PBS

PBS (Perl Build System) pronounced "peps".

Introduction

History

Authors

  • Nadim khemir. Teleca Mobile Technology.

  • Anders Lindgren. Anoto.

  • Ola Martensson. Cybercom.

Project Start

  • Problems at hand

  • Fundings

  • Sudden stop

Gmake's power

  • Has been around for 20 years

  • Found most everywhere

  • Free

  • Fast and small

  • Compact rule syntax

  • Rule based

Who is this man?


  • Nice hair cut

  • Nice beard

  • Nice tie

  • Evenly sized ears

  • Sympathetics look

Gmake's problems

  • Not for complex systems

    http://www.canb.auug.org.au/~millerp/rmch/recu-make-cons-harm.html

  • Cryptic syntax

  • Crippled script language

  • Unclear (too smart) evaluation points

  • Monolithic and notoriously difficult to maintain

  • Needs an on site guru

  • Not (easily) found on windows, which is the main platform used by developers (like it or not)

  • Various slightly incompatible version of 'make'

  • Some built-in rules which are best disabled (-r option) (from Xmake documentation)

  • Will not automatically detect source files, dependencies or create rules unless you write the makefiles to do these things. (from Xmake documentation)

Is make broken?

TMOWTDI

Whether it's because of shortcomings in "gmake", or simply because people want to try something new, lots of other build systems exists

Links:

http://www.cbel.com/build_management/

http://www.linuxlinks.com/Software/Programming/Development/Tools/Make_Tools/

Rule based systems

  CC = gcc
  
  CFLAGS = -Wall                          \
          -DG_DISABLE_DEPRECATED          \
          -DGDK_DISABLE_DEPRECATED        \
          -DGDK_PIXBUF_DISABLE_DEPRECATED \
          -DGTK_DISABLE_DEPRECATED
  
  ttt_test: tictactoe.o ttt_test.o
         $(CC) ttt_test.o tictactoe.o -o ttt_test `pkg-config --libs gtk+-2.0`
  
  ttt_test.o: ttt_test.c tictactoe.h
          $(CC) -c ttt_test.c -o ttt_test.o $(CFLAGS) `pkg-config gtk+-2.0 --cflags`
  
  tictactoe.o: tictactoe.c tictactoe.h
          $(CC) -c tictactoe.c -o tictactoe.o $(CFLAGS) `pkg-config gtk+-2.0 --cflags`
  
  clean:
          rm -f *.o ttt_test
  • Low level access

  • Detail over exposure

  • Simple for simple tasks

  • Often developed and maintained by the same person

"Smart" systems

  Import qw( CONS BIN );
  
  InstallAs $CONS "$BIN/byacc_Fs.exe", 'byacc.exe' ;
  
  $CONS->Program
                        (
                        'byacc.exe'
                        ,qw
                                (
                                closure.c
                                error.c
                                lalr.c
                                lr0.c
                                main.c
                                mkpar.c
                                output.c
                                reader.c
                                skeleton.c
                                symtab.c
                                verbose.c
                                warshall.c
                                )
                        ) ;
  • Let you think at a higher level

  • Hide the mundane details

  • Sell "their" way of doing things

  • Not easy to get into the details

http://www.dsmit.com/cons/stable/cons.html

Script language implementation anyone?

More and more systems use scripted languages, Ruby, Tcl, Python and Perl.

Many of the programs listed above use Perl.

  • make.pl (RIP)

  • Cons

  • Makepp

  • Otto

  • One or two modules on CPAN to handle dependencies

  • PBS

Army of darkness.

Trapped in time

Surrounded by evil

Low on gas

Introduction to pbs. pbs is PBS is Perl is PBS.

Goals

  • Be readable by a human (no XML)

  • Be understandable by a human (no gmake or home grown syntax)

  • Be easy to develop and extend (no C)

  • Be fun and powerful (Perl)

  • No 'veryclean' command

  • Low and High Level

  • No magic

  • Go where no one has gone before

    Trigger, Documentation, debugging, visualization, user help, ...

Result

  • PBS - Set of perl modules to implement build utilities.

  • pbs - one front end to PBS

  • pbs is a build utility in the same spirit as gmake.

  • pbs was developed to tackle the build of complex systems.

  • pbs neither tries to make the task easy nor fast but merely possible.

  • pbs is written in Perl and uses Perl exclusively for defining the system to build.

  • pbs has a full featured scripting language, Perl.

  • pbs only introduces a few new functions.

Architecture

  • Simple, expandable, manageable

  • Not reinvent the wheel

  • 3 passes architecture/Process

    1 Depend
    2 Check
    3 Build

Each pass is implemented in a separate module, giving you the ability to depend and check a system without building it or building it 'manually'.

  [nadim@khemir warp]$ pbs -tt -tno
  
  ** Depending [PBS/0] **
  Depending './b1'  with sub pbs 'W1:./warp1.pl'
     No user defined [W1] Build(), using DefaultBuild() with [BuiltIn, User] rules and [BuiltIn, User] configs.
     ** Depending [W1/1] **
  
  ** Checking **
  Tree for __PBS_warp_tree:
  `- ./all [H1]
     |- ./a1 [H2]
     |- ./a2 [H3]
     |- ./a3 [H4]
     |- ./b0 [H5]
     |- ./b1 [H6]
     |  |- ./c1 [H7]
     |  |  |- ./b0 [H8 -> H5]
     |  |  |- ./d1 [H9]
     |  |  |- ./f1.nad [H10]
     |  |  |- ./f2.nad [H11]
     |  |  |- ./f3.nad [H12]
     |  |  |- ./f4.nad [H13]
     |  |  `- ./f5.nad [H14]
     |  `- ./c2 [H15]
     |     `- ./d1 [H16 -> H9]
     |- ./b2 [H17]
     |- ./b3 [H18]
     `- ./source [H19]
  
  ** Building **
  Number of nodes in the dependency tree: 20.
  2 [0V] nodes scheduled for build.
  #------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Node './b1' [/home/nadim/Dev/PerlModules/PerlBuildSystem-0.25/Pbsfiles/warp/out/b1] :
  touch /home/nadim/Dev/PerlModules/PerlBuildSystem-0.25/Pbsfiles/warp/out/b1
  #------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Node './all' [/home/nadim/Dev/PerlModules/PerlBuildSystem-0.25/Pbsfiles/warp/out/all] :
  touch /home/nadim/Dev/PerlModules/PerlBuildSystem-0.25/Pbsfiles/warp/out/all
  Build Done.

