NAME

Unicode::Unihan - The Unihan Data Base 5.0.0

SYNOPSIS

  use Unicode::Unihan;
  my $db = new Unicode::Unihan;
  print join("," => $db->Mandarin("\x{5c0f}\x{98fc}\x{5f3e}"), "\n";

ABSTRACT

This module provides a user-friendly interface to the Unicode Unihan Database 3.2. With this module, the Unihan database is as easy as shown in the SYNOPSIS above.

DESCRIPTION

The first thing you do is make the database available. Just say

  use Unicode::Unihan;
  my $db = new Unicode::Unihan;

That's all you have to say. After that, you can access the database via $db->tag($string) where tag is the tag in the Unihan Database, without 'k' prefix.

$data = $db->tag($string) =item @data = $db->tag($string)

The first form (scalar context) returns the Unihan Database entry of the first character in $string. The second form (array context) checks the entry for each character in $string.

  @data = $db->Mandarin("\x{5c0f}\x{98fc}\x{5f3e}");
  # @data is now ('SHAO4 XIAO3','SI4','DAN4')

  @data = $db->JapaneseKun("\x{5c0f}\x{98fc}\x{5f3e}");
  # @data is now ('CHIISAI KO O','KAU YASHINAU','TAMA HAZUMU HIKU')

SEE ALSO

perlunintro
perlunicode
The Unihand Database, in Text

http://www.unicode.org/Public/3.2-Update/Unihan-3.2.0.txt.gz

AUTHOR

of the Module

Dan Kogai <dankogai@dan.co.jp>

of the Source Data

Unicode, Inc.

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

of the Module

Copyright 2002-2007 by Dan Kogai, All rights reserved.

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

of the Source Data

Copyright (c) 1996-2006 Unicode, Inc. All Rights reserved.

       Name: Unihan database
       Unicode version: 5.0.0
       Table version: 1.1
       Date: 7 July 2006

NOTES

The followning is POD-ized notes from the Unihan database.

 Name: Unihan database
 Unicode version: 5.0.0
 Table version: 1.1
 Date: 7 July 2006

Copyright (c) 1996-2006 Unicode, Inc. All Rights reserved.

For terms of use, see http://www.unicode.org/terms_of_use.html

Format information:

Each line of this file consists of three tab-separated fields. The first is the Unicode scalar value as U+[x]xxxx (that is, there are either four or five hex digits) The second is a tag indicating the type of information in the third field The third is the line's value (in UTF-8)

We give below a list of the tags in alphabetical order. For each tag, we give additional information, such as its formal status in the standard, a general category to which its data belongs, the separator (if any) between individual subvalues, a regular expression indicating the format of each subvalue, the version of Unicode in which the data were originally introduced, and a description of the data associated with the tag.

Regular expressions are based on standard Perl 5.8.6 syntax and may require modification for use with other regular expression engines.

Unless otherwise noted, the order of subvalues within a single value field is not significant.

Note that only the description is present for every tag value.

See also http://www.unicode.org/Public/UNIDATA/Unihan.html

AccountingNumeric
 Tag:   kAccountingNumeric
 Status:        Informative
 Category:      Numeric Values
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]+
 Introduced:    3.2

The value of the character when used in the writing of accounting numerals.

Accounting numerals are used in East Asia to prevent fraud. Because a number like ten (十) is easily turned into one thousand (千) with a stroke of a brush, monetary documents will often use an accounting form of the numeral ten (such as 拾) in their place.

The three numeric-value fields should have no overlap; that is, characters with a kAccountingNumeric value should not have a kPrimaryNumeric or kOtherNumeric value as well.

BigFive
 Tag:   kBigFive
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Other Mappings
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9A-F]{4}

The Big Five mapping for this character in hex; note that this does not cover any of the Big Five extensions in common use, including the ETEN extensions.

CCCII
 Tag:   kCCCII
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Other Mappings
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9A-F]{6}

The CCCII mapping for this character in hex.

CNS1986
 Tag:   kCNS1986
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Other Mappings
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [12E]-[0-9A-F]{4}

The CNS 11643-1986 mapping for this character in hex.

CNS1992
 Tag:   kCNS1992
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Other Mappings
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [123]-[0-9A-F]{4}

The CNS 11643-1992 mapping for this character in hex.

Cangjie
 Tag:   kCangjie
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary-like Data
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [A-Z]+
 Introduced:    3.1.1

The cangjie input code for the character. This incorporates data from the file cangjie-table.b5 by Christian Wittern.

Cantonese
 Tag:   kCantonese
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary-like Data
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [a-z]+[1-6]

The Cantonese pronunciation(s) for this character using the jyutping romanization.

A full description of jyutping can be found at http://cpct92.cityu.edu.hk/lshk/Jyutping/Jyutping.htm. The main differences between jyutping and the Yale romanization previously used are:

1) Jyutping always uses tone numbers and does not distinguish the high falling and high level tones.

2) Jyutping always writes a long a as "aa".

3) Jyutping uses "oe" and "eo" for the Yale "eu" vowel.

4) Jyutping uses "c" instead of "ch", "z" instead of "j", and "j" instead of "y" as initials.

5) A non-null initial is always explicitly written (thus "jyut" in jyutping instead of Yale's "yut").

Cantonese pronunciations are sorted alphabetically, not in order of frequency.

N.B., the Hong Kong dialect of Cantonese is in the process of dropping initial NG- before non-null finals. Any word with an initial NG- may actually be pronounced without it, depending on the speaker and circumstances. Many words with a null initial may similarly be pronounced with an initial NG-. Similarly, many speakers use an initial L- for words previously pronounced with an initial N-.

Cantonese data are derived from the following sources:

Casey, G. Hugh, S.J. Ten Thousand Characters: An Analytic Dictionary. Hong Kong: Kelley and Walsh,1980 (kPhonetic).

Cheung Kwan-hin and Robert S. Bauer, The Representation of Cantonese with Chinese Characters, Journal of Chinese Linguistics Monograph Series Number 18, 2002.

Roy T. Cowles, A Pocket Dictionary of Cantonese, Hong Kong: University Press, 1999 (kCowles).

