++ed by:
BESSARABV ANTIPASTA ROBINS JOHNYJH GETTY

18 PAUSE users
13 non-PAUSE users.

Chris Thompson
and 1 contributors

NAME

Net::Twitter - Perl interface to twitter.com

VERSION

This document describes Net::Twitter version 2.12

SYNOPSIS

   #!/usr/bin/perl

   use Net::Twitter;

   my $twit = Net::Twitter->new({username=>"myuser", password=>"mypass" });

   my $result = $twit->update({status => "My current Status"});

   my $twit->credentials("otheruser", "otherpass");

   my $result = $twit->update({status => "Status for otheruser"});

   my $result = $twitter->search('Albi the racist dragon');

   foreach my $tweet (@{ $results }) {
     my $speaker =  $tweet->{from_user};
     my $text = $tweet->{text};
     my $time = $tweet->{created_at};
     print "$time <$speaker> $text\n";
   }

    my $steve = $twitter->search('Steve');
    $twitter->update($steve .'? Who is steve?');

DESCRIPTION

http://www.twitter.com provides a web 2.0 type of ubiquitous presence. This module allows you to set your status, as well as review the statuses of your friends.

You can view the latest status of Net::Twitter on it's own twitter timeline at http://twitter.com/net_twitter

METHODS AND ARGUMENTS

Listed below are the methods available through the object.

Please note that any method that takes a hashref as an argument must be called in the form:

    $twit->method({arg => "value"});

    and not

    $twit->method(arg => "value");

If the curly brackets around the arguments are missing, the code which implements the convenience methods allowing you to specify a single argument as a string will interpret "arg" as your argument.

new(...)

You must supply a hash containing the configuration for the connection.

Valid configuration items are:

username

Username of your account at twitter.com. This is usually your email address. "user" is an alias for "username". REQUIRED.

password

Password of your account at twitter.com. "pass" is an alias for "password" REQUIRED.

useragent

OPTIONAL: Sets the User Agent header in the HTTP request. If omitted, this will default to "Net::Twitter/$Net::Twitter::Version (Perl)"

useragent_class

OPTIONAL: An LWP::UserAgent compatible class, e.g., LWP::UserAgent::POE. If omitted, this will default to LWP::UserAgent.

useragent_args

OPTIONAL: A hashref passed to this option will be passed along to the UserAgent new() call to specify its configuration. This will pass to whatever class is passed in useragent_class, if any. See the POD for LWP::UserAgent for details.

NOTE: Any value passed in this hashref for "agent" will be overwritten. If setting the useragent is necessary, use the useragent option to new()

no_fallback

OPTIONAL: If a useragent_class is specified but fails to load, the default behavior is to warn and fall back to using regular LWP::UserAgent. If no_fallback is set to a boolean true value, the new method will cause the code to die

source

OPTIONAL: Sets the source name, so messages will appear as "from <source>" instead of "from web". Defaults to displaying "Perl Net::Twitter". Note: see Twitter FAQ, your client source needs to be included at twitter manually.

This value will be a code which is assigned to you by Twitter. For example, the default value is "twitterpm", which causes Twitter to display the "from Perl Net::Twitter" in your timeline.

Twitter claims that specifying a nonexistant code will cause the system to default to "from web". If you don't have a code from twitter, don't set one.

clientname

OPTIONAL: Sets the X-Twitter-Client-Name: HTTP Header. If omitted, this defaults to "Perl Net::Twitter"

clientver

OPTIONAL: Sets the X-Twitter-Client-Version: HTTP Header. If omitted, this defaults to the current Net::Twitter version, $Net::Twitter::VERSION.

clienturl

OPTIONAL: Sets the X-Twitter-Client-URL: HTTP Header. If omitted, this defaults to http://www.net-twitter.info.

apiurl

OPTIONAL. The URL of the API for twitter.com. This defaults to http://twitter.com/ if not set.

apihost
apirealm

OPTIONAL: If you do point to a different URL, you will also need to set apihost and apirealm so that the internal LWP can authenticate.

apihost defaults to www.twitter.com:80.

apirealm defaults to Twitter API.

identica

OPTIONAL: Passing a true value for identica to new() will preset values for apiurl, apirealm and apihost which will point at the http://identi.ca twitter compatible API.