Switch extravaganza

  [nadim@khemir pnw2004]$ pbs -h | wc -l
  PerlBuildSystem:
  
          PBS [-p Pbsfile[.pl]] [[-switch]...] target [target ...]
  
  switches:
      152

The switches can be categorized as follow:

  • Setup

    • Pbsfile

    • Repository

    • Defines

    • Verbosity

    • etc ..

  • Debugging

  • Visualization

More environment control

  • PRF

    • Anonymous prf (Pbs.prf)

    • User prf

     -nh
     -build_directory ./user_out
     
     -sd .
     -sd $NAILARA
     
     all
  • PBS_FLAGS

  • PBS_LIB_PATH

Pbsfile

Pbsfiles are package 'less' perl scripts. Pbsfile can have any name you operating system supports.

If no Pbsfile is given on the command line, pbs will try:

  • Pbsfile.pl

  • pbsfile.pl

  • Pbsfile

  • pbsfile

If no Pbsfile.pl is found, pbs exits with an error message.

Evaluation order

  • Pbsfiles being perl scripts, they follow the order of evaluation any perl script follows.

    • code is parsed by perl

    • modules are loaded and compiled

    • code is evaluated

  • After perl evaluation, the build engine takes over

Fiddling with namespaces

You write Pbfiles as package less scripts but PBS fiddles with you file.

Original:

  AddRule [VIRTUAL], 'all', ['all' => 'file.o:1.0', 'file2.o:1.0'], "echo hi" ;

Modified:

  #>>>>> start of file '/home/nadim/Dev/PerlModules/PerlBuildSystem-0.25/pnw2004/examples/package_fiddle.pl'
  
  #line 0 '/home/nadim/Dev/PerlModules/PerlBuildSystem-0.25/pnw2004/examples/package_fiddle.pl'
  package PBS::Runs::PBS_1 ;
  use strict ;
  use warnings ;
  use PBS::Constants ;
  use PBS::Shell ;
  use PBS::Output ;
  use PBS::Rules ;
  use PBS::Triggers ;
  use PBS::PostBuild ;
  use PBS::PBSConfig ;
  use PBS::Config ;
  use PBS::Check ;
  use PBS::PBS ;
  use PBS::Digest;
  PBS::Digest::AddFileDependencies('PBSFILE:/home/nadim/Dev/PerlModules/PerlBuildSystem-0.25/pnw2004/examples/package_fiddle.pl') ;
  
  
  #line 1 '/home/nadim/Dev/PerlModules/PerlBuildSystem-0.25/pnw2004/examples/package_fiddle.pl'
  AddRule [VIRTUAL], 'all', ['all' => 'file.o:1.0', 'file2.o:1.0'], "echo hi" ;
  
  
  
  # load OK
  1 ;
  
  #<<<<< end of file '/home/nadim/Dev/PerlModules/PerlBuildSystem-0.25/pnw2004/examples/package_fiddle.pl'
  • makes a package of your Pbsfile

  • use strict and warnings

  • use many of the PBS modules

  • Adds a package dependency

  • sync the line numbering

  • returns success

PBS is Rule based

  AddRule [VIRTUAL], 'all', ['all' => 'ds_master.pdf'], BuildOk("Done.");
  
  AddRule 'tex2pdf', ['*.pdf' => '*.tex'],
      '/usr/in/tex2pdf %FILE_TO_BUILD %DEPENDENCY_FILES' ;
  
  AddRule 'master', ['ds_master.tex' => @tex], \&BuildMaster;

Rule Components:

  • Type

  • Rule name

  • Depender

  • Builder

  • Arguments

PBS is, obviously, not compatibility with gmake. And that's good!

Dependers

Cumulative dependers

If multiple rules match a node/file, the sum of the dependencies returned by matching dependers will become the node/file dependencies.

  AddRule 'o_c', ['*.o' => '*.c'] ;
  AddRule 'o_s', ['*.o' => '*.s'] ;

are used on file compress.o, the dependers would generate the following dependencies: compress.c and compress.s.

gmake is, IMO, too magical in its way of handling your rules. I don't mean it is wrong but that it simply doesn't fit the pbs way of generating dependencies.

 Node './nailara/os/rtos/rtos.objects' [/devel/nailara/projects/argus2_test/nadim_out/nailara/os/rtos/rtos.objects] :
   Inserted at /devel/nailara/os/rtos/Pbsfile.pl [rtos]:__ROOT:PBS::Runs::rtos_1:BuiltIn:PBS_INTERNAL_/usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.0/PBS/PBS.pm:253.
   dep:
   ./nailara/os/rtos/rtos.o [/devel/nailara/projects/argus2_test/nadim_out/nailara/os/rtos/rtos.o]
   ./nailara/os/rtos/irq.o [/devel/nailara/projects/argus2_test/nadim_out/nailara/os/rtos/irq.o]
   ./nailara/os/rtos/critical.o [/devel/nailara/projects/argus2_test/nadim_out/nailara/os/rtos/critical.o]
   ./nailara/os/rtos/reset.o [/devel/nailara/projects/argus2_test/nadim_out/nailara/os/rtos/reset.o]
   ./nailara/os/rtos/device.o [/devel/nailara/projects/argus2_test/nadim_out/nailara/os/rtos/device.o]
   ./nailara/os/rtos/context.o [/devel/nailara/projects/argus2_test/nadim_out/nailara/os/rtos/context.o]
   ./nailara/os/rtos/exceptions.o [/devel/nailara/projects/argus2_test/nadim_out/nailara/os/rtos/exceptions.o]
   ./nailara/os/rtos/irq_asm.o [/devel/nailara/projects/argus2_test/nadim_out/nailara/os/rtos/irq_asm.o]
   ./nailara/os/rtos/os_init_argus2.o [/devel/nailara/projects/argus2_test/nadim_out/nailara/os/rtos/os_init_argus2.o]
   ./nailara/os/rtos/exceptions_asm.o [/devel/nailara/projects/argus2_test/nadim_out/nailara/os/rtos/exceptions_asm.o]
   