Sidney Lau, A Practical Cantonese-English Dictionary, Hong Kong: Government Printer, 1977 (kLau).

Bernard F. Meyer and Theodore F. Wempe, Student's Cantonese-English Dictionary, Maryknoll, New York: Catholic Foreign Mission Society of America, 1947 (kMeyerWempe).

饒秉才, ed. 廣州音字典, Hong Kong: Joint Publishing (H.K.) Co., Ltd., 1989.

中華新字典, Hong Kong:中華書局, 1987.

黃港生, ed. 商務新詞典, Hong Kong: The Commercial Press, 1991.

朗文初級中文詞典, Hong Kong: Longman, 2001.

The jyutping phrase box from the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong, http://cpct92.cityu.edu.hk/lshk/Jyutping/. The copyright of the Jyutping phrase box belongs to the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong. We would like to thank the Jyutping Group of the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong for permission to use the electronic file in our research and/or product development. Note that the inclusion of the phrase box in the Unihan database requires that any products developed using the kCantonese field needs to include this acknowledgment.

CheungBauer
 Tag:   kCheungBauer
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary-like Data
 Separator:     NA
 Introduced:    5.0

Data regarding the character in Cheung Kwan-hin and Robert S. Bauer, _The Representation of Cantonese with Chinese Characters_, Journal of Chinese Linguistics, Monograph Series Number 18, 2002. The data consist of three pieces, separated by semicolons: (1) the character's radical-stroke index as a three-digit radical, slash, two-digit stroke count; (2) the character's cangjie input code (if any); and (3) a comma-separated list of Cantonese readings using the jyutping romanization in alphabetical order.

CheungBauerIndex
 Tag:   kCheungBauerIndex
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary Indices
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{3}\.[0-9][0-9]{2}
 Introduced:    5.0

The position of the character in Cheung Kwan-hin and Robert S. Bauer, _The Representation of Cantonese with Chinese Characters_, Journal of Chinese Linguistics, Monograph Series Number 18, 2002. The format is a three-digit page number followed by a two-digit position number, separated by a period.

CihaiT
 Tag:   kCihaiT
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary-like Data
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [1-9][0-9]{0,3}\.[0-9]{3}
 Introduced:    3.2

The position of this character in the Cihai (辭海) dictionary, single volume edition, published in Hong Kong by the Zhonghua Bookstore, 1983 (reprint of the 1947 edition), ISBN 962-231-005-2.

The position is indicated by a decimal number. The digits to the left of the decimal are the page number. The first digit after the decimal is the row on the page, and the remaining two digits after the decimal are the position on the row.

CompatibilityVariant
 Tag:   kCompatibilityVariant
 Status:        Normative
 Category:      Variants
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        U\+2?[0-9A-F]{4}
 Introduced:    3.2

The compatibility decomposition for this ideograph, derived from the UnicodeData.txt file.

Cowles
 Tag:   kCowles
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary Indices
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{1,4}(\.[0-9]{1,2})?
 Introduced:    3.1.1

The index or indices of this character in Roy T. Cowles, A Pocket Dictionary of Cantonese, Hong Kong: University Press, 1999.

The Cowles indices are numerical, usually integers but occasionally fractional where a character was added after the original indices were determined. Cowles is missing indices 1222 and 4949, and four characters in Cowles are part of Unicode's "Hangzhou" numeral set: 2964 (U+3025), 3197 (U+3028), 3574 (U+3023), and 4720 (U+3027).

Approximately 100 characters from Cowles which are not currently encoded are being submitted to the IRG by Unicode for inclusion in future versions of the standard.

DaeJaweon
 Tag:   kDaeJaweon
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary Indices
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{4}\.[0-9]{2}[0158]

The position of this character in the Dae Jaweon (Korean) dictionary used in the four-dictionary sorting algorithm. The position is in the form "page.position" with the final digit in the position being "0" for characters actually in the dictionary and "1" for characters not found in the dictionary and assigned a "virtual" position in the dictionary.

Thus, "1187.060" indicates the sixth character on page 1187. A character not in this dictionary but assigned a position between the 6th and 7th characters on page 1187 for sorting purposes would have the code "1187.061"

The edition used is the first edition, published in Seoul by Samseong Publishing Co., Ltd., 1988.

Definition
 Tag:   kDefinition
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary-like Data
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        See Description

An English definition for this character. Definitions are for modern written Chinese and are usually (but not always) the same as the definition in other Chinese dialects or non-Chinese languages. In some cases, synonyms are indicated. Fuller variant information can be found using the various variant fields.

Definitions specific to non-Chinese languages or Chinese dialects other than modern Mandarin are marked, e.g., (Cant.) or (J).

Major definitions are separated by semicolons, and minor definitions by commas. Any valid Unicode character (except for tab, double-quote, and any line break character) may be used within the definition field.

EACC
 Tag:   kEACC
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Other Mappings
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9A-F]{6}

The EACC mapping for this character in hex.

Fenn
 Tag:   kFenn
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary-like Data
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]+a?[A-KP*]
 Introduced:    3.1.1

Data on the character from The Five Thousand Dictionary (aka Fenn's Chinese-English Pocket Dictionary) by Courtenay H. Fenn, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1979.

The data here consists of a decimal number followed by a letter A through K, the letter P, or an asterisk. The decimal number gives the Soothill number for the character's phonetic, and the letter is a rough frequency indication, with A indicating the 500 most common ideographs, B the next five hundred, and so on.

P is used by Fenn to indicate a rare character included in the dictionary only because it is the phonetic element in other characters.

An asterisk is used instead of a letter in the final position to indicate a character which belongs to one of Soothill's phonetic groups but is not found in Fenn's dictionary.

Characters which have a frequency letter but no Soothill phonetic group are assigned group 0.

kFennIndex
 Tag:   kFennIndex
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary Indices
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [1-9]{3}\.[01][0-9]

The position of this character in _Fenn's Chinese-English Pocket Dictionary_ by Courtenay H. Fenn, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1942. The position is indicated by a three-digit page number followed by a period and a two-digit position on the page.

