup] [--page-result[=program]] <group>
 % upf add-user [--backup] [--config-path=path | -c]
     [--config-profile=profile | -P] [--encpass=s] [--etc-dir=s]
     [--expire-date=s] [--format=name] [--gecos=s] [--gid=s] [--group=s]
     [--home=s] [--json] [--last-pwchange=s] [--max-gid=s]
     [--max-pass-age=s] [--max-uid=s] [--min-gid=s] [--min-pass-age=s]
     [--min-uid=s] [--(no)naked-res] [--no-backup] [--no-config | -C]
     [--no-env] [--nobackup] [--page-result[=program]]
     [--pass-inactive-period=s] [--pass-warn-period=s] [--pass=s]
     [--shell=s] [--uid=s] <user>
 % upf add-user-to-group [--config-path=path | -c]
     [--config-profile=profile | -P] [--etc-dir=s] [--format=name] [--json]
     [--(no)naked-res] [--no-config | -C] [--no-env]
     [--page-result[=program]] <user> <group>
 % upf delete-group [--backup] [--config-path=path | -c]
     [--config-profile=profile | -P] [--etc-dir=s] [--format=name] [--json]
     [--(no)naked-res] [--no-backup] [--no-config | -C] [--no-env]
     [--nobackup] [--page-result[=program]] <group>
 % upf delete-user [--backup] [--config-path=path | -c]
     [--config-profile=profile | -P] [--etc-dir=s] [--format=name] [--json]
     [--(no)naked-res] [--no-backup] [--no-config | -C] [--no-env]
     [--nobackup] [--page-result[=program]] <user>
 % upf delete-user-from-group [--config-path=path | -c]
     [--config-profile=profile | -P] [--etc-dir=s] [--format=name] [--json]
     [--(no)naked-res] [--no-config | -C] [--no-env]
     [--page-result[=program]] <user> <group>
 % upf get-group [--config-path=path | -c] [--config-profile=profile | -P]
     [--etc-dir=s] [--format=name] [--gid=s] [--group=s] [--json]
     [--(no)naked-res] [--no-config | -C] [--no-env]
     [--page-result[=program]] [--with-field-names] [--without-field-names]
 % upf get-max-gid [--config-path=path | -c] [--config-profile=profile |
     -P] [--etc-dir=s] [--format=name] [--json] [--(no)naked-res]
     [--no-config | -C] [--no-env] [--page-result[=program]]
 % upf get-max-uid [--config-path=path | -c] [--config-profile=profile |
     -P] [--etc-dir=s] [--format=name] [--json] [--(no)naked-res]
     [--no-config | -C] [--no-env] [--page-result[=program]]
 % upf get-user [--config-path=path | -c] [--config-profile=profile | -P]
     [--etc-dir=s] [--format=name] [--json] [--(no)naked-res] [--no-config
     | -C] [--no-env] [--page-result[=program]] [--uid=s] [--user=s]
     [--with-field-names] [--without-field-names]
 % upf get-user-groups [--config-path=path | -c] [--config-profile=profile
     | -P] [--detail] [--etc-dir=s] [--format=name] [--json]
     [--(no)naked-res] [--no-config | -C] [--no-detail] [--no-env]
     [--nodetail] [--page-result[=program]] [--with-field-names]
     [--without-field-names] <user>
 % upf group-exists [--config-path=path | -c] [--config-profile=profile |
     -P] [--etc-dir=s] [--format=name] [--gid=s] [--group=s] [--json]
     [--(no)naked-res] [--no-config | -C] [--no-env]
     [--page-result[=program]]
 % upf is-member [--config-path=path | -c] [--config-profile=profile | -P]
     [--etc-dir=s] [--format=name] [--json] [--(no)naked-res] [--no-config
     | -C] [--no-env] [--page-result[=program]] <user> <group>
 % upf list-groups [--config-path=path | -c] [--config-profile=profile |
     -P] [--detail] [--etc-dir=s] [--format=name] [--json]
     [--(no)naked-res] [--no-config | -C] [--no-detail] [--no-env]
     [--nodetail] [--page-result[=program]] [--with-field-names]
     [--without-field-names]
 % upf list-users [--config-path=path | -c] [--config-profile=profile | -P]
     [--detail] [--etc-dir=s] [--format=name] [--json] [--(no)naked-res]
     [--no-config | -C] [--no-detail] [--no-env] [--nodetail]
     [--page-result[=program]] [--with-field-names] [--without-field-names]
 % upf list-users-and-groups [--config-path=path | -c]
     [--config-profile=profile | -P] [--detail] [--etc-dir=s]
     [--format=name] [--json] [--(no)naked-res] [--no-config | -C]
     [--no-detail] [--no-env] [--nodetail] [--page-result[=program]]
     [--with-field-names] [--without-field-names]
 % upf modify-group [--admins=s] [--backup] [--config-path=path | -c]
     [--config-profile=profile | -P] [--encpass=s] [--etc-dir=s]
     [--format=name] [--gid=s] [--json] [--members=s] [--(no)naked-res]
     [--no-backup] [--no-config | -C] [--no-env] [--nobackup]
     [--page-result[=program]] [--pass=s] <group>
 % upf modify-user [--backup] [--config-path=path | -c]
     [--config-profile=profile | -P] [--encpass=s] [--etc-dir=s]
     [--expire-date=s] [--format=name] [--gecos=s] [--gid=s] [--home=s]
     [--json] [--last-pwchange=s] [--max-pass-age=s] [--min-pass-age=s]
     [--(no)naked-res] [--no-backup] [--no-config | -C] [--no-env]
     [--nobackup] [--page-result[=program]] [--pass-inactive-period=s]
     [--pass-warn-period=s] [--shell=s] [--uid=s] <user>
 % upf set-user-groups [--config-path=path | -c] [--config-profile=profile
     | -P] [--etc-dir=s] [--format=name] [--json] [--(no)naked-res]
     [--no-config | -C] [--no-env] [--page-result[=program]] <user>
     <groups> ...
 % upf set-user-password [--backup] [--config-path=path | -c]
     [--config-profile=profile | -P] [--etc-dir=s] [--format=name] [--json]
     [--(no)naked-res] [--no-backup] [--no-config | -C] [--no-env]
     [--nobackup] [--page-result[=program]] <user> <pass>
 % upf user-exists [--config-path=path | -c] [--config-profile=profile |
     -P] [--etc-dir=s] [--format=name] [--json] [--(no)naked-res]
     [--no-config | -C] [--no-env] [--page-result[=program]] [--uid=s]
     [--user=s]