  rebuild because of:
        __SELF (Doesn't exist)
 
 matching rule: #6[B] 'Object file list:PBS::Runs::rtos_1:User:/devel/nailara/Pbs/Rules/BuildSystem.pm:52'
    => none
    
 matching rule: #7 'Object_files_0 @ '/devel/nailara/os/rtos/Pbsfile.pl':17 :PBS::Runs::rtos_1:User:/devel/nailara/Pbs/Rules/BuildSystem.pm:139'
    => ./nailara/os/rtos/rtos.o ./nailara/os/rtos/irq.o ./nailara/os/rtos/critical.o ./nailara/os/rtos/reset.o ./nailara/os/rtos/device.o ./nailara/os/rtos/context.o ./nailara/os/rtos/exceptions.o ./nailara/os/rtos/irq_asm.o
    
 matching rule: #8 'Object_files_1 @ '/devel/nailara/os/rtos/Pbsfile.pl':29 :PBS::Runs::rtos_1:User:/devel/nailara/Pbs/Rules/BuildSystem.pm:139'
    => ./nailara/os/rtos/os_init_argus2.o
    
 matching rule: #9 'Object_files_2 @ '/devel/nailara/os/rtos/Pbsfile.pl':70 :PBS::Runs::rtos_1:User:/devel/nailara/Pbs/Rules/BuildSystem.pm:139'
    => ./nailara/os/rtos/exceptions_asm.o
 
 Using builder: #6 'Object file list:PBS::Runs::rtos_1:User:/devel/nailara/Pbs/Rules/BuildSystem.pm:52'

Depender Anatomy

A depender is a perl sub.

  sub Depender
  {
  my ($dependent_to_check, $config, $tree, $inserted_nodes, $dependencies, $builder_override, $argument_override) = @_ ;
  
  my $build_directory    = $tree->{__PBS_CONFIG}{BUILD_DIRECTORY} ;
  my $source_directories = $tree->{__PBS_CONFIG}{SOURCE_DIRECTORIES} ;
  
  my @my_dependencies ;
  
  if(defined $dependencies && @$dependencies && $dependencies->[0] == 1 && @$dependencies > 1)
          {
          # previous depender defined dependencies
          unshift @my_dependencies, $dependencies->[1 .. -1] ;
          }
  
  unshift @my_dependencies, 1 ;
  
  return(\@my_dependencies, $builder_override, $argument_override) ;
  }
  • Dependers are chained

  • Dependers are powerful

  • Depender can be very complex

Simplified Depender

A depender is a perl sub but we can build the sub in different ways.

AddRule to the rescue

  AddRule 'a.o_rule name',
        ['a.o' => \&SpecialDepender], ...
  
  AddRule 'a.o_rule name',
        ['a.o' => 'a.c', '/path/file', \&SpecialDepender], ...
        
  AddRule 'a.o_rule name',
        ['a.o' => 'a.c', '/path/file'], ...
 
  AddRule 'r4', ['a.h' => '[path]/[basename].[ext]'] ; # this is cyclic of course.

globbing

  AddRule 'r1', ['*/*.c' => '*.h'] ;
  
  AddRule 'r2', ['*/*.c' => 'somefile'] ;
  
  AddRule 'r3', ['*/*.c' => '/full_path/somefile'] ;

Generating your own depender subs

Enough! Give me perl back!

If the dependent regexp is a regexp object or a sub, PBS (AddRule) considers the rule to be a pure perl rule.

  AddRule 'rule_1', [qr<\./all$> => '$path/muu/all', '$path/f1', '$path/a.o', '$path/muu/xxxxx.o'] ;
  
  AddRule 'rule_2', [qr<\.o$> => '$path/$basename.c'] ;
  
  AddRule 'rule_3', 
        [       # creator
                [sub{return(@_[4 .. 6])}] =>            
                
                 #regexp
                 AndMatch(qr<\.c$>, NoMatch(qr/xx/)) => 
                                 
                                #dependencies
                                
                                  '$path/$basename.h' 
                                  
                                , [ # post depender
                                        sub
                                                {
                                                return([1, "hi_there2"], @_[5 .. 6])
                                                }
                                  ]
                                  
                                , sub #depender
                                        {
                                        return([1, "hi_there1"], @_[5 .. 6])
                                        }
        ] ;
  • Available variables:

    • $path

    • $basename

    • $name

    • $ext

  • Composite match

  [nadim@khemir pnw2004]$ pbs -p ../Pbsfiles/pure_perl_rule/Pbsfile.pl -tta -tt -tno all
    ...  
  ** Checking **
  Tree for __PBS_root_1_pbs_.._Pbsfiles_pure_perl_rule_Pbsfile.pl:
  `- ./all [H1]
     |- ./a.o [H2]
     |  `- ./a.c [H3]
     |     `- hi_there2 [H4]
     |- ./f1 [H5]
     |- ./muu/all [H6]
     `- ./muu/xxxxx.o [H7]
        `- ./muu/xxxxx.c [H8]

Builders

Single shell command:

  AddRule 'rule_name',  ['X' => 'x1', 'x2'], "touch %FILE_TO_BUILD" ;

Perl sub:

  AddRule [VIRTUAL], 'rule_name', ['test' => 'all'], sub{ 1, "test OK\n"} ;

Alternatively define your builders in a perl module.

  use YourModule ;
  #or
  PbsUse 'YourPbsModule' ;
  
  AddRule 'rule_name',  ['X' => 'x1', 'x2'], \&YourBuilder ;

Multiple commands:

  AddRule [VIRTUAL], 'test', ['test' => 'all'],
        [
        "touch %FILE_TO_BUILD", # hmm!
        sub{ 1, "test OK\n"} ;
        ]

Variable interpolation

  AddRule 'c_objects', [ '*.o' => '*.c' ],
        '%CC %CFLAGS -c -o %FILE_TO_BUILD %DEPENDENCY_LIST' ;

BuildOK

  AddRule [VIRTUAL], '1', [ 'test' => 'b'], BuildOk('Done', 1) ;

Argument to builder

The last argument passed to AddRules is passed as an argument to the builder.