FourCornerCode
 Tag:   kFourCornerCode
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary-like Data
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{4}(\.[0-9])?
 Introduced:    5.0

The four-corner code(s) for the character. This data is derived from data provided in the public domain by Hartmut Bohn, Urs App, and Christian Wittern.

The four-corner system assigns each character a four-digit code from 0 through 9. The digit is derived from the "shape" of the four corners of the character (upper-left, upper-right, lower-left, lower-right). An optional fifth digit can be used to further distinguish characters; the fifth digit is derived from the shape in the character's center or region immediately to the left of the fourth corner.

The four-corner system is now used only rarely. Full descriptions are available online, e.g., at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_corner_input.

Values in this field consist of four decimal digits, optionally followed by a period and fifth digit for a five-digit form.

Frequency
 Tag:   kFrequency
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary-like Data
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [1-5]
 Introduced:    3.2

A rough frequency measurement for the character based on analysis of traditional Chinese USENET postings; characters with a kFrequency of 1 are the most common, those with a kFrequency of 2 are less common, and so on, through a kFrequency of 5.

GB0
 Tag:   kGB0
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Other Mappings
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9A-F]{4}

The GB 2312-80 mapping for this character in ku/ten form.

GB1
 Tag:   kGB1
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Other Mappings
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9A-F]{4}

The GB 12345-90 mapping for this character in ku/ten form.

GB3
 Tag:   kGB3
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Other Mappings
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9A-F]{4}

The GB 7589-87 mapping for this character in ku/ten form.

GB5
 Tag:   kGB5
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Other Mappings
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9A-F]{4}

The GB 7590-87 mapping for this character in ku/ten form.

GB7
 Tag:   kGB7
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Other Mappings
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9A-F]{4}

The GB 8565-89 mapping for this character in ku/ten form.

GB8
 Tag:   kGB8
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Other Mappings
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{4}

The GB 8565-89 mapping for this character in ku/ten form

G5R
 Tag:   kGSR
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary Indices
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{4}[a-vx-z]\'*
 Introduced:    4.0.1

The position of this character in Bernhard Karlgren's Grammata Serica Recensa (1957).

This dataset contains a total of 7,403 records. References are given in the form DDDDa('), where "DDDD" is a set number in the range [0001..1260] zero-padded to 4-digits, "a" is a letter in the range [a..z] (excluding "w"), optionally followed by (') apostrophe. The data from which this mapping table is extracted contains a total of 10,023 references. References to inscriptional forms have been omitted.

Release notes

22-Dec-2003: Initial release. The following 32 references are to unencoded forms: 0059k, 0069y, 0079d, 0275b, 0286a, 0289a, 0289f, 0293a, 0325a, 0389o, 0391h, 0392s, 0468h, 0480a, 0516a, 0526o, 0566g', 0642y, 0661a, 0739i,0775b, 0837h, 0893r, 0969a, 0969e, 1019e, 1062b, 1112d, 1124l, 1129c', 1144a, 1144b. In some cases a variant mapping has been substituted in the mapping table, in other cases the reference is omitted.

Bibliographic information

Karlgren, Klas Bernhard Johannes 高本漢 (1889–1978): 2000. Grammata Serica Recensa Electronica. Electronic version of GSR, including indices, syllable canon, & images of the original Karlgren (1957) text. Prepared for the STEDT Project by Richard Cook; based in part on work by Tor Ulving & Ferenc Tafferner (see below), used by permission. Berkeley: University of California., http://stedt.berkeley.edu/

Karlgren 1957. Grammata Serica Recensa. First published in the Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities (BMFEA) No. 29, Stockholm, Sweden. Reprinted by Elanders Boktrycker Aktiebolag, Kungsbacka, [1972]. Reprinted also by SMC Publishing Inc., Taipei, Taiwan, ROC, [1996]. ISBN: 957-638-269-6.

Karlgren 1940. Grammata Serica: Script and Phonetics in Chinese and Sino-Japanese 《中日漢字形聲論》Zhong-Ri Hanzi Xingsheng Lun [A study of Sino-Japanese semantic-phonetic compound characters:] BMFEA No. 12. Reprinted, Taipei: Ch'eng-Wen Publishing Company, [1966].

Ulving, Tor: 1997. Dictionary of Old and Middle Chinese: Bernhard Karlgren's Grammata Serica Recensa Alphabetically Arranged. With Ferenc Tafferner. Göteborg, Sweden: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis. Orientalia Gothoburgensia, 11. ISBN: 91-7346-294-2.

GradeLevel
 Tag:   kGradeLevel
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary-like Data
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [1-6]
 Introduced:    3.2

The primary grade in the Hong Kong school system by which a student is expected to know the character; this data is derived from 朗文初級中文詞典, Hong Kong: Longman, 2001.

HDZRadBreak
 Tag:   kHDZRadBreak
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary-like Data
 Separator:     NA
 Syntax:        [x{2F00}-x{2FD5}][U+2?[0-9A-F]{4}]:[1-8][0-9]{4}\.[0-9]{2}[012]
 Introduced:    4.1

Indicates that 《漢語大字典》 Hanyu Da Zidian has a radical break beginning at this character's position. The field consists of the radical (with its Unicode code point), a colon, and then the Hanyu Da Zidian position as in the kHanyu field.

HKGlyph
 Tag:   kHKGlyph
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary-like Data
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{4}
 Introduced:    3.1.1

The index of the character in 常用字字形表 (二零零零年修訂本),香港: 香港教育學院, 2000, ISBN 962-949-040-4. This publication gives the "proper" shapes for 4759 characters as used in the Hong Kong school system. The index is an integer, zero-padded to four digits.

HKSCS
 Tag:   kHKSCS
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Other Mappings
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9A-F]{4}
 Introduced:    3.1.1

Mappings to the Big Five extended code points used for the Hong Kong Supplementary Character Set.

HanYu
 Tag:   kHanYu
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary Indices
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [1-8][0-9]{4}\.[0-9]{2}[0-3]

The position of this character in the Hanyu Da Zidian (HDZ) Chinese character dictionary (bibliographic information below).

