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Clinton Gormley


Elastic::Manual::Scoping - An optional in-memory cache, essential for keeping weak refs live


version 0.52


Scoping is an advanced topic - don't worry about Elastic::Model::Scope until you need it.

USES FOR Elastic::Model::Scope

Elastic::Model::Scope acts as an in-memory cache, and serves three futher purposes:

Keep weak-ref Elastic::Doc attributes alive

If you have a $post object which has a user attribute, and a $user object with a posts attribute, then you will want to make (eg) the $posts->user attribute a weak ref to avoid circular references.

But then you would have a problem:

    sub add_post_to_user {
        my ( $domain, $user_id, $content )= @_;
        my $user = $domain->get( user => $user_id );
        my $post = $domain->create(
            post => {
                content => $content,
                user    => $user;
        return $post;

    my $post = add_post_to_user($domain, 1234, 'my post content');

    print $post->user->name;
    # ERROR - user has disappeared!

Scopes keep all your doc class objects in scope, so that they don't disappear out from under you.

So this would work:

    my $post;
        my $scope = $model->new_scope;
        $post = add_post_to_user($domain, 1234, 'my post content');

        print $post->user->name;
        # Clint

    # $scope has now disappeared

    print $post->user->name;
    # ERROR - user has disappeared!

Reuse Elastic::Doc objects as singletons.

By default, each object is a singleton. For instance, if you do:

    my $foo = $domain->get( user => 123 );
    my $bar = $domain->get( user => 123 );

    print $bar->name;
    # Clint


    print $bar->name;
    # John

    print refaddr($foo) == refaddr($bar) ? 'TRUE' : 'FALSE';
    # TRUE

$foo and $bar are the same object.

Scopes allow you to reuse objects.

Multiple versions of Elastic::Doc objects live at the same time.

With any database, there are timing issues. Another process may change have changed user 123 between the first call to $domain->get and the second.

Also, because Elasticsearch has real time GET (ie if you retrieve a document by ID, you will get the latest version that exists) but NEAR real time search (search docs are refreshed only once every second, so may contain an older version of a doc), you could find yourself in this situation:

    $user = $domain->get(user => 123);
    print $user->name;
    # Clint

    print $user->uid->version;
    # 1


    print $user->uid->version;
    # 2

    $results = $domain->view->type('user')->queryb({ name => 'Clint' });
    # results contain user 123, version 1
    # even though version 2 no longer matches the search

Depending on your requirements, you may want the user 123 object in $results to be the same as it was in version 1 (eg so that the search results that you show the user make sense), or you may want to use the most up to date version (ie version 2).

Multiple scopes allow you have different versions of an object live at the same time.


Documents from search results are a bit special.

By default when we do a search in Elasticsearch, instead of just getting a UID back, we get back the whole object. Depending on timing, the version returned in search may be the same, older or newer than the version we have stored in our current scope.

We don't try to retrieve the object from the scope, because we already have everything we need to create it. But once we have created it, we do try to store it in the current scope:

Object is not in current scope

If an object with the same domain_name/type/id DOESN'T exist in the current scope, then we store the new object in the current scope and return it.

Object is in current scope

If an object with the same domain_name/type/id DOES exist in the current scope, then we compare versions: If the stored version is more recent than the new version, we return the stored object.

Otherwise, we try to update the stored object (and therefore any instances of it that already exist in your application) to the new version, but only if you haven't already looked at it! (You don't want your objects changing their values under you.)

If you have looked at the stored version, then we move it to another cache for safe keeping, and store and return the new version.

Note: "Looking" at an object means calling any accessor on any attribute that is stored in Elasticsearch. This does not include the "uid" in Elastic::Model::Role::Doc of the object.

Object is in current scope, but is deleted

    $scope_1 = $model->new_scope;
    $results = $domain->view->filterb( -ids => 1 )->search;

    $domain->delete( user => 1);

    print $results->first_object->name;
    # Throws error - deleted!

Tie objects to the current scope

The "current scope" for search results is the scope in place when the object is inflated (or accessed for the first time), not at the time the search is run.)

To ensure that the objects from search results are tied to a particular scope (eg the current scope), you can use:

    $results->slice_objects();      # inflates all objects in the current scope
    $results->slice_objects(0,10);  # inflates the first 10 objects

The inflated objects are cached in the $results object itself, so accessing the object later on will return the same object, even if you do:

    $object = $results->next_result->object;



Clinton Gormley <drtech@cpan.org>


This software is copyright (c) 2015 by Clinton Gormley.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.