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NAME

Module::Install - Standalone, extensible Perl module installer

VERSION

This document describes version 0.42 of Module::Install, released December 11, 2005.

SYNOPSIS

In your Makefile.PL: (Recommended Usage)

    # Load the Module::Install bundled in ./inc/
    use inc::Module::Install;
    
    # Name of your distribution
    name            'Your-Module';

    # Get most of the details from the primary module
    all_from        'lib/Your/Module.pm';

    # Modules that this distribution depend on
    requires        'Carp';
    requires        'File::Spec' => '0.80';

    # Modules needed for building and testing
    build_requires  'Test::More' => '0.42';

    # Optional module dependencies
    recommends      'Your::OtherModule' => '0.01';
    
    # Auto-installs all dependencies from CPAN.
    # You want to use this most of the time, especially
    # if you use the 'recommend' or 'feature' commands
    auto_install;
    
    # Generate the Makefile
    WriteAll;

Quickly upgrade a legacy ExtUtil::MakeMaker installer:

    # Drop-in replacement to ExtUtils::MakeMaker
    use inc::Module::Install;
    WriteMakefile( ... );

A dummy Build.PL so we can work with Module::Build as well:

    # Dear Distribution Packager. This use of require is intentional. 
    # Module::Install detects Build.PL usage and acts accordingly.
    require 'Makefile.PL';

DESCRIPTION

Module::Install is a package for writing installers for CPAN distributions that are clean, simple and minimalistic, act in a strictly correct manner with both the ExtUtils::MakeMaker and Module::Build build systems, and run on any Perl installation version 5.004 or newer.

The intent is to make it as easy as possible for CPAN authors (and especially for first-time CPAN authors) to have installers that follow all the best practices for distribution installation, but involve as much DWIM (Do What I Mean) as possible when writing them.

Writing Module::Install Installers

The quickest way to get started with Module::Install is simply to cut and paste the "SYNOPSIS" from above and create your Makefile.PL using it, when modify the file to suit your particular case using the list of commands documented in "COMMANDS" below.

If all you want to do is write an installer, go do that now. You don't really need the rest of this description unless you are interested.

How it Works

The motivation behind Module::Install is that distributions need to interact with a large number of different versions of Perl module installers (primarily CPAN.pm, CPANPLUS.pm, ExtUtils::MakeMaker and Module::Build) which have greatly varying feature and bug profiles.

For example, the CPAN.pm version shipped with Perl 5.005 is now 5+ years old and considered highly buggy, yet it still exists on quite a number of legacy machines. Rather than try to target one specific installer and/or make you add twisty workaround expressions to your code, Module::Install will copy part of itself into each module distribution it creates.

This allows new improvements to be used regardless of the age of the system a distribution is being installed to, at the cost of a very small increase in the size of your module distribution.

History

This module was originally written as a smart drop-in replacement for ExtUtils::MakeMaker by Brian Ingerson.

For more information, see Brian's Creating Module Distributions with Module::Install in June 2003 issue of The Perl Journal (http://www.tpj.com/issues/).

For a lot more information, and some personal opinions on the module and its creation, see Module::Install-Philosophy.

COMMANDS

The following are the most common commands available for use in an installer.

name

The name command is a compulsory (and generally the first) command.

It provides the name of your distribution, which for a module like Your::Module would normally be Your-Module.

all_from

For most simple/standard Perl distributions that feature one dominant module/class as the base, you can get the most Do What I Mean functionality by using the all_from command, which will try to extract as much metadata as possible from the Perl and POD in the module itself.

WriteAll

The WriteAll command is generally the last command; it writes out META.yml and Makefile so the user can type make install.

EXTENSIONS

All extensions belong to the Module::Install::* namespace, and inherit from Module::Install::Base. There are three categories of extensions:

Standard Extensions

Methods defined by a standard extension may be called as plain functions inside Makefile.PL; a corresponding singleton object will be spawned automatically. Other extensions may also invoke its methods just like their own methods:

    # delegates to $other_extension_obj->method_name(@args)
    $self->method_name(@args);

At the first time an extension's method is invoked, a POD-stripped version of it will be included under the inc/Module/Install/ directory, and becomes fixed -- i.e., even if the user had installed a different version of the same extension, the included one will still be used instead.