The character references are given in the form "ABCDE.XYZ", in which: "A" is the volume number [1..8]; "BCDE" is the zero-padded page number [0001..4809]; "XY" is the zero-padded number of the character on the page [01..32]; "Z" is "0" for a character actually in the dictionary, and greater than 0 for a character assigned a "virtual" position in the dictionary. For example, 53024.060 indicates an actual HDZ character, the 6th character on Page 3,044 of Volume 5 (i.e. 籉). Note that the Volume 8 "BCDE" references are in the range [0008..0044] inclusive, referring to the pagination of the "Appendix of Addendum" at the end of that volume (beginning after p. 5746).

The first character assigned a given virtual position has an index ending in 1; the second assigned the same virtual position has an index ending in 2; and so on.

Release information

This data set contains a total of 56097 records, 54728 of which are actual HDZ character references (positions are given for all HDZ head entries, including source-internal unifications), and 1369 of which are virtual character positions (see note below).

All 55817 HDZ references in this data set are unique. Because of IRG source-internal unifications, a given UCS-4 Scalar Value (USV) may have more than one HDZ reference. Source-internal unifications are of two types: (1) unifications of graphical variants; (2) unifications of duplicate head entries.

The proofing of all references was done primarily on the basis of cross-checks of three versions of the reference data: (1) the original print source; (2) the "kIRGHanyuDaZidian" field of Unihan.txt (release 3.1.1d1); (3) "HDZ.txt", originally produced and proofed for Academia Sinica's Institute of Information Technology (Document Processing Laboratory). In addition, the data was checked against the "kHanYu" and "kAlternateHanYu" fields of Unihan.txt (release 3.1.1d1), which the present data set supersedes.

String value, string length, compound key, field count, and page total validations were all performed. Altogether, 578 omissions/ errors in source (2) were identified/corrected. Any remaining errors will likely relate to virtual positions, or to the ordering of actual characters within a given page. It is unlikely that errors across page breaks remain. Possible future deunifications of source-internal unifications will necessitate update of USV for some references. Under no circumstances should the source-internal unification (duplicate USV) mappings be removed from this data set.

Note: Source (3) contributed only actual HDZ character references to the proofing process, while source (2) contributed all virtual positions. It seems that the compilers of source (2) usually assigned virtual positions based on stroke count, though occasionally the virtual position brings the virtual character together with the actual HDZ character of which it is a variant, without regard to actual stroke count.

Bibliographic information for the print source:

<Hanyu Da Zidian> ['Great Chinese Character Dictionary' (in 8 Volumes)]. XU Zhongshu (Editor in Chief). Wuhan, Hubei Province (PRC): Hubei and Sichuan Dictionary Publishing Collectives, 1986-1990. ISBN: 7-5403-0030-2/H.16.

《漢語大字典》。許力以主任,徐中舒主編,(漢語大字典工作委員會)。武漢:四川辭書出版社,湖北辭書出版社,1986-1990. ISBN: 7-5403-0030-2/H.16.

Hangul
 Tag:   kHangul
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary-like Data
 Separator:     space
 Introduced:    5.0

The modern Korean pronunciation(s) for this character in Hangul.

HanyuPinlu
 Tag:   kHanyuPinlu
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary Indices
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [a-zü]+[1-5]\([0-9]+\)
 Introduced:    4.0.1

The Pronunciations and Frequencies of this character, based in part on those appearing in 《現代漢語頻率詞典》 <Xiandai Hanyu Pinlu Cidian> (XDHYPLCD) [Modern Standard Beijing Chinese Frequency Dictionary] (complete bibliographic information below).

Data Format

This dataset contains a total of 3800 records. Each entry is comprised of two pieces of data.

The Hanyu Pinyin (HYPY) pronunciation(s) of the character, with numeric tone marks (1-5, where 5 indicates the "neutral tone") immediately following each alphabetic string.

Immediately following the numeric tone mark, a numeric string appears in parentheses: e.g. in "a1(392)" the numeric string "392" indicates the sum total of the frequencies of the pronunciations of the character as given in HYPLCD.

Where more than one pronunciation exists, these are sorted by descending frequency, and the list elements are "comma + space" delimited.

Release Information

The XDHYPLCD data here for Modern Standard Chinese (Putonghua) cuts across 4 genres ("News," "Scientific," "Colloquial," and "Literature"), and was derived from a 440799 character corpus. See that text for additional information.

The 8548 entries (8586 with variant writings) from p. 491-656 of XDHYPLCD were input by hand and proof-read from 1994/08/04 to 1995/03/22 by Richard Cook.

Current Release Date above reflects date of last proofing.

HYPY transcription for the data in this release was semiautomated and hand-corrected in 1995, based in part on data provided by Ross Paterson (Department of Computing, Imperial College, London).

Tom Bishop <http://www.wenlin.com> is also due thanks for early assistance in proof-reading this data.

The character set used for this digitization of HYPLCD (a "simplified" mainland PRC text) was (Mac OS 7-9) GB 2312-80 (plus 嗐).

These data were converted to Big5 (plus 腈), and both GB and Big5 versions were separately converted to Unicode 4.0, and then merged, resulting in the 3800 records in the current release. Frequency data for simplified polysyllabic words has been employed to generate both simplified and traditional character frequencies.

Bibliographic information for the primary print source

《現代漢語頻率詞典》,北京語言學院語言教學研究所編著。

<Xiandai Hanyu Pinlu Cidian> = XDHYPLCD First edition 1986/6, 2nd printing 1990/4. ISBN 7-5619-0094-5/H.67.

IBMJapan
 Tag:   kIBMJapan
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Other Mappings
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        F[ABC][0-9A-F]{2}

The IBM Japanese mapping for this character in hexadecimal.

IICore
 Tag:   kIICore
 Status:        Normative
 Category:      IRG Sources
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [1-9]\.[1-9]
 Introduced:    4.1

Indicates that a character is in IICore, the IRG-produced minimal set of required ideographs for East Asian use.