  AddRule 'o_c', ['*.o' => '*.c'], \&BuildAnObject ;

It is up to the builder to interpret the argument (a scalar that can point to other perl types if you want it to). The argument to builder allows to do something special on a specific node. For example, you'd like to compile a specific C file with a -O2 switch to the compiler. You could use the following rules:

  # General rule to build object file
  AddRule 'o_c', ['*.o' => '*.c'], \&BuildAnObject ;
  
  #specific rule 
  AddRule 'special_o_file', ['special_file.o' => 'special_file.c'], undef, '-O2';

All the .o files will be generated by BuildAnObject builder. When building 'special_file.o', BuildAnObject will be passed the argument '-O2'.

What arguments are passed to the builders?

The last defined argument for a node/file is passed to the builder. PBS will warn you if multiple arguments are selected.

Re-using rules: PbsUse

PBS having no built-in rules, it would be cumbersome to have to redefine the rules you use in all the Pbsfiles. PBS support in include mechanism that looks like perl's 'use'l. PbsUse takes the name of a file which contains rules or configuration variables definitions.

 File '.../Rules/C.pm':
  AddRule 'exe', [exe => undef], \&BuildAnExe ;
  AddRule 'O_to_C', ...
  AddRule 'C_to_H', ...
  ...

You can then include it in you Pbsfile.

  PbsUse('Rules/C') ; 

PbsUse will automatically append '.pm' at the end of the file name. If the file can't be found in the same directory as the Pbsfile, the environment variable PBS_LIB_PATH will be used to point to the directories where the files are to be searched.

Meta rules

 AddRule 'c_objects', [ '*/*.o' => '*.c' ], ...
 AddRule 'cpp_objects', [ '*/*.o' => '*.cpp' ], ...
 AddRule 's_objects', [ '*/*.o' => '*.s' ], ...
 
 AddRuleTo 'BuiltIn', [META_RULE], 'o_cs_meta',
        [\&FirstAndOnlyOneOnDisk, ['cpp_objects', 'c_objects', 's_objects'], 'c_objects'] ;

When you define the above 'o_meta' rule, PBS removes the slave rules from it's rule list (in the current package only). FirstAndOnlyOneOnDisk will be called with a reference to the slaves rules as arguments. This allows you to define your own 'magic'. FirstAndOnlyOneOnDisk source code can be found in the distribution.

Built-in Rules void

NO BUILT-IN RULES!

Unlike other build systems, PBS doesn't define any Built-in rule. It is very easy to define and use libraries of rules. Those become your Built-in rules.

Why?

  • PBS team doesn't own a crystal ball

  • No rule collisions (except yours)

  • No magic (except yours)

What about my C files?

Rules

file://home/nadim/Dev/PerlModules/PerlBuildSystem-0.25/PBSLib/Rules/C.pm

Automatic dependencies

  • In Nailara, Rules/C_depender.pm implements a C file depender.

 Depending './nailara/os/rtos/rtos.objects'  with sub pbs 'rtos:/devel/nailara/os/rtos/Pbsfile.pl'
 
 Generating '/devel/nailara/os/rtos/critical.c' dependency file
 './nailara/os/rtos/critical.c' Includes:
 |- /devel/nailara/hal/argus2/argus2.h [H1]
 |  `- /devel/nailara/hal/pagetable.h [H2]
 |     `- /devel/nailara/hal/argus2/pagetable/pagetable.h [H3]
 |- /devel/nailara/hal/argus2/cp15.h [H4]
 |- /devel/nailara/hal/argus2/cpu.h [H5]
 |  |- /devel/nailara/hal/argus2/argus2.h [H6 -> H1]
 |  `- /devel/nailara/hal/argus2/cp15.h [H7 -> H4]
 |- /devel/nailara/hal/argus2/pagetable/pagetable.h [H8 -> H3]
 |- /devel/nailara/hal/cpu.h [H9]
 |  `- /devel/nailara/hal/argus2/cpu.h [H10 -> H5]
 |- /devel/nailara/hal/pagetable.h [H11 -> H2]
 |- /devel/nailara/os/rtos/critical.h [H12]
 |- /devel/nailara/os/rtos/prios.h [H13]
 `- /devel/nailara/os/rtos/rtos.h [H14]
    `- /devel/nailara/os/rtos/prios.h [H15 -> H13]

digest file

file://devel/nailara/projects/argus2_test/nadim_out/nailara/os/rtos/critical.c.depend

Dynamic rules definition

  • Remove rules

  • Replace rules

     AddRule 'gnu asm stubs', [ '*/*.o' => '*.stub' ],
        "%CC -x assembler-with-cpp %CFLAGS %CDEFINES %CFLAGS_INCLUDE -I%PBS_REPOSITORIES -o %FILE_TO_BUILD -c %DEPENDENCY_LIST" ;
            
     ReplaceRule [META_RULE], 'o_cs_meta', [\&FirstAndOnlyOneOnDisk, ['c_objects', 'gnu asm stubs'] , 'gnu asm stubs'] ;
  • create rules at run time

Configuration

Adding configuration to your Pbsfile:

  • AddConfig

  • AddConditionalConfig

    • ConfigVariableNotDefined

    • ConfigVariableEmpty

    • ConfigVariableNotDefinedOrEmpty

  • Environment variables

  • Commend line variables

  AddConfig 'a' => 1 ;
  AddConfig 'a' => 2 ;
  
  AddConfig 'b:locked' => 1 ;
  AddConfig 'b' => 2 ;

Gives this when run:

  [nadim@khemir pnw2004]$ pbs -p ../Pbsfiles/config/lock.pl -tta all
  No source directory! Using '/home/nadim/Dev/PerlModules/PerlBuildSystem-0.25/pnw2004'.
  No Build directory! Using '/home/nadim/Dev/PerlModules/PerlBuildSystem-0.25/pnw2004'.
  Overriding config 'PBS::Runs::PBS_1::CURRENT::User::a' it is now:
  |- ORIGIN [A1]
  |  |- 0 [S2] = PBS::Runs::PBS_1:'../Pbsfiles/config/lock.pl':14 => 1
  |  `- 1 [S3] = PBS::Runs::PBS_1:'../Pbsfiles/config/lock.pl':15 => 2
  `- VALUE [S4] = 2
  Configuration variable 'b' defined at PBS::Runs::PBS_1:'../Pbsfiles/config/lock.pl':18, wants to override locked variable:
  PBS::Runs::PBS_1::CURRENT::User::b:
  |- LOCKED [S1] = 1
  |- ORIGIN [A2]
  |  `- 0 [S3] = PBS::Runs::PBS_1:'../Pbsfiles/config/lock.pl':17 => 1
  `- VALUE [S4] = 1
  Died at /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.0/PBS/Config.pm line 409.
          ...propagated at /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.8.0/PBS/PBS.pm line 483.

Run Example:

  time pbs -p ../Pbsfiles/config/force.pl -dc all

Nodes

Node type

  • VIRTUAL

  • LOCAL

  • FORCED

  • IMMEDIATE_BUILD

Note attributes

  AddRule 'object1',['object.o' => 'object.c:4.2.0'] ;

You can give attributes to the nodes, the attribute is declare by following the node name with a colon and a textual attribute (see the example bellow). When PBS finds such an attribute, it calls a user sub registrated via RegisterUserCheckSub. The user sub receives the following arguments:

  • The full name for the node (path and name)

  • The attribute declared in the rule

The sub should return a file full name (path/name) this is most often the first argument it receives, or die with an error message. The node attribute could be used to, for example, verify the version of a node.

Attributes checker

  RegisterUserCheckSub
  (
  sub
        {
        my ($full_name, $user_attribute) = @_ ;
        #print "$full_name => $user_attribute\n" ;
        return($_[0]) ; # must return a file name
        }
  ) ;

Cyclic dependencies

  AddRule 'all', [ all => '1', '2', 'cyclic'] ;
  
  AddRule 'cyclic',  [cyclic => 'cyclic2'] ;
  AddRule 'cyclic2', [cyclic2 => 'cyclic3'] ;
  AddRule 'cyclic3', [cyclic3 => 'cyclic'] ;

Example 2:

  AddRule 'test1', ['all' => 'HERE', 'A'] ;
  AddRule 'test2', ['HERE' => 'x.z'] ;
  AddRule 'test3', ['A' => 'x.z'] ;
  AddRule 'test4', ['this.lib' => 'HERE', 'lib.z'] ;
  AddRule 'test5', ['all' => 'lib.h', 'HERE'] ;
  AddRule 'test6', ['x.z' => 'all'] ;
  AddRule 'test7', ['lib.h' => 'HERE'] ;

Run example:

  time pbs -p ../Pbsfiles/test1/cyclic.pl all and with -o and -dd switch
  • Only one cycle is show n in the generated graph!

  • Devel::Cycle is good

Repositories

  • Using --source_directory or --sd, you can direct PBS to search for files in other source directories than the current directory.

  • You can specify multiple --sd switches.

  • PBS will search the directories in the order you specify them.

finding out what PBS found out

 example in /devel/nailara/projects/argus2_test
 try -dsd -dsi -daa

Separating source from output

Using --build_directory, you can have PBS place the generated files in a directory different from the current directory. This allows you to separate your source files from the generated files.

Default directories

If no build or source directory is specified, PBS will use the current directory. If you specify source directories, PBS will search exclusively in the specified directories. The current directory is not searched. If you want the current directory and other directories to be searched, you must specify the current directory too.

When no default build and/or source directory is given, pbs will display an information line.

 No source directory! Using '/devel/nailara/projects/argus2_test'.
 No Build directory! Using '/devel/nailara/projects/argus2_test'.
 No user defined [PBS] Build(), using DefaultBuild() with [BuiltIn, User] rules and [BuiltIn, User] configs.
 ** Depending [PBS/0] **
   Depending './nailara/nailara.objects'  with sub pbs 'NAILARA:/devel/nailara/Pbsfile.pl'
  • Debugging without rebuilding the world

  • --mandatory_build_directory and user PRF

Hierarchical builds

Rule definition for sub dependencies

Within a pair of matching curly braquets'{}', list:

  • The node name

  • The Pbsfile name.

  • 2 The Package name (the sub package in which to run the sub build).

  • 3 Optional. Extra variables you would like to set in the sub depend

  AddRule 'sub_depend',
        {
           NODE_REGEX => 'x.lib'
         , PBSFILE  => './P2.pl'
         , PACKAGE => 'LIB'
         , BUILD_DIRECTORY => '/bd_P2'
         , SOURCE_DIRECTORIES=> ['/sd_P2_2', '/sd_P2_1']
         } ;

Subpbsfiles are Pbsfiles.

Rules

No rule Inheritance. Period!

show example with -dur in any nailara project

Configuration

When PBS starts a sub Pbsfile, PBS pushes (merges) the the parent configuration in the child Pbs. This is done automatically by PBS just before calling the child Build() sub or the default Build() sub.