If the author wish to upgrade extensions in inc/ with installed ones, simply run perl Makefile.PL again; Module::Install determines whether you are an author by the existence of the inc/.author/ directory. End-users can reinitialize everything and become the author by typing make realclean and perl Makefile.PL.

Private Extensions

Those extensions take the form of Module::Install::PRIVATE and Module::Install::PRIVATE::*.

Authors are encouraged to put all existing Makefile.PL magics into such extensions (e.g. Module::Install::PRIVATE for common bits; Module::Install::PRIVATE::DISTNAME for functions specific to a distribution).

Private extensions should not to be released on CPAN; simply put them somewhere in your @INC, under the Module/Install/ directory, and start using their functions in Makefile.PL. Like standard extensions, they will never be installed on the end-user's machine, and therefore never conflict with other people's private extensions.

Administrative Extensions

Extensions under the Module::Install::Admin::* namespace are never included with the distribution. Their methods are not directly accessible from Makefile.PL or other extensions; they are invoked like this:

    # delegates to $other_admin_extension_obj->method_name(@args)
    $self->admin->method_name(@args);

These methods only take effect during the initialization run, when inc/ is being populated; they are ignored for end-users. Again, to re-initialize everything, just run perl Makefile.PL as the author.

Scripts (usually one-liners in Makefile) that wish to dispatch AUTOLOAD functions into administrative extensions (instead of standard extensions) should use the Module::Install::Admin module directly. See Module::Install::Admin for details.

Module::Install comes with several standard extensions:

Module::Install::AutoInstall

Provides auto_install() to automatically fetch and install prerequisites via CPANPLUS.pm or CPAN.pm, specified either by the features metadata or by method arguments.

Module::Install::Base

The base class of all extensions, providing new, initialized, admin, load and the AUTOLOAD dispatcher.

Module::Install::Build

Provides &Build->write to generate a Module::Build compliant Build file, as well as other Module::Build support functions.

Module::Install::Bundle

Provides bundle, bundle_deps and bundle_all, allowing you to bundle a CPAN distribution within your distribution. When your end-users install your distribution, the bundled distribution will be installed along with yours, unless a newer version of the bundled distribution already exists on their local filesystem.

Module::Install::Fetch

Handles fetching files from remote servers via FTP and HTTP.

Module::Install::Include

Provides the include($pkg) function to include pod-stripped package(s) from @INC to inc/, and the auto_include() function to include all modules specified in build_requires,

Also provides the include_deps($pkg) function to include every non-core modules needed by $pkg, and the auto_include_deps() function that does the same thing as auto_include(), plus all recursive dependencies that are subsequently required by modules in build_requires.

Module::Install::Inline

Provides &Inline->write to replace Inline::MakeMaker's functionality of making (and cleaning after) Inline-based modules.

However, you should invoke this with WriteAll( inline = 1 )> instead.

Module::Install::MakeMaker

Simple wrapper class for ExtUtils::MakeMaker::WriteMakefile.

Module::Install::Makefile

Provides &Makefile->write to generate a ExtUtils::MakeMaker compliant Makefile; preferred over Module::Install::MakeMaker. It adds several extra make targets, as well as being more intelligent at guessing unspecified arguments.

Module::Install::Makefile::Name

Guess the distribution name.

Module::Install::Makefile::Version

Guess the distribution version.

Module::Install::Metadata

Provides &Meta->write to generate a YAML-compliant META.yml file, and &Meta->read to parse it for &Makefile, &Build and &AutoInstall to use.

Module::Install::PAR

Makes pre-compiled module binary packages from blib, and download existing ones to save the user from recompiling.

Module::Install::Run

Determines if a command is available on the user's machine, and run external commands via IPC::Run3.

Module::Install::Scripts

Handles packaging and installation of scripts, instead of modules.

Module::Install::Win32

Functions related for installing modules on Win32, e.g. automatically fetching and installing nmake.exe for users that need it.

Module::Install::WriteAll

This extension offers WriteAll, which writes META.yml and either Makefile or Build depending on the name of the invoked program.

WriteAll takes four optional named parameters:

check_nmake (defaults to true)

If true, invokes functions with the same name.

inline (defaults to false)

If true, invokes &Inline->write instead of &Makefile->write.

meta (defaults to true)

If true, writes a META.yml file.

sign (defaults to false)

If true, invokes functions with the same name.

Module::Install also comes with several administrative extensions:

Module::Install::Admin::Find

Functions for finding extensions, installed packages and files in subdirectories.