Each individual value in this field is either P (for preliminary, meaning it has been approved by the IRG but not by WG2), or the ISO/IEC 10646 subset identifier for the subset(s) containing this character.

IRGDaeJaweon
 Tag:   kIRGDaeJaweon
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary Indices
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{4}\.[0-9]{2}[01]|0000\.555
 Introduced:    3

The position of this character in the Dae Jaweon (Korean) dictionary used in the four-dictionary sorting algorithm. The position is in the form "page.position" with the final digit in the position being "0" for characters actually in the dictionary and "1" for characters not found in the dictionary and assigned a "virtual" position in the dictionary.

Thus, "1187.060" indicates the sixth character on page 1187. A character not in this dictionary but assigned a position between the 6th and 7th characters on page 1187 for sorting purposes would have the code "1187.061"

This field represents the official position of the character within the Dae Jaweon dictionary as used by the IRG in the four-dictionary sorting algorithm.

The edition used is the first edition, published in Seoul by Samseong Publishing Co., Ltd., 1988.

IRGDaiKanwaZiten
 Tag:   kIRGDaiKanwaZiten
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary Indices
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{5}\'?
 Introduced:    3

The index of this character in the Dai Kanwa Ziten, aka Morohashi dictionary (Japanese) used in the four-dictionary sorting algorithm.

This field represents the official position of the character within the DaiKanwa dictionary as used by the IRG in the four-dictionary sorting algorithm. The edition used is the revised edition, published in Tokyo by Taishuukan Shoten, 1986.

IRGHanyuDaZidian
 Tag:   kIRGHanyuDaZidian
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary Indices
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [1-8][0-9]{4}\.[0-3][0-9][01]
 Introduced:    3

The position of this character in the Hanyu Da Zidian (PRC) dictionary used in the four-dictionary sorting algorithm. The position is in the form "volume page.position" with the final digit in the position being "0" for characters actually in the dictionary and "1" for characters not found in the dictionary and assigned a "virtual" position in the dictionary.

Thus, "32264.080" indicates the eighth character on page 2264 in volume 3. A character not in this dictionary but assigned a position between the 8th and 9th characters on this page for sorting purposes would have the code "32264.081"

This field represents the official position of the character within the Hanyu Da Zidian dictionary as used by the IRG in the four-dictionary sorting algorithm.

The edition of the Hanyu Da Zidian used is the first edition, published in Chengdu by Sichuan Cishu Publishing, 1986.

IRGKangXi
 Tag:   kIRGKangXi
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary Indices
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [01][0-9]{3}\.[0-7][0-9][01]
 Introduced:    3

The position of this character in the KangXi dictionary used in the four-dictionary sorting algorithm. The position is in the form "page.position" with the final digit in the position being "0" for characters actually in the dictionary and "1" for characters not found in the dictionary and assigned a "virtual" position in the dictionary.

Thus, "1187.060" indicates the sixth character on page 1187. A character not in this dictionary but assigned a position between the 6th and 7th characters on page 1187 for sorting purposes would have the code "1187.061"

This field represents the official position of the character within the KangXi dictionary as used by the IRG in the four-dictionary sorting algorithm. The edition of the KangXi dictionary used is the 7th edition published by Zhonghua Bookstore in Beijing, 1989.

IRG_GSource
 Tag:   kIRG_GSource
 Status:        Normative
 Category:      IRG Sources
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        (4K|BK|CH|CY|FZ(_BK)?|HC|HZ|KX|[0135789ES]-[0-9A-F]{4})
Introduced:     3

The IRG "G" source mapping for this character in hex. The IRG G source consists of data from the following national standards, publications, and lists from the People's Republic of China and Singapore. The versions of the standards used are those provided by the PRC to the IRG and may not always reflect published versions of the standards generally available.

4K Siku Quanshu

BK Chinese Encyclopedia

CH The Ci Hai (PRC edition)

CY The Ci Yuan

FZ and FZ_BK Founder Press System

G0 GB2312-80

G1 GB12345-90 with 58 Hong Kong and 92 Korean "Idu" characters

G3 GB7589-87 unsimplified forms

G5 GB7590-87 unsimplified forms

G7 General Purpose Hanzi List for Modern Chinese Language, and General List of Simplified Hanzi

GS Singapore characters

G8 GB8685-88

GE GB16500-95

HC The Hanyu Da Cidian

HZ The Hanyu Da Zidian

KX The KangXi dictionary

IRG_HSource
 Tag:   kIRG_HSource
 Status:        Normative
 Category:      IRG Sources
 Separator:     N/A
 Syntax:        [0-9A-F]{4}
 Introduced:    3.1

The IRG "H" source mapping for this character in hex. The IRG "H" source consists of data from the Hong Kong Supplementary Characer Set.

IRG_JSource
 Tag:   kIRG_JSource
 Status:        Normative
 Category:      IRG Sources
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        ([0134A]|3A)-[0-9A-F]{4}
 Introduced:    3

The IRG "J" source mapping for this character in hex. The IRG J source consists of data from the following national standards and lists from Japan.

J0 JIS X 0208:1990

J1 JIS X 0212:1990

J3 JIS X 0213:2000

J4 JIS X 0213:2000

JA Unified Japanese IT Vendors Contemporary Ideographs, 1993

J3A JIS X 0213:2004 level-3

IRG_KPSource
 Tag:   kIRG_KPSource
 Status:        Normative
 Category:      IRG Sources
 Separator:     N/A
 Syntax:        KP[01]-[0-9A-F]{4}
 Introduced:    3.1.1

The IRG "KP" source mapping for this character in hex. The IRG "KP" source consists of data from the following national standards and lists from the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

KP0 KPS 9566-97

KP1 KPS 10721-2000

IRG_KSource
 Tag:   kIRG_KSource
 Status:        Normative
 Category:      IRG Sources
 Separator:     N/A
 Syntax:        [01234]-[0-9A-F]{4}
 Introduced:    3

The IRG "K" source mapping for this character in hex. The IRG "K" source consists of data from the following national standards and lists from the Republic of Korea (South Korea).