SUBCOMMANDS

add-delete-user-groups

Add or delete user from one or several groups.

This can be used to reduce several add_user_to_group() and/or delete_user_from_group() calls to a single call. So:

 add_delete_user_groups(user=>'u',add_to=>['a','b'],delete_from=>['c','d']);

is equivalent to:

 add_user_to_group     (user=>'u', group=>'a');
 add_user_to_group     (user=>'u', group=>'b');
 delete_user_from_group(user=>'u', group=>'c');
 delete_user_from_group(user=>'u', group=>'d');

except that add_delete_user_groups() does it in one pass.

add-group

Add a new group.

add-user

Add a new user.

add-user-to-group

Add user to a group.

delete-group

Delete a group.

delete-user

Delete a user.

delete-user-from-group

Delete user from a group.

get-group

Get group details by group name or gid.

Either group OR gid must be specified.

The function is not dissimilar to Unix's getgrnam() or getgrgid().

get-max-gid

Get maximum GID used.

get-max-uid

Get maximum UID used.

get-user

Get user details by username or uid.

Either user OR uid must be specified.

The function is not dissimilar to Unix's getpwnam() or getpwuid().

get-user-groups

Return groups which the user belongs to.

group-exists

Check whether group exists.

is-member

Check whether user is member of a group.

list-groups

List Unix groups in group file.

list-users

List Unix users in passwd file.

list-users-and-groups

List Unix users and groups in passwd/group files.