All methods in Net::Twitter work as documented, except where listed in the identica/laconica documentation at:

http://laconi.ca/trac/wiki/TwitterCompatibleAPI

For simplicity, you can also use Net::Identica in your script instead of Net::Twitter, which will default to identica being set to true.

twittervision

OPTIONAL: If the twittervision argument is passed with a true value, the module will enable use of the http://www.twittervision.com API. If enabled, the show_user method will include relevant location data in its response hashref. Also, the update_twittervision method will allow setting of the current location.

skip_arg_validation

OPTIONAL: Beginning in 2.00, Net::Twitter will validate arguments passed to the various API methods, flagging required args that were not passed, and discarding args passed that do not exist in the API specification. Passing a boolean True for skip_arg_validation into new() will skip this validation process entirely and allow requests to proceed regardless of the args passed. This defaults to false.

die_on_validation

OPTIONAL: In the event that the arguments passed to a method do not pass the validation process listed above, the default action will be to warn the user, make the error readable through the get_error method listed below, and to return undef to the caller. Passing a boolean true value for die_on_validation to new() will change this behavior to simply executing a die() with the appropriate error message. This defaults to false.

arrayref_on_error

OPTIONAL: By default any methods which find an error, whether from twitter or from bad args, will return undef. Passing arrayref_on_error as a boolean TRUE to new() will cause all error states to return an empty arrayref instead. As most successful responses are in the form of arrayrefs, this will cause a uniform response type for all calls. All error messages and codes are still available with methods such as get_error.

clone()

Returns a shallow copy of the Net::Twitter object. This can be used when Net::Twitter is used in a Parallel or Asynchronous framework to enable easier access to returned error values. All clones share the same LWP::UserAgent object, so calling credentials() will change the login credentials of all clones.

credentials($username, $password, $apihost, $apiurl)

Change the credentials for logging into twitter. This is helpful when managing multiple accounts.

apirealm and apihost are optional and will default to the existing settings if omitted.

http_code

Returns the HTTP response code of the most recent request.

http_message

Returns the HTTP response message of the most recent request.

get_error

If the last request returned an error, the hashref containing the error message can be retrieved with get_error. This will provide some additional debugging information in addition to the http code and message above.

STATUS METHODS

update(...)

Set your current status. This returns a hashref containing your most recent status. Returns undef if an error occurs.

The method accepts a hashref containing one or two arguments.

status

REQUIRED. The text of your status update.

in_reply_to_status_id

OPTIONAL. The ID of an existing status that the status to be posted is in reply to. This implicitly sets the in_reply_to_user_id attribute of the resulting status to the user ID of the message being replied to. Invalid/missing status IDs will be ignored.

update_twittervision($location)

If the twittervision argument is passed to new when the object is created, this method will update your location setting at twittervision.com.

If the twittervision arg is not set at object creation, this method will return an empty hashref, otherwise it will return a hashref containing the location data.

show_status($id)

Returns status of a single tweet. The status' author will be returned inline.

The argument is the ID or email address of the twitter user to pull, and is REQUIRED.

This method can take the "id" argument passed to it either as a single string, or in a hashref with a key called "id".

destroy_status($id)

Destroys the status specified by the required ID parameter. The authenticating user must be the author of the specified status.

This method can take the "id" argument passed to it either as a single string, or in a hashref with a key called "id".

user_timeline(...)

This returns an arrayref to an array of hashrefs, containing the 20 (or more) posts from either the authenticating user (if no argument is passed), or from a specific user if the id field is passed in a hashref.

Accepts an optional argument of a hashref:

id

OPTIONAL: ID or email address of a user other than the authenticated user, in order to retrieve that user's user_timeline.

since

OPTIONAL: Narrows the returned results to just those statuses created after the specified HTTP-formatted date.

since_id

OPTIONAL: Narrows the returned results to just those statuses created after the specified ID.

count

OPTIONAL: Narrows the returned results to a certain number of statuses. This is limited to 200.

page

OPTIONAL: Gets the 20 next most recent statuses from the authenticating user and that user's friends, eg "page=3".

This method can take the "id" argument passed to it either as a single string, or in a hashref with a key called "id". If passed as a string, no other args can be specified.

public_timeline()

This returns an arrayref to an array of hashrefs, containing the information and status of each of the last 20 posts by all non-private twitter users.

friends_timeline(...)

Returns the 20 most recent statuses posted from the authenticating user and that user's friends. It's also possible to request another user's friends_timeline via the id parameter below.

If called with no arguments, returns the friends' timeline for the authenticating user.