K0 KS C 5601-1987

K1 KS C 5657-1991

K2 PKS C 5700-1 1994

K3 PKS C 5700-2 1994

K4 PKS 5700-3:1998

Note that the K4 source is expressed in hexadecimal, but unlike the other sources, it is not organized in row/column.

IRG_TSource
 Tag:   kIRG_TSource
 Status:        Normative
 Category:      IRG Sources
 Separator:     N/A
 Syntax:        [1-7F]-[0-9A-F]{4}
 Introduced:    3

The IRG "T" source mapping for this character in hex. The IRG "T" source consists of data from the following national standards and lists from the Republic of China (Taiwan).

T1 CNS 11643-1992, plane 1

T2 CNS 11643-1992, plane 2

T3 CNS 11643-1992, plane 3 (with some additional characters)

T4 CNS 11643-1992, plane 4

T5 CNS 11643-1992, plane 5

T6 CNS 11643-1992, plane 6

T7 CNS 11643-1992, plane 7

TF CNS 11643-1992, plane 15

IRG_USource
 Tag:   kIRG_USource
 Status:        Normative
 Category:      IRG Sources
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        U\+2?[0-9A-F]{4}
 Introduced:    4.0.1

The IRG "U" source mapping for this character. Currently, the IRG U source is limited to a small number of characters in the CJK Compatibility Ideographs block, where the value is the Unicode code point.

IRG_VSource
 Tag:   kIRG_VSource
 Status:        Normative
 Category:      IRG Sources
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0123]-[0-9A-F]{4}
 Introduced:    3

The IRG "V" source mapping for this character in hex. The IRG V source consists of data from the following national standards and lists from Vietnam.

V0 TCVN 5773:1993

V1 VHN 01:1998

V2 VHN 02:1998

V3 TCVN 6056:1995

JIS0213
 Tag:   kJIS0213
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Other Mappings
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [12],[0-9]{2},[0-9]{1,2}
 Introduced:    3.1.1

The JIS X 0213-2000 mapping for this character in min,ku,ten form.

JapaneseKun
 Tag:   kJapaneseKun
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary-like Data
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [A-Z]+

The Japanese pronunciation(s) of this character.

JapaneseOn
 Tag:   kJapaneseOn
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary-like Data
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [A-Z]+

The Sino-Japanese pronunciation(s) of this character.

Jis0
 Tag:   kJis0
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Other Mappings
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{4}

The JIS X 0208-1990 mapping for this character in ku/ten form.

Jis1
 Tag:   kJis1
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Other Mappings
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{4}

The JIS X 0212-1990 mapping for this character in ku/ten form.

KPS0
 Tag:   kKPS0
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Other Mappings
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9A-F]{4}
 Introduced:    3.1.1

The KPS 9566-97 mapping for this character in hexadecimal form.

KPS1
 Tag:   kKPS1
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Other Mappings
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9A-F]{4}
 Introduced:    3.1.1

The KPS 10721-2000 mapping for this character in hexadecimal form.

KSC0
 Tag:   kKSC0
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Other Mappings
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{4}

The KS X 1001:1992 (KS C 5601-1989) mapping for this character in ku/ten form.

KSC1
 Tag:   KSC1
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Other Mappings
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{4}

The KS X 1002:1991 (KS C 5657-1991) mapping for this character in ku/ten form.

KangXi
 Tag:   kKangXi
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary Indices
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{4}\.[0-9]{2}[01]

The position of this character in the KangXi dictionary used in the four-dictionary sorting algorithm. The position is in the form "page.position" with the final digit in the position being "0" for characters actually in the dictionary and "1" for characters not found in the dictionary and assigned a "virtual" position in the dictionary.

Thus, "1187.060" indicates the sixth character on page 1187. A character not in this dictionary but assigned a position between the 6th and 7th characters on page 1187 for sorting purposes would have the code "1187.061"

The edition of the KangXi dictionary used is the 7th edition published by Zhonghua Bookstore in Beijing, 1989.

Karlgren
 Tag:   kKarlgren
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary Indices
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [1-9][0-9]{0,3}[A*]?
 Introduced:    3.1.1

The index of this character in _Analytic Dictionary of Chinese and Sino-Japanese_ by Bernhard Karlgren, New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1974.

If the index is followed by an asterisk (*), then the index is an interpolated one, indicating where the character would be found if it were to have been included in the dictionary. Note that while the index itself is usually an integer, there are some cases where it is an integer followed by an "A".

Korean
 Tag:   kKorean
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary-like Data
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [A-Z]+

The Korean pronunciation(s) of this character, using the Yale romanization system. (See <http://www.coffeesigns.com/Resources/romanization/korean.asp> for a comparison of the various Korean romanization systems.)

Lau
 Tag:   kLau
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary Indices
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [1-9][0-9]{0,3}
 Introduced:    3.1.1

The index of this character in A Practical Cantonese-English Dictionary by Sidney Lau, Hong Kong: The Government Printer, 1977.

The index consists of an integer. Missing indices indicate unencoded characters which are being submitted to the IRG for inclusion in future versions of the standard.

MainlandTelegraph
 Tag:   kMainlandTelegraph
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Other Mappings
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{4}

The PRC telegraph code for this character, derived from "Kanzi denpou koudo henkan-hyou" ("Chinese character telegraph code conversion table"), Lin Jinyi, KDD Engineering and Consulting, Tokyo, 1984.

Mandarin
 Tag:   kMandarin
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary-like Data
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [A-ZÜ]+[1-5]

The Mandarin pronunciation(s) for this character in pinyin; Mandarin pronunciations are sorted in order of frequency, not alphabetically.

Matthews
 Tag:   kMatthews
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary Indices
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{1,4}(a|\.5)?

The index of this character in Mathews' Chinese-English Dictionary by Robert H. Mathews, Cambrige: Harvard University Press, 1975.

Note that the field name is kMatthews instead of kMathews to maintain compatibility with earlier versions of this file, where it was inadvertently misspelled.