This is basically list_users() and list_groups() combined, so you can get both data in a single call. Data is returned in an array. Users list is in the first element, groups list in the second.

modify-group

Modify an existing group.

Specify arguments to modify corresponding fields. Unspecified fields will not be modified.

modify-user

Modify an existing user.

Specify arguments to modify corresponding fields. Unspecified fields will not be modified.

set-user-groups

Set the groups that a user is member of.

set-user-password

Set user's password.

user-exists

Check whether user exists.

OPTIONS

* marks required options.

Common options

--config-path=s, -c

Set path to configuration file.

--config-profile=s, -P

Set configuration profile to use.

--etc-dir=s

Specify location of passwd files.

Default value:

 "/etc"
--format=s

Choose output format, e.g. json, text.

Default value:

 undef
--help, -h, -?

Display help message and exit.

--json

Set output format to json.

--naked-res

When outputing as JSON, strip result envelope.

Default value:

 0

By default, when outputing as JSON, the full enveloped result is returned, e.g.:

    [200,"OK",[1,2,3],{"func.extra"=>4}]

The reason is so you can get the status (1st element), status message (2nd element) as well as result metadata/extra result (4th element) instead of just the result (3rd element). However, sometimes you want just the result, e.g. when you want to pipe the result for more post-processing. In this case you can use `--naked-res` so you just get:

    [1,2,3]
--no-config, -C

Do not use any configuration file.

--no-env

Do not read environment for default options.

--page-result

Filter output through a pager.

--subcommands

List available subcommands.

--version, -v

Display program's version and exit.

Options for subcommand add-delete-user-groups

--add-to-json=s

List of group names to add the user as member of (JSON-encoded).

See --add-to.

--add-to=s@

List of group names to add the user as member of.

Default value:

 []

Can be specified multiple times.

--delete-from-json=s

List of group names to remove the user as member of (JSON-encoded).

See --delete-from.

--delete-from=s@

List of group names to remove the user as member of.

Default value:

 []

Can be specified multiple times.

--user=s*

Options for subcommand add-group

--backup

Whether to backup when modifying files.

Backup is written with `.bak` extension in the same directory. Unmodified file will not be backed up. Previous backup will be overwritten.

--gid=s

Pick a specific new GID.

Adding a new group with duplicate GID is allowed.

--group=s*
--max-gid=s

Pick a range for new GID.

Default value:

 65535

If a free GID between `min_gid` and `max_gid` is not found, error 412 is returned.

--members-json=s

Fill initial members (JSON-encoded).

See --members.

--members=s

Fill initial members.

--min-gid=s

Pick a range for new GID.

Default value:

 1000

If a free GID between `min_gid` and `max_gid` is not found, error 412 is returned.

Options for subcommand add-user

--backup

Whether to backup when modifying files.

Backup is written with `.bak` extension in the same directory. Unmodified file will not be backed up. Previous backup will be overwritten.

--encpass=s

Encrypted password.

--expire-date=s

The date of expiration of the account, expressed as the number of days since Jan 1, 1970.

--gecos=s

Usually, it contains the full username.

--gid=s

Pick a specific GID when creating group.

Duplicate GID is allowed.

--group=s

Select primary group (default is group with same name as user).

Normally, a user's primary group with group with the same name as user, which will be created if does not already exist. You can pick another group here, which must already exist (and in this case, the group with the same name as user will not be created).

--home=s

User's home directory.

--last-pwchange=s

The date of the last password change, expressed as the number of days since Jan 1, 1970..

--max-gid=s

Pick a range for GID when creating group.

--max-pass-age=s

The number of days after which the user will have to change her password.

--max-uid=s

Pick a range for new UID.

Default value:

 65535

If a free UID between `min_uid` and `max_uid` is not found, error 412 is returned.

--min-gid=s

Pick a range for GID when creating group.

--min-pass-age=s

The number of days the user will have to wait before she will be allowed to change her password again.