Accepts an optional hashref as an argument:

since

OPTIONAL: Narrows the returned results to just those statuses created after the specified HTTP-formatted date.

since_id

OPTIONAL: Narrows the returned results to just those statuses created after the specified ID.

count

Narrows the returned results to a certain number of statuses. This is limited to 200.

page

Gets the 20 next most recent statuses from the authenticating user and that user's friends, eg "page=3".

replies(...)

This returns an arrayref to an array of hashrefs, containing the information and status of each of the last 20 replies (status updates prefixed with @username posted by users who are friends with the user being replied to) to the authenticating user.

since

OPTIONAL: Narrows the returned results to just those replies created after the specified HTTP-formatted date, up to 24 hours old.

since_id

OPTIONAL: Returns only statuses with an ID greater than (that is, more recent than) the specified ID.

page

OPTIONAL: Gets the 20 next most recent replies.

USER METHODS

friends()

This returns an arrayref to an array of hashrefs. Each hashref contains the information and status of those you have marked as friends in twitter. Returns undef if an error occurs.

Takes a hashref as an arg:

since

OPTIONAL: Narrows the returned results to just those friendships created after the specified HTTP-formatted date, up to 24 hours old.

id

OPTIONAL: User id or email address of a user other than the authenticated user, in order to retrieve that user's friends.

page

OPTIONAL: Gets the 100 next most recent friends, eg "page=3".

This method can take the "id" argument passed to it either as a single string, or in a hashref with a key called "id". If passed as a string, no other args can be specified.

followers()

his returns an arrayref to an array of hashrefs. Each hashref contains the information and status of those who follow your status in twitter. Returns undef if an error occurs.

If called without an argument returns the followers for the authenticating user, but can pull followers for a specific ID.

Accepts an optional hashref for arguments:

id

OPTIONAL: The ID or screen name of the user for whom to request a list of followers.

page

OPTIONAL: Retrieves the next 100 followers.

This method can take the "id" argument passed to it either as a single string, or in a hashref with a key called "id". If passed as a string, no other args can be specified.

show_user()

Returns a hashref containing extended information of a single user.

The argument is a hashref containing either the user's ID or email address. It is required to pass either one or the other, but not both:

id

The ID or screen name of the user.

email

The email address of the user. If email is specified, id is ignored.

If the twittervision argument is passed to new when the object is created, this method will include the location information for the user from twittervision.com, placing it inside the returned hashref under the key twittervision.

This method can take the "id" argument passed to it either as a single string, or in a hashref with a key called "id". If passed as a string, no other args can be specified.

DIRECT MESSAGE METHODS

direct_messages()

Returns a list of the direct messages sent to the authenticating user.

Accepts an optional hashref for arguments:

page

OPTIONAL: Retrieves the 20 next most recent direct messages.

since

OPTIONAL: Narrows the returned results to just those statuses created after the specified HTTP-formatted date.

since_id

OPTIONAL: Narrows the returned results to just those statuses created after the specified ID.

sent_direct_messages()

Returns a list of the direct messages sent by the authenticating user.

Accepts an optional hashref for arguments:

page

OPTIONAL: Retrieves the 20 next most recent direct messages.

since

OPTIONAL: Narrows the returned results to just those statuses created after the specified HTTP-formatted date.

since_id

OPTIONAL: Narrows the returned results to just those statuses created after the specified ID.

new_direct_message($args)

Sends a new direct message to the specified user from the authenticating user.

REQUIRES an argument of a hashref:

user

REQUIRED: ID or email address of user to send direct message to.

text

REQUIRED: Text of direct message.

destroy_direct_message($id)

Destroys the direct message specified in the required ID parameter. The authenticating user must be the recipient of the specified direct message.

This method can take the "id" argument passed to it either as a single string, or in a hashref with a key called "id".

FRIENDSHIP METHODS

create_friend(...)

Befriends the user specified in the id parameter as the authenticating user. Returns a hashref containing the befriended user's information when successful.

id

REQUIRED. The ID or screen name of the user to befriend.

follow

OPTIONAL. Enable notifications for the target user in addition to becoming friends.

This method can take the "id" argument passed to it either as a single string, or in a hashref with a key called "id". If passed as a string, no other args can be specified.

destroy_friend($id)

Discontinues friendship with the user specified in the ID parameter as the authenticating user. Returns a hashref containing the unfriended user's information when successful.

This method can take the "id" argument passed to it either as a single string, or in a hashref with a key called "id".

relationship_exists($user_a, $user_b)

Tests if friendship exists between the two users specified as arguments. Both arguments are REQUIRED.