MeyerWempe
 Tag:   kMeyerWempe
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary Indices
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [1-9][0-9]{0,3}[a-t*]?
 Introduced:    3.1

The index of this character in the Student's Cantonese-English Dictionary by Bernard F. Meyer and Theodore F. Wempe (3rd edition, 1947). The index is an integer, optionally followed by a lower-case Latin letter if the listing is in a subsidiary entry and not a main one. In some cases where the character is found in the radical-stroke index, but not in the main body of the dictionary, the integer is followed by an asterisk (e.g., U+50E5, which is listed as 736* as well as 1185a).

Morohashi
 Tag:   kMorohashi
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary Indices
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{5}'?

The index of this character in the Dae Kanwa Ziten, aka Morohashi dictionary (Japanese) used in the four-dictionary sorting algorithm.

The edition used is the revised edition, published in Tokyo by Taishuukan Shoten, 1986.

Nelson
 Tag:   kNelson
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary Indices
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{4}

The index of this character in The Modern Reader's Japanese-English Character Dictionary by Andrew Nathaniel Nelson, Rutland, Vermont: Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1974.

OtherNumeric
 Tag:   kOtherNumeric
 Status:        Informative
 Category:      Numeric Values
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]+
 Introduced:    3.2

The numeric value for the character in certain unusual, specialized contexts.

The three numeric-value fields should have no overlap; that is, characters with a kOtherNumeric value should not have a kAccountingNumeric or kPrimaryNumeric value as well.

Phonetic
 Tag:   kPhonetic
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary-like Data
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [1-9][0-9]{0,3}[A-D]?*?
 Introduced:    3.1

The phonetic index for the character from Ten Thousand Characters: An Analytic Dictionary by G. Hugh Casey, S.J. Hong Kong: Kelley and Walsh,1980.

PrimaryNumeric
 Tag:   kPrimaryNumeric
 Status:        Informative
 Category:      Numeric Values
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]+
 Introduced:    3.2

The value of the character when used in the writing of numbers in the standard fashion.

The three numeric-value fields should have no overlap; that is, characters with a kPrimaryNumeric value should not have a kAccountingNumeric or kOtherNumeric value as well.

PseudoGB1
 Tag:   kPseudoGB1
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Other Mappings
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{4}

A "GB 12345-90" code point assigned this character for the purposes of including it within Unihan. Pseudo-GB1 codes were used to provide official code points for characters not already in national standards, such as characters used to write Cantonese, and so on.

RSAdobe_Japan1_6
 Tag:   kRSAdobe_Japan1_6
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Radical-Stroke Counts
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [CV]\+[0-9]{1,5}\+[1-9][0-9]{0,2}\.[1-9][0-9]?\.[0-9]{1,2}
 Introduced:    4.1

Information on the glyphs in Adobe-Japan1-6 as contributed by Adobe. The value consists of a number of space-separated entries. Each entry consists of three pieces of information separated by a plus sign:

1) C or V. "C" indicates that the Unicode code point maps directly to the Adobe-Japan1-6 CID that appears after it, and "V" indicates that it is considered a variant form, and thus not directly encoded.

2) The Adobe-Japan1-6 CID.

3) Radical-stroke data for the indicated Adobe-Japan1-6 CID. The radical-stroke data consists of three pieces separated by periods: the KangXi radical (1-214), the number of strokes in the form the radical takes in the glyph, and the number of strokes in the residue. The standard Unicode radical-stroke form can be obtained by omitting the second value, and the total strokes in the glyph from adding the second and third values.

RSJapanese
 Tag:   kRSJapanese
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Radical-Stroke Counts
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,2}

A Japanese radical/stroke count for this character in the form "radical.additional strokes". A ' after the radical indicates the simplified version of the given radical.

RSKanWa
 Tag:   kRSKanWa
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Radical-Stroke Counts
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,2}

A Morohashi radical/stroke count for this character in the form "radical.additional strokes". A ' after the radical indicates the simplified version of the given radical.

RSKangXi
 Tag:   kRSKangXi
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Radical-Stroke Counts
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,2}

The KangXi radical/stroke count for this character consistent with the value of the kKangXi field in the form "radical.additional strokes". A ' after the radical indicates the simplified version of the given radical.

RSKorean
 Tag:   kRSKorean
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Radical-Stroke Counts
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,2}

A Korean radical/stroke count for this character in the form "radical.additional strokes". A ' after the radical indicates the simplified version of the given radical

RSUnicode
 Tag:   kRSUnicode
 Status:        Informative
 Category:      Radical-Stroke Counts
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{1,3}\'?\.[0-9]{1,2}

A standard radical/stroke count for this character in the form "radical.additional strokes". A ' after the radical indicates the simplified version of the given radical

This field is used for additional radical-stroke indices where either a character may be reasonably classified under more than one radical, or alternate stroke count algorithms may provide different stroke counts.

The first value is intended to reflect the same radical as the kRSKangXi field and the stroke count of the glyph used to print the character within the Unicode Standard.

SBGY
 Tag:   kSBGY
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary Indices
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{3}\.[0-9]{2}
 Introduced:    3.2

The position of this character in the Song Ben Guang Yun (SBGY) Medieval Chinese character dictionary (bibliographic and general information below).

The 25334 character references are given in the form "ABC.XY", in which: "ABC" is the zero-padded page number [004..546]; "XY" is the zero-padded number of the character on the page [01..73]. For example, 364.38 indicates the 38th character on Page 364 (i.e. 澍). Where a given Unicode Scalar Value (USV) has more than one reference, these are space-delimited.

- Release information (20031005):

This release corrects several mappings.

-- Release information (20020310) --

This data set contains a total of 25334 references, for 19572 different hanzi (up from 25330 and 19511 in the previous release).

This release of the kSBGY data fixes a number of mappings, based on extensive work done since the initial release (compare the initial release counts given below). See the end of this header for additional information.

-- Initial release information (20020310) --

The original data was input under the direction of Prof. LUO Fengzhu at Taiwan Taoyuanxian Yuan Zhi University (see below) using an early version of the Big5- based CDP encoding scheme developed at Academia Sinica. During 2000-2002 this raw data was processed and revised by Richard Cook as follows: the data was converted to Unicode encoding using his revised kHanYu mapping tables (first provided to the Unicode Consortium for the Unihan.txt release 3.1.1d1) and also using several other mapping tables developed specifically for this project; the kSBGY indices were generated based on hand-counts of all page totals; numerous indexing errors were corrected; and the data underwent final proofing.