--min-uid=s

Pick a range for new UID.

Default value:

 1000

If a free UID between `min_uid` and `max_uid` is not found, error 412 is returned.

--pass-inactive-period=s

The number of days after a password has expired (see max_pass_age) during which the password should still be accepted (and user should update her password during the next login).

--pass-warn-period=s

The number of days before a password is going to expire (see max_pass_age) during which the user should be warned.

--pass=s

Password, generally should be "x" which means password is encrypted in shadow.

--shell=s

User's shell.

--uid=s

Pick a specific new UID.

Adding a new user with duplicate UID is allowed.

--user=s*

Options for subcommand add-user-to-group

--group=s*
--user=s*

Options for subcommand delete-group

--backup

Whether to backup when modifying files.

Backup is written with `.bak` extension in the same directory. Unmodified file will not be backed up. Previous backup will be overwritten.

--group=s*

Options for subcommand delete-user

--backup

Whether to backup when modifying files.

Backup is written with `.bak` extension in the same directory. Unmodified file will not be backed up. Previous backup will be overwritten.

--user=s*

Options for subcommand delete-user-from-group

--group=s*
--user=s*

Options for subcommand get-group

--gid=s
--group=s
--without-field-names

By default, a hashref is returned containing field names and its values, e.g. `{group=>"titin", pass=>"x", gid=>500, ...}`. With `with_field_names=>0`, an arrayref is returned instead: `["titin", "x", 500, ...]`.

Options for subcommand get-user

--uid=s
--user=s
--without-field-names

By default, a hashref is returned containing field names and its values, e.g. `{user=>"titin", pass=>"x", uid=>500, ...}`. With `with_field_names=>0`, an arrayref is returned instead: `["titin", "x", 500, ...]`.

Options for subcommand get-user-groups

--detail

If true, return all fields instead of just group names.

--user=s*
--without-field-names

By default, when `detail=>1`, a hashref is returned for each entry containing field names and its values, e.g. `{group=>"titin", pass=>"x", gid=>500, ...}`. With `with_field_names=>0`, an arrayref is returned instead: `["titin", "x", 500, ...]`.

Options for subcommand group-exists

--gid=s
--group=s

Options for subcommand is-member

--group=s*
--user=s*

Options for subcommand list-groups

--detail

If true, return all fields instead of just group names.

--without-field-names

By default, when `detail=>1`, a hashref is returned for each entry containing field names and its values, e.g. `{group=>"titin", pass=>"x", gid=>500, ...}`. With `with_field_names=>0`, an arrayref is returned instead: `["titin", "x", 500, ...]`.

Options for subcommand list-users

--detail

If true, return all fields instead of just usernames.

--without-field-names

By default, when `detail=>1`, a hashref is returned for each entry containing field names and its values, e.g. `{user=>"titin", pass=>"x", uid=>500, ...}`. With `with_field_names=>0`, an arrayref is returned instead: `["titin", "x", 500, ...]`.

Options for subcommand list-users-and-groups

--detail

If true, return all fields instead of just names.

--without-field-names

Options for subcommand modify-group

--admins=s

It must be a comma-separated list of user names, or empty.

--backup

Whether to backup when modifying files.

Backup is written with `.bak` extension in the same directory. Unmodified file will not be backed up. Previous backup will be overwritten.

--encpass=s

Encrypted password.

--gid=s

Numeric group ID.

--group=s*

Group name.

--members=s

List of usernames that are members of this group, separated by commas.

--pass=s

Password, generally should be "x" which means password is encrypted in gshadow.

Options for subcommand modify-user

--backup

Whether to backup when modifying files.

Backup is written with `.bak` extension in the same directory. Unmodified file will not be backed up. Previous backup will be overwritten.

--encpass=s

Encrypted password.

--expire-date=s

The date of expiration of the account, expressed as the number of days since Jan 1, 1970.

--gecos=s

Usually, it contains the full username.

--gid=s

Numeric primary group ID for this user.