SOCIAL GRAPH METHODS

friends_ids()

Returns an arrayref to an array of numeric IDs for every user the specified user is following. Returns undef if an error occurs.

Takes a hashref as an arg:

id

OPTIONAL: User id or email address of a user other than the authenticated user, in order to retrieve that user's friends.

This method can take the "id" argument passed to it either as a single string, or in a hashref with a key called "id". If passed as a string, no other args can be specified. If no args are passed, returns the list for the authenticating user.

followers_ids()

Returns an arrayref to an array of numeric IDs for every user the specified user is followed by. Returns undef if an error occurs.

Accepts an optional hashref for arguments:

id

OPTIONAL: The ID or screen name of the user for whom to request a list of followers.

This method can take the "id" argument passed to it either as a single string, or in a hashref with a key called "id". If passed as a string, no other args can be specified. If no args are passed, returns the list for the authenticating user.

ACCOUNT METHODS

verify_credentials()

Returns a hashref containing the authenticating user's extended information if the login credentials are correct.

end_session()

Ends the session of the authenticating user, returning a null cookie. Use this method to sign users out of client-facing applications like widgets.

update_location($location)

WARNING: This method has been deprecated in favor of the update_profile method below. It still functions today but will be removed in future versions.

Updates the location attribute of the authenticating user, as displayed on the side of their profile and returned in various API methods.

update_delivery_device($device)

Sets which device Twitter delivers updates to for the authenticating user. $device is required and must be one of: "sms", "im", or "none". Sending none as the device parameter will disable IM or SMS updates.

update_profile_colors(...)

Sets one or more hex values that control the color scheme of the authenticating user's profile page on twitter.com. These values are also returned in the show_user method.

This method takes a hashref as an argument, with the following optional fields containing a hex color string.

profile_background_color
profile_text_color
profile_sidebar_fill_color
profile_sidebar_border_color
update_profile_image(...))

Updates the authenticating user's profile image.

This takes as a required argument a GIF, JPG or PNG image, no larger than 700k in size. Expects raw image data, not a pathname or URL to the image.

update_profile_background_image(...))

Updates the authenticating user's profile background image.

This takes as a required argument a GIF, JPG or PNG image, no larger than 800k in size. Expects raw image data, not a pathname or URL to the image.

rate_limit_status

Returns the remaining number of API requests available to the authenticating user before the API limit is reached for the current hour. Calls to rate_limit_status require authentication, but will not count against the rate limit.

update_profile

Sets values that users are able to set under the "Account" tab of their settings page.

Takes as an argument a hashref containing fields to be updated. Only the parameters specified will be updated. For example, to only update the "name" attribute include only that parameter in the hashref.

name

OPTIONAL: Twitter user's name. Maximum of 40 characters.

email

OPTIONAL: Email address. Maximum of 40 characters. Must be a valid email address.

url

OPTIONAL: Homepage URL. Maximum of 100 characters. Will be prepended with "http://" if not present.

location

OPTIONAL: Geographic location. Maximum of 30 characters. The contents are not normalized or geocoded in any way.

description

OPTIONAL: Personal description. Maximum of 160 characters.

FAVORITE METHODS

favorites()

Returns the 20 most recent favorite statuses for the authenticating user or user specified by the ID parameter.

This takes a hashref as an argument:

id

OPTIONAL. The ID or screen name of the user for whom to request a list of favorite statuses.

page

OPTIONAL: Gets the 20 next most recent favorite statuses, eg "page=3".

This method can take the "id" argument passed to it either as a single string, or in a hashref with a key called "id". If passed as a string, no other args can be specified.

create_favorite()

Sets the specified ID as a favorite for the authenticating user.

This takes a hashref as an argument:

id

REQUIRED: The ID of the status to favorite.

This method can take the "id" argument passed to it either as a single string, or in a hashref with a key called "id".

destroy_favorite()

Removes the specified ID as a favorite for the authenticating user.

This takes a hashref as an argument:

id REQUIRED. The ID of the status to un-favorite.

This method can take the "id" argument passed to it either as a single string, or in a hashref with a key called "id".

NOTIFICATION METHODS

enable_notifications()

Enables notifications for updates from the specified user to the authenticating user. Returns the specified user when successful.

This takes a hashref as an argument:

id REQUIRED: The ID or screen name of the user to receive notices from.