Module::Install::Admin::Manifest

Functions for manipulating and updating the MANIFEST file.

Module::Install::Admin::Metadata

Functions for manipulating and updating the META.yml file.

Module::Install::Admin::ScanDeps

Handles scanning for non-core dependencies via Module::ScanDeps and Module::CoreList.

Please consult their own POD documentations for detailed information.

METHODS

import(@args)

If this module was not loaded from inc/, calls the init method of Module::Install::Admin to include and reload itself; see "Bootstrapping" in Module::Install::Admin for details.

Otherwise, export a default AUTOLOAD handler to the caller's package.

The @args array is passed to new to intialize the top-level Module::Install object; it should usually be left empty.

autoload()

Returns an AUTOLOAD handler bound to the caller package.

new(%args)

Constructor, taking a hash of named arguments. Usually you do not want change any of them.

call($method, @args)

Call an extension method, passing @args to it.

load($method)

Include and load an extension object implementing $method.

load_extensions($path, $top_obj)

Loads all extensions under $path; for each extension, create a singleton object with _top pointing to $top_obj, and populates the arrayref $self->{extensions} with those objects.

load_extensions($path)

Returns an array of [ $file_name, $package_name ] for each extension module found under $path and its subdirectories.

FAQ

What are the benefits of using Module::Install?

Here is a brief overview of the reasons:

    Does everything ExtUtils::MakeMaker does.
    
    Requires no installation for end-users.
    
    Generate stock Makefile.PL for Module::Build users.
    
    Guaranteed forward-compatibility.
    
    Automatically updates your MANIFEST.
    
    Distributing scripts is easy.
    
    Include prerequisite modules (even the entire dependency tree).
    
    Auto-installation of prerequisites.
    
    Support for Inline-based modules.
    
    Support for precompiled PAR binaries.

Besides, if you maintain more than one CPAN modules, chances are there are duplications in their Makefile.PL, and also with other CPAN module you copied the code from. Module::Install makes it really easy for you to abstract away such codes; see the next question.

How is this different from its predecessor, CPAN::MakeMaker?

According to Brian Ingerson, the author of CPAN::MakeMaker, their difference is that Module::Install is sane.

Also, this module is not self-modifying, and offers a clear separation between standard, private and administrative extensions. Therefore writing extensions for Module::Install is easier -- instead of tweaking your local copy of CPAN/MakeMaker.pm, just make your own Modula::Install::PRIVATE module, or a new Module::Install::* extension.

SEE ALSO

  L<Module::Install-Philosophy>
  L<inc::Module::Install>
  
  L<Module::Install::AutoInstall>
  L<Module::Install::Base>
  L<Module::Install::Bundle>
  L<Module::Install::Build>
  L<Module::Install::Directives>
  L<Module::Install::Fetch>
  L<Module::Install::Include>
  L<Module::Install::MakeMaker>
  L<Module::Install::Makefile>
  L<Module::Install::Makefile::CleanFiles>
  L<Module::Install::Makefile::Name>
  L<Module::Install::Makefile::Version>
  L<Module::Install::Metadata>
  L<Module::Install::PAR>
  L<Module::Install::Run>
  L<Module::Install::Scripts>
  L<Module::Install::Win32>
  L<Module::Install::WriteAll>
  
  L<Module::Install::Admin>
  L<Module::Install::Admin::Bundle>
  L<Module::Install::Admin::Find>
  L<Module::Install::Admin::Include>
  L<Module::Install::Admin::Makefile>
  L<Module::Install::Admin::Manifest>
  L<Module::Install::Admin::Metadata>
  L<Module::Install::Admin::ScanDeps>
  L<Module::Install::Admin::WriteAll>
  
  L<CPAN::MakeMaker>
  L<Inline::MakeMaker>
  L<ExtUtils::MakeMaker>
  L<Module::Build>

AUTHORS

Brian Ingerson <INGY@cpan.org>

Autrijus Tang <autrijus@autrijus.org>

COPYRIGHT

Copyright 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005 by Adam Kennedy <cpan@ali.as> Autrijus Tang <autrijus@autrijus.org>, Brian Ingerson <ingy@cpan.org>.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

See http://www.perl.com/perl/misc/Artistic.html

2 POD Errors

The following errors were encountered while parsing the POD:

Around line 370:

'=item' outside of any '=over'

Around line 394:

You forgot a '=back' before '=head1'