--home=s

User's home directory.

--last-pwchange=s

The date of the last password change, expressed as the number of days since Jan 1, 1970..

--max-pass-age=s

The number of days after which the user will have to change her password.

--min-pass-age=s

The number of days the user will have to wait before she will be allowed to change her password again.

--pass-inactive-period=s

The number of days after a password has expired (see max_pass_age) during which the password should still be accepted (and user should update her password during the next login).

--pass-warn-period=s

The number of days before a password is going to expire (see max_pass_age) during which the user should be warned.

--shell=s

User's shell.

--uid=s

Numeric user ID.

--user=s*

User (login) name.

Options for subcommand set-user-groups

--groups-json=s

List of group names that user is member of (JSON-encoded).

See --groups.

--groups=s@*

List of group names that user is member of.

Default value:

 []

Aside from this list, user will not belong to any other group.

Can be specified multiple times.

--user=s*

Options for subcommand set-user-password

--backup

Whether to backup when modifying files.

Backup is written with `.bak` extension in the same directory. Unmodified file will not be backed up. Previous backup will be overwritten.

--pass=s*
--user=s*

Options for subcommand user-exists

--uid=s
--user=s

COMPLETION

This script has shell tab completion capability with support for several shells.

bash

To activate bash completion for this script, put:

 complete -C upf upf

in your bash startup (e.g. ~/.bashrc). Your next shell session will then recognize tab completion for the command. Or, you can also directly execute the line above in your shell to activate immediately.

It is recommended, however, that you install modules using cpanm-shcompgen which can activate shell completion for scripts immediately.

tcsh

To activate tcsh completion for this script, put:

 complete upf 'p/*/`upf`/'

in your tcsh startup (e.g. ~/.tcshrc). Your next shell session will then recognize tab completion for the command. Or, you can also directly execute the line above in your shell to activate immediately.

It is also recommended to install shcompgen (see above).

other shells

For fish and zsh, install shcompgen as described above.

CONFIGURATION FILE

This script can read configuration files. Configuration files are in the format of IOD, which is basically INI with some extra features.

By default, these names are searched for configuration filenames (can be changed using --config-path): ~/.config/upf.conf, ~/upf.conf, or /etc/upf.conf.

All found files will be read and merged.

To disable searching for configuration files, pass --no-config.

To put configuration for a certain subcommand only, use a section name like [subcommand=NAME] or [SOMESECTION subcommand=NAME].

You can put multiple profiles in a single file by using section names like [profile=SOMENAME] or [SOMESECTION profile=SOMENAME] or [subcommand=SUBCOMMAND_NAME profile=SOMENAME] or [SOMESECTION subcommand=SUBCOMMAND_NAME profile=SOMENAME]. Those sections will only be read if you specify the matching --config-profile SOMENAME.

You can also put configuration for multiple programs inside a single file, and use filter program=NAME in section names, e.g. [program=NAME ...] or [SOMESECTION program=NAME]. The section will then only be used when the reading program matches.

Finally, you can filter a section by environment variable using the filter env=CONDITION in section names. For example if you only want a section to be read if a certain environment variable is true: [env=SOMEVAR ...] or [SOMESECTION env=SOMEVAR ...]. If you only want a section to be read when the value of an environment variable has value equals something: [env=HOSTNAME=blink ...] or [SOMESECTION env=HOSTNAME=blink ...]. If you only want a section to be read when the value of an environment variable does not equal something: [env=HOSTNAME!=blink ...] or [SOMESECTION env=HOSTNAME!=blink ...]. If you only want a section to be read when an environment variable contains something: [env=HOSTNAME*=server ...] or [SOMESECTION env=HOSTNAME*=server ...]. Note that currently due to simplistic parsing, there must not be any whitespace in the value being compared because it marks the beginning of a new section filter or section name.