This method can take the "id" argument passed to it either as a single string, or in a hashref with a key called "id".

disable_notifications()

Disables notifications for updates from the specified user to the authenticating user. Returns the specified user when successful.

This takes a hashref as an argument:

id

REQUIRED: The ID or screen name of the user to stop receiving notices from.

This method can take the "id" argument passed to it either as a single string, or in a hashref with a key called "id".

BLOCK METHODS

create_block($id)

Blocks the user id passed as an argument from the authenticating user. Returns a hashref containing the user information for the blocked user when successful.

This method can take the "id" argument passed to it either as a single string, or in a hashref with a key called "id".

You can find more information about blocking at http://help.twitter.com/index.php?pg=kb.page&id=69.

destroy_block($id)

Un-blocks the user id passed as an argument from the authenticating user. Returns a hashref containing the user information for the blocked user when successful.

This method can take the "id" argument passed to it either as a single string, or in a hashref with a key called "id".

As of version 2.00, Net::Twitter implements the search functionality of Twitter, using code derived from Net::Twitter::Search by Brenda Wallace.

search()

Performs a search on http://search.twitter.com for your query string.

This returns a hashref which is slightly different than the other methods such as public_timeline. The hashref contains a key named results which contains an arrayref to an array of hashrefs, each hashref containing a single post. These hashrefs do not include the "user" item with the posting user's information such as the *_timeline methods do.

This method takes a required hashref as an argument:

q
query

REQUIRED: Specifies the string to search for. This can include any of the Twitter search operators listed at http://search.twitter.com/operators. Please see below for information about backwards compatibility with Net::Twitter::Search.

Both q and query are aliases to the same argument. Specifying both will use the value specified for "query".

Please note that you cannot use the "near" search operator to specify arbitrary Lat/Long locations. For this use the geocode argument below.

lang

OPTIONAL: Restricts results to a specific language, given by an ISO 639-1 code. For example {'lang' => 'en'}

rpp

OPTIONAL: Sets the number of posts to return per page, up to a max of 100.

page

OPTIONAL: Sets the page number (starting at 1) to return, up to a max of roughly 1500 results (based on rpp * page)

since_id

OPTIONAL: Restricts returned posts to those status ids greater than the given id.

geocode

OPTIONAL: Returns posts by users located within the radius of the given latitude/longitude, where the user's location is taken from their Twitter profile. The format of the parameter value is "latitide,longitude,radius", with radius units specified as either "mi" (miles) or "km" (kilometers).

show_user

OPTIONAL: When set to a true boolean value show_user will prepend "<username>:" to the beginning of the text of each post returned.

BACKWARDS COMPATIBILITY WITH Net::Twitter::Search

In order to maintain backwards compatibility with Net::Twitter::Search, the query/q arguments can be specified as plain text:

    $res = $twit->search("Farkle McFancypants")

In addition, you can, in this case, specify all of the above arguments in a hashref as the second argument to the search method.

    $res = $twit->search("Farkle McFancypants", {lang => "en"})
    

Any query/q arguments in the hashref passed in this manner will be ignored, and the module will proceed using the string passed in the first argument as the query.

HELP METHODS

test()

Returns the string "ok" in the requested format with a 200 OK HTTP status code.

downtime_schedule()

Returns the same text displayed on http://twitter.com/home when a maintenance window is scheduled.

BUGS AND LIMITATIONS

Please report any bugs or feature requests to bug-net-twitter@rt.cpan.org, or through the web interface at https://rt.cpan.org/Dist/Display.html?Queue=Net-Twitter.

You can also join the Net::Twitter IRC channel at irc://irc.perl.org/net-twitter

You can track Net::Twitter development at http://github.com/ct/net-twitter/tree/2.0

AUTHOR

Chris Thompson <cpan@cthompson.com>

The test framework for Net::Twitter was written by Marc "semifor" Mims.

The framework of this module is shamelessly stolen from Net::AIML. Big ups to Chris "perigrin" Prather for that.

LICENCE AND COPYRIGHT

Copyright (c) 2009, Chris Thompson <cpan@cthompson.com>. All rights reserved.

This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself. See perlartistic.

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY

BECAUSE THIS SOFTWARE IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE SOFTWARE, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE SOFTWARE "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE SOFTWARE IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE SOFTWARE PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR, OR CORRECTION.

IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE SOFTWARE AS PERMITTED BY THE ABOVE LICENCE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE SOFTWARE (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE SOFTWARE TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER SOFTWARE), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.