Magnus Ladulås

Magnus Ladulås, hertig, kung av Sverige 1275-1290, född 1240, död 18 december 1290 på Visingsö.

http://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnus_Ladulås

Configuration variable attributes

  • LOCKED

  • UNLOCKED

  • FORCE

  • OVERRIDE_PARENT

  • LOCAL

  • SILENT_OVERRIDE

 [nadim@khemir PerlBuildSystem-0.25]$pbs -p Pbsfiles/config/parent.pl -no_build -tt -tno -dc -dpos parent

Overriding

  • Overriding a file

  • Overriding a Pbsfile

 /devel/nailara
 |-- Pbs
 |-- communication
 |-- ...
 |-- hal
 |   |-- argus
 |   |-- argus2
 |   |-- arguslt
 |   |-- drivers
 |   `-- pcb
 |       |-- arguslt
 |       |-- olympus
 |       |-- olympus2
 |       |   |-- P1
 |       |   `-- bootinfo-headers
 |       |       `-- testprograms
 |       `-- olympuslt
 |-- ...
 |-- projects
 |   |-- gdb_example
 |   |   |-- nadim_out
 |   |   |   `-- nailara
 |   |   |       |-- hal
 |   |   |       |   |-- argus
 |   |   |       |   |   `-- pagetable
 |   |   |       |   |-- drivers
 |   |   |       |   |   |-- nand
 |   |   |       |   |   `-- uart
 |   |   |       |   `-- pcb
 |   |   |       |       `-- olympus
 |   |   |       `-- os
 |   |   |           |-- debug
 |   |   |           |-- fs
 |   |   |           |   |-- nandfs
 |   |   |           |   `-- vfs
 |   |   |           |-- mem
 |   |   |           |   `-- poolheap
 |   |   |           |-- rtos
 |   |   |           `-- utils
 |   |   `-- nailara
 |   |       |-- hal
 |   |       |   `-- pcb
 |   |       |       |-- nadim
 |   |       |       `-- xxolympus
 |   |       `-- os
 |   |           `-- mem
 |   |               `-- poolheap
 |   `-- usbmass_demo
 `-- utils

(pbs -bi '*Bitmap*')

(./gdb_example/nailara/hal/pcb/xxPbsfile.pl)

Digest

PBS automatically generates digests when a node is build. Time Stamps are ignored(*).

The digest contains the following elements:

1 The md5 of the Pbsfile that generated it
2 The md5 of the files that have been included through PbsUse
3 Any element you have specified through the Add...Dependencies functions
4 The md5 of the node's dependencies
5 The md5 of the generated node

If all the elements needed to build the node are found in the file's digest, PBS uses it, otherwise the node is rebuild.

PBS will expects a digest for all nodes/files. We have to tell PBS how to make the difference between a generated file and a source file.

ExcludeFromDigestGeneration() allows you to exempt a certain type of files from the digest.

  ExcludeFromDigestGeneration('c_files' => qr/\.c$/) ;

The first argument is a description string, the second one a reference to a regexp object. Node names matching the regexp will be exempted.

Some source files are automatically generated (ex by flex, yacc, your own generators, ...), ForceDigestGeneration() can selectively re-impose a digest on a certain file that would have been exempted by ExcludeFromDigestGeneration.

  ForceDigestGeneration( 'a.c is generated' => qr/a\.c$/) ;

Example of PBS generated digest:

  # This file is automaticaly generated by PBS (Perl Build System).
  
  # File: /devel/nailara/projects/argus2_test/nadim_out/main.o.pbs_md5
  # Date: Tue Mar  9 20:34:25 2004 
  # User: nadim @ khemir.net
  # PBS_LIB_PATH: /home/nadim/Dev/PerlModules/PerlBuildSystem-0.25/PBSLib/:/devel/nailara/Pbs/:/devel/nailara
  # Pbsfile: ./Pbsfile.pl
  
  $digest = {
             './main.o' => 'dc74f3b18b88e845027a683a68c88cbb',
             '__NODE_VARIABLE:CDEFINES' => ' -DARCH_OLYMPUS2=1 -DARGUS2=1 -DCPU_ARGUS2=1 -DEXCEPTION_BASE=0x06000000 -DKERNEL=1 -DKHEAP_32BIT_POOL=1 -DKHEAP_SIZE=0x20000 -DPROC_MAX_PROCESSES=16 -DPROC_QUANTUM=1000000 -DROBASE=0x06000000 -DROBASE_PHYS=0x06000000 -DRWBASE=0x06100000 -DRWBASE_PHYS=0x06100000 -DRWLIMIT=0x08000000',
             '__PBS_LIB_PATH/Builders/HostedBuilder.pm' => '080bac06fe0fc6338ccd64f6c02a75cb',
             '__PBS_LIB_PATH/projects/argus2_test/Config.pm' => '28dc45bf0943c1a97745de98ba82b8b6',
             '__PBS_LIB_PATH/Configs/Projects/Nailara.pm' => 'c85daa008b4d5eb2abbbff59abf5d6ca',
             '__PBS_LIB_PATH/Configs/Compilers/gcc.pm' => '680336b56f1a9614a270114e3a03a6c9',
             '__PBS_LIB_PATH/Dependers/Locator.pm' => '1695797f4dea0a29cd755606daf7af2b',
             '__PBS_LIB_PATH/ShellConfig.pm' => '6cc04b44ec134dca90b6eddd13716550',
             '__PBS_LIB_PATH/Rules/Nailara.pm' => 'ee2642a484fd63dcd657cdd9c2bc13e8',
             './main.c' => '912c52d714d2edf8aa0d43601390ae7b',
             '__PBS_LIB_PATH/Rules/C.pm' => '9a3e1eeef74aa887e723a1e6135ba876',
             '__PBS_LIB_PATH/Configs/Compilers/compiler.pm' => 'ab5c5fba23b3b45f30bae03ac206e72f',
             '__PBS_LIB_PATH/Rules/C_depender.pm' => 'deadefe169fa3ecb947d6211d796c5a2',
             '__PBS_LIB_PATH/Configs/ConfigureProject.pm' => '6f692d3717eccef03452b3ac1882e2ce',
             '__PBSFILE' => '425fbf4ed9c8e7f3034b6e0acde50e71',
             '__PBS_LIB_PATH/MetaRules/FirstAndOnlyOneOnDisk.pm' => 'edc87f9805eec8a7dd61f33a70e770d0',
             '__PBS_LIB_PATH/Rules/BuildSystem.pm' => '353e53811d6c757bae8f654b95fbae11'
              };

Tuning digests

AddFileDependencies() : PBS will compute an md5 for each file in the list you pass as argument and add it to the digest.

AddEnvironementDependencies(): PBS will add each environment variable you name in the list passed as argument. If the environment variable is not set, PBS will add the variable to the digest and give it the empty string value.

AddSwitchDependencies() : : PBS will add the variables and their values to the digest. Only Defined (-D) and User Defines (-u) can be added.