List of available configuration parameters:

Common for all subcommands

 etc_dir (see --etc-dir)
 format (see --format)
 naked_res (see --naked-res)

Configuration for subcommand add-delete-user-groups

 add_to (see --add-to)
 delete_from (see --delete-from)
 user (see --user)

Configuration for subcommand add-group

 backup (see --backup)
 gid (see --gid)
 group (see --group)
 max_gid (see --max-gid)
 members (see --members)
 min_gid (see --min-gid)

Configuration for subcommand add-user

 backup (see --backup)
 encpass (see --encpass)
 expire_date (see --expire-date)
 gecos (see --gecos)
 gid (see --gid)
 group (see --group)
 home (see --home)
 last_pwchange (see --last-pwchange)
 max_gid (see --max-gid)
 max_pass_age (see --max-pass-age)
 max_uid (see --max-uid)
 min_gid (see --min-gid)
 min_pass_age (see --min-pass-age)
 min_uid (see --min-uid)
 pass (see --pass)
 pass_inactive_period (see --pass-inactive-period)
 pass_warn_period (see --pass-warn-period)
 shell (see --shell)
 uid (see --uid)
 user (see --user)

Configuration for subcommand add-user-to-group

 group (see --group)
 user (see --user)

Configuration for subcommand delete-group

 backup (see --backup)
 group (see --group)

Configuration for subcommand delete-user

 backup (see --backup)
 user (see --user)

Configuration for subcommand delete-user-from-group

 group (see --group)
 user (see --user)

Configuration for subcommand get-group

 gid (see --gid)
 group (see --group)
 with_field_names (see --without-field-names)

Configuration for subcommand get-max-gid

Configuration for subcommand get-max-uid

Configuration for subcommand get-user

 uid (see --uid)
 user (see --user)
 with_field_names (see --without-field-names)

Configuration for subcommand get-user-groups

 detail (see --detail)
 user (see --user)
 with_field_names (see --without-field-names)

Configuration for subcommand group-exists

 gid (see --gid)
 group (see --group)

Configuration for subcommand is-member

 group (see --group)
 user (see --user)

Configuration for subcommand list-groups

 detail (see --detail)
 with_field_names (see --without-field-names)

Configuration for subcommand list-users

 detail (see --detail)
 with_field_names (see --without-field-names)

Configuration for subcommand list-users-and-groups

 detail (see --detail)
 with_field_names (see --without-field-names)

Configuration for subcommand modify-group

 admins (see --admins)
 backup (see --backup)
 encpass (see --encpass)
 gid (see --gid)
 group (see --group)
 members (see --members)
 pass (see --pass)

Configuration for subcommand modify-user

 backup (see --backup)
 encpass (see --encpass)
 expire_date (see --expire-date)
 gecos (see --gecos)
 gid (see --gid)
 home (see --home)
 last_pwchange (see --last-pwchange)
 max_pass_age (see --max-pass-age)
 min_pass_age (see --min-pass-age)
 pass_inactive_period (see --pass-inactive-period)
 pass_warn_period (see --pass-warn-period)
 shell (see --shell)
 uid (see --uid)
 user (see --user)

Configuration for subcommand set-user-groups

 groups (see --groups)
 user (see --user)

Configuration for subcommand set-user-password

 backup (see --backup)
 pass (see --pass)
 user (see --user)

Configuration for subcommand user-exists

 uid (see --uid)
 user (see --user)

ENVIRONMENT

UPF_OPT => str

Specify additional command-line options.

FILES

~/.config/upf.conf

~/upf.conf

/etc/upf.conf

HOMEPAGE

Please visit the project's homepage at https://metacpan.org/release/App-upf.

SOURCE

Source repository is at https://github.com/perlancar/perl-App-upf.

BUGS

Please report any bugs or feature requests on the bugtracker website https://rt.cpan.org/Public/Dist/Display.html?Name=App-upf

When submitting a bug or request, please include a test-file or a patch to an existing test-file that illustrates the bug or desired feature.

AUTHOR

perlancar <perlancar@cpan.org>

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

This software is copyright (c) 2020, 2015 by perlancar@cpan.org.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.