lccnorm - normalize Library of Congress Classification call numbers
lccnorm [option...] [file...]
lccnorm transforms LC-style call numbers into a form that may be used in a straight ASCII sort.
By default, each line of input is assumed to consist of a number of tab-delimited fields, of which the first contains an LC-style call number or class.
If no file is specified, or if the file name
- is specified, standard input will be processed.
Normalization of call number ranges is a special challenge, because ranges are not normally specified using the exact endpoint. Consider the range
B708 does indicate the beginning point -- a no call number that comes before B 708 can fall within the range -- the end point is only a guide, not a strict limit, since the intent is that call numbers such as
B 713 .H94 and
B 713 .W55 L86 do fall within the range. Unfortunately, ranges are often specified ambiguously; for example, the call number
B 713.14 G92 might or might not be considered to fall within this range.
- -d, --delimiter string
Specify a string other than a single tab (ASCII character 9) to delimit the fields in a line of input. This also provides the default for joining fields in the output; see option -j below.
- -f, --field range
The call number (or range) is found in the given range of fields. Fields are 1-based (the first field is field 1, not field 0) and are separated by a single tab character (unless option -d is used to specify an alternate delimiter).
When parsing call numbers (not ranges), all fields are concatenated using a single space to form the call number that will be normalized.
When parsing ranges, there are four possibilities:
- 1 field
The field contains a range in the form prefix (e.g.,
J80), closed range (e.g.,
ML566-ML566.6) or half-open range (e.g.,
- 2 fields
The first field is the beginning of the (closed) range, and the second is the end.
- 3 fields
The first field is a prefix common to both the beginning and end of the range, and the second and third fields are the remainders.
- 4 fields
The first and third fields together are the beginning of the range, and the second and fourth are the end.
For example, the following all produce identical output:
$ echo 'PL4501-4509' | lccnorm -d: -f1 $ echo 'PL4501:PL4509' | lccnorm -d: -f1-2 $ echo 'PL:4501:4509' | lccnorm -d: -f1-3 $ echo 'PL:4501:PL:4509' | lccnorm -d: -f1-4
- -j, --join string
Specify a character to use when joining fields for output. The default is to use the same string specified in option -d, or a single tab if -d was not given.
Don't delete the input fields from which call numbers (or ranges) were obtained. Either the -b and -e option must be provided to specify where the normalized string is to be placed.
- -b, --begin
Place normalized strings at the beginning of output lines.
- -e, --end
Place normalized strings at the end of output lines.
- -D, --die-on-error
Exit with a non-zero status as soon as an unnormalizable input is encountered. The default is to issue a warning and normalize to the empty string.
- -v, --verbose
Be verbose. This currently has no effect unless used with the -V or --version option.
- -h, --help
Print help information and exit.
- -V, --version
Print the version number and exit. If the -v or --verbose option is specified, print out additional information.
- -M, --manual
View the manual page for lccnorm.
- -L, --license
View the license under which lccnorm is distributed.
Paul Hoffman (nkuitse AT nkuitse DOT com)
Copyright 2007 Paul M. Hoffman.
This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl:
the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 1, or (at your option) any later version;
the "Artistic License".
For the full text of these licenses, see the script file itself or enter the command lccnorm -L.