  AddSwitchDependencies('-D*') ; # depend on all command line defines 
  AddSwitchDependencies('-u*') ; # depend on all user variables from the command line
  AddSwitchDependencies('-u something', '-D debug', -D clean) ; # add only the given variables to the digest

AddVariableDependency() : This allows you to insert a variable name and it's value into the digest. For example, this could be used if you are cross compiling for an embedded platform from different OSes. The cross compilers would have different md5 on the OSes, so you can't add the cross compiler through AddFileDependencies().

  my $compiler_version = GetCompilerNameAndVersion(...) ;
  AddVariableDependency('compiler_version' => $compiler_version) ;

Fine granularity control

  AddNodeFileDependencies(qr/^.\/z0$/, 'pbs.html') ;
  AddNodeFileDependencies(qr/c/, 'pbs.pod') ;
  AddNodeVariableDependencies(qr/c/, 'a' => 1, 'b' => '2') ;

What's not in the digest?

Cross Compilation

PBS can log into a remote computer through SSH or Telnet and execute a specific command.

  use PBS::Shell_SSH ;
  PbsUse('Builders/HostedBuilder') ;
  
  my $shell =  new PBS::Shell_SSH
                (
                  HOST_NAME        => 'localhost'
                , USER_NAME        => 'nadim'
                #~ , PROTOCOL         => 1 # default is SSH2
                #~ , REUSE_CONNECTION => 1
                ) ;
  
  AddConfig  C_COMPILER_HOST => $shell ;
                
  PbsUse('Rules/C') ;
  PbsUse('Configs/gcc') ;
  
  AddRule [VIRTUAL], 'all', ['*/all' => qw(source.o source2.o source3.o)], BuildOk() ;

In Rules/C:

 $c_compiler_host = GetConfig('C_COMPILER_HOST') ;
 
 AddRuleTo 'BuiltIn', 'c_objects', [ '*/*.o' => '*.c' ]
  , HostedBuilder
    (
     'c_objects'
    , $c_compiler_host
    , "%CC %CFLAGS %CDEFINES %CFLAGS_INCLUDE -I%PBS_REPOSITORIES -o %FILE_TO_BUILD -c %DEPENDENCY_LIST" 
    ) ;

Parallel build

IThreads

PBS didn't work nice with IThreads.

  • PBS loads many modules

  • The monolitic data structure of PBS takes times to copy

The net result was a systemt was much (order of magnitudes) faster with a single thread.

Using fork while waiting for low level threads

Low level threads with synchronisation responsibility placed on the application would be PBS favorit solution. In the mean time an experimental implementation using fork has been started.

Triggers

Trigger is a sytem to allow the current build to hook into other dependency trees. This can be used to (for example) synchronize libraries. the details are located in the library Pbsfile.

file://home/nadim/Dev/PerlModules/PerlBuildSystem-0.25/Pbsfiles/trigger/Pbsfile.pl

file://home/nadim/Dev/PerlModules/PerlBuildSystem-0.25/Pbsfiles/trigger/trigger.pl

Other possible uses

  • Simultaneous variant build

  • Post build Commands

     AddPostBuildCommand 'post build', ['all', 'a', 'b'], \&PostBuildCommandTest, 'hi' ;
     
     sub PostBuildCommandTest
     {
     my ($config, $name, $dependencies, $triggered_dependencies, $argument, $node) = @_ ;
     
     ...
     
     return(1, "PostBuildCommandTest OK.") ;
     }
  • Using PBS from PBS

    file://home/nadim/Dev/PerlModules/PerlBuildSystem-0.25/Pbsfiles/frontend

Boilerplate wizardry

  [nadim@khemir PerlBuildSystem-0.25]$ tree PBSLib/
  PBSLib/
  |-- Builders
  |-- Configs
  |-- Dependers
  |-- MetaRules
  |-- Rules
  |-- UserBuild
  `-- Wizards
      |-- Breakpoint.pl
      |-- BuilderSub.pl
      |-- SimpleDependerSub.pl
      |-- StandardPbsfile.pl
      |-- Subpbs.pl
      |-- menu.pl
      `-- template.pl

file://devel/nailara/Pbs/Wizards/nailara_project.pl

file:///devel/nailara/Pbs/Wizards/nailara.pl

 pbs -w nailara

Documenting your build system

Let there be POD!

Sensible output

Coloring (PBS and User)

  • PrintError

  • PrintWarning or PrintWarning2

  • PrintInfo or PrintInfo2

  • PrintUser

  • PrintShell

  • PrintDebug

Colors for these functions can be defined through the command line or PBS_FLAGS. The "depend" step is indented. Output from user is also indented.

Verbosity control

  [nadim@khemir PerlBuildSystem-0.25]$ pbs -hs v
  v|verbosity=s: Used in user defined modules.

-- verbose is not used by PBS. It is intended for user defined modules.

I recommend to use the following settings:

0 Completely silent (except for errors)
1 Display what is to be done
2 Display serious warnings
3 Display less serious warnings
4 Display display more information about what is to be done
5 Display detailed information
6 Not defined (yet)
7 Debug information level 1
8 Debug information level 2
9 All debug information
'string' => user defined verbosity level (ex 'my_module_9')

Multiple verbosity switches can be given, they are store in {__PBS_CONFIG}{ VERBOSITY}.

Coloring output from gcc

C-Tech build system uses colorgcc. http://www.mindspring.com/~jamoyers/software/colorgcc/

Taking control (if you dare)

User Build()

PBS is a three pass sytem.

  • You can take over after any pass you'd like to

  • With some work you can even fiddle with the build sequence

Using default Build():

 pbs -p Pbsfiles/user_build/user_build.pl -no_user_build -tt -tno -fb -no_digest x.lib

Using your own Build():

 pbs -p Pbsfiles/user_build/user_build.pl -tt -tno -no_digest -dbsno x.lib

The dreaded ARM compiler

Enter 'miners'

 Rules ...
 Rules ...
  
 #-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 PbsUse('UserBuild/BuildSequenceMiner') ;
 PbsUse('UserBuild/Multiple_O_Compile') ;
 
 sub Build
 {
 my ($build_result, $build_message) = BuildSequenceMiner
                        (
                          [@_]
                        , [\&Multiple_O_Compile]
                        ) ;
                        
 PrintInfo("Build done.\n") ;
 
 return($build_result, $build_message) ;
 }

Let's build!

 [nadim@khemir argus2_test]$ time pbs
  • uses PRF

  • verbose

  • speed

Ananova - Wife pays man salary to keep quiet.

Pbs offers switches to lower output verbosity.

  • No header: -nh

  • No step info: -nsi

  • Silent command: -sc

  • Silent command output: -sco

  • No build header: -nbh

  • Silent depend info: -sdi

Debugging

One PBS requirements was to help the PBsfile writer to find errors in the build system he defines. PBS has an army of switches to help you get insight in how the dependency tree is constructed.

Simple stuff takes you a long way

  • -display_pbsuse

  • -display_used_rules_name_only

  • -display_config

  • -display_dependencies, -a and -display_dependencies_regex

  • -text_tree and tree_node_triggered_reason

  • -display_build_sequence

When things get stubborn.

  • -display_search_info

  • -display_rules -display_used_rules and -display_rule_definition

  • -display_dependency_regex

  • -display_digest

  • -f

  • -ni, -bi and -bni

  • -o

Logging

  • -create_log

  • -dump

Serious Visualization

How did I get there?

file://home/nadim/Dev/PerlModules/PerlBuildSystem-0.25/snapshots/00000.png

Debugging Hooks

Hooks

  #DEBUG HOOK (see PBS::Debug)
  my %debug_data = 
        (
          TYPE                   => 'BUILD'
        , CONFIG                 => $file_tree->{__CONFIG}
        , NODE_NAME              => $file_tree->{__NAME}
        , NODE_BUILD_NAME        => $build_name
        , DEPENDENCIES           => \@dependencies
        , TRIGGERED_DEPENDENCIES => \@triggered_dependencies
        , ARGUMENTS              => \$arguments
        , NODE                   => $file_tree
        ) ;
        
  #DEBUG HOOK, jump into perl debugger is so asked
  $DB::single = 1 if(PBS::Debug::CheckBreakpoint(%debug_data, PRE => 1)) ;

Breakpoints

 AddBreakpoint
        (
          'hi'
        , DEPEND => 1
        , PRE => 1
        #~ , USE_DEBUGGER => 1
        #~ , ACTIVE => 1
        , ACTIONS =>
                [
                sub
                        {
                        PrintDebug "Hi there.\n" ;
                        }
                ]
        ) ;

types:

  • DEPEND

  • INSERT

  • TREE

  • BUILD

  • POST_BUILD

  • Sub types

    • PRE

    • POST

    • TRIGGERED

filters :

  • RULE_REGEX

  • NODE_REGEX

  • PACKAGE_REGEX

  • PBSFILE_REGEX

Using the perl debugger

Take us to Warp 1 Mr Sulu

PBS takes 6 seconds, in a test project, to do nothing vs 0.2 for gmake. OK, gmake doesn't do what PBS does but for the day to day work, 6 seconds are just too much!

Optimizing

  • We already try to not write unoptimal code

  • *Optimizing research code is a non sense

  • Optimizing is long and dificult

  • A day of optimizing work saved 1 second! (a single line of code)

Warp!

 [nadim@khemir argus2_test]$ rm nadim_out/nisse/nisse.o
 [nadim@khemir argus2_test]$ time pbs -warp

Warp, is it possible?

http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/PAO/warp.html

Warp 2?

What can be done to run faster?

  • Caching perl code generated by Pbsfiles

  • Partial sub tree regeneration

  • Parallel depend step

  • Build in the background while editing

  • <Your crazy ideas here>

Peeping at the code

  • size

  • number of modules

  • used modules

     Cwd.pm 2.06
     Devel/Cycle.pm 1.01
     Devel/Size.pm 0.58
     Digest/MD5.pm 2.27
     File/Basename.pm 2.71
     File/Copy.pm 2.05
     File/MkTemp.pm 1.0.6
     File/Path.pm 1.05
     Getopt/Long.pm 2.32
     List/Util.pm 1.07
     Pod/Parser.pm 1.13
     Scalar/Util.pm 1.07
     Term/ANSIColor.pm 1.05
     Term/Size.pm 0.2
     Text/Balanced.pm 1.95
     Text/Tabs.pm 98.112801
     Text/Wrap.pm 2001.0929
     Tie/Hash.pm 1.00
     Tie/IxHash.pm 1.21
     Time/HiRes.pm 1.2

Future development

Problems with PBS

  • License

  • OO/ re-entrency

  • Documentation / tests

  • Energy/ideas

So what's next?

  • Find people interrested in PBS

  • Release

  • The fun stuff

    • Parallel build

    • Distributed build in heterogene environment

    • Clustering

    • Configuration management

    • Centralized build point (web)

    • Warp 2

    • Distributed Pbsfiles

    • Tackle bigger build projects

    • Optimize code

    • More Perlishness

    • <Your ideas here>

Contact: nadim@khemir.net.

112 POD Errors

The following errors were encountered while parsing the POD:

Around line 2:

Unknown directive: =slide

Around line 16:

Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

Around line 122:

You forgot a '=back' before '=head1'

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

Around line 194:

Expected '=item *'

Around line 206:

Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

Around line 328:

Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

Around line 885:

Unknown directive: =slide

Around line 909:

Unknown directive: =slide

Around line 929:

Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

Around line 960:

Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

Around line 1029:

Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

Around line 1246:

Can't have a 0 in =over 0

Around line 1256:

Unknown directive: =slide

Around line 1270:

Expected '=item *'

Around line 1272:

Expected '=item *'

Around line 1300:

Non-ASCII character seen before =encoding in 'Ladulås--------------------------------------------------'. Assuming ISO8859-1

Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Expected '=item *'

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

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Unknown directive: =slide

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Can't have a 0 in =over 0

Around line 2102:

Unknown directive: =slide

Around line 2108:

Can't have a 0 in =over 0

Around line 2123:

Can't have a 0 in =over 0