-- About the print sources --

The SBGY text, which dates to the beginning of the Song Dynasty (c. 1008, edited by 陳彭年 CHEN Pengnian et al.) is an enlargement of an earlier text known as 《切韻》 Qie Yun (dated to c. 601, edited by 陸法言 LU Fayan). With 25,330 head entries, this large early lexicon is important in part for the information which it provides for historical Chinese phonology. The GY dictionary employs a Chinese transcription method (known as 反切) to give pronunciations for each of its head entries. In addition, each syllable is also given a brief gloss.

It must be emphasized that the mapping of a particular SBGY glyph to a single USV may in some cases be merely an approximation or may have required the choice of a "best possible glyph" (out of those available in the Unicode repertoire). This indexing data in conjunction with the print sources will be useful for evaluating the degree of distinctive variation in the character forms appearing in this text, and future proofing of this data may reveal additional Chinese glyphs for IRG encoding.

-- Bibliographic information on the print sources --

《宋本廣韻》 <<Song Ben Guang Yun>> ['Song Dynasty edition of the Guang Yun Rhyming Dictionary'], edited by 陳彭年 CHEN Pengnian et al. (c. 1008).

Two modern editions of this work were consulted in building the kSBGY indices:

《新校正切宋本廣韻》。台灣黎明文化事業公司 出版,林尹校訂1976 年出版。[This was the edition used by Prof. LUO (台灣桃園縣元智大學中語系羅鳳珠), and in the subsequent revision, conversion, indexing and proofing.]

《新校互註‧宋本廣韻》。香港中文大學,余迺永 1993, 2000 年出版。ISBN: 962-201-413-5; 7-5326-0685-6. [Textual problems were resolved on the basis of this extensively annotated modern edition of the text.]

-- Additional Information --

For further information on this index data and the databases from which it is excerpted, see:

Cook, Richard S. 2003. 《說文解字‧電子版》 Shuo Wen Jie Zi - Dianzi Ban: Digital Recension of the Eastern Han Chinese Grammaticon. PhD Dissertation. Department of Linguistics. Berkeley: University of California.

SemanticVariant
 Tag:   kSemanticVariant
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Variants
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        U+2?[0-9A-F]{4}(<k[A-Za-z:]+(,k[A-Za-z]+)*)?

The Unicode value for a semantic variant for this character. A semantic variant is an x- or y-variant with similar or identical meaning which can generally be used in place of the indicated character.

The basic syntax is a Unicode scalar value. It may optionally be followed by additional data. The additional data is separated from the Unicode scalar value by a less-than sign (<), and may be subdivided itself into substrings by commas, each of which may be divided into two pieces by a colon. The additional data consists of a series of field tags for another field in the Unihan database indicating the source of the information. If subdivided, the final piece is a string consisting of the letters T (for tòng, U+540C 同) B (for bù, U+4E0D 不), or Z (for zhèng, U+6B63 正).

T is used if the indicated source explicitly indicates the two are the same (e.g., by saying that the one character is "the same as" the other).

B is used if the source explicitly indicates that the two are used improperly one for the other.

Z is used if the source explicitly indicates that the given character is the preferred form. Thus, the Hanyu Da Zidian indicates that U+5231 刱 and U+5275 創 are semantic variants and that U+5275 創 is the preferred form.

SimplifiedVariant
 Tag:   kSimplifiedVariant
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Variants
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        U\+2?[0-9A-F]{4}

The Unicode value for the simplified Chinese variant for this character (if any).

Note that a character can be *both* a traditional Chinese character in its own right *and* the simplified variant for other characters (e.g., U+53F0).

In such case, the character is listed as its own simplified variant and one of its own traditional variants. This distinguishes this from the case where the character is not the simplified form for any character (e.g., U+4E95).

Much of the of the data on simplified and traditional variants was supplied by Wenlin <http://www.wenlin.com>

SpecializedSemanticVariant
 Tag:   kSpecializedSemanticVariant
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Variants
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        U+2?[0-9A-F]{4}(<k[A-Za-z]+(,k[A-Za-z]+)*)?

The Unicode value for a specialized semantic variant for this character. The syntax is the same as for the kSemanticVariant field.

A specialized semantic variant is an x- or y-variant with similar or identical meaning only in certain contexts (such as accountants' numerals).

TaiwanTelegraph
 Tag:   kTaiwanTelegraph
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Other Mappings
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{4}

The Taiwanese telegraph code for this character, derived from "Kanzi denpou koudo henkan-hyou" ("Chinese character telegraph code conversion table"), Lin Jinyi, KDD Engineering and Consulting, Tokyo, 1984.

Tang
 Tag:   kTang
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary-like Data
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        *?[A-Za-z()x{E6}x{251}x{259}x{25B}x{300}x{30C}]+

The Tang dynasty pronunciation(s) of this character, derived from or consistent with _T'ang Poetic Vocabulary_ by Hugh M. Stimson, Far Eastern Publications, Yale Univ. 1976.

TotalStrokes
 Tag:   kTotalStrokes
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary-like Data
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [1-9][0-9]{0,2}
 Introduced:    3.1

The total number of strokes in the character (including the radical). This value is for the character as drawn in the Unicode charts.

TraditionalVariant
 Tag:   kTraditionalVariant
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Variants
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        U\+2?[0-9A-F]{4}

The Unicode value(s) for the traditional Chinese variant(s) for this character.

Note that a character can be *both* a traditional Chinese character in its own right *and* the simplified variant for other characters (e.g., 台 U+53F0).

In such case, the character is listed as its own simplified variant and one of its own traditional variants. This distinguishes this from the case where the character is not the simplified form for any character (e.g., 井 U+4E95).

Much of the of the data on simplified and traditional variants was supplied by Wenlin Institute, Inc. <http://www.wenlin.com>.

Vietnamese
 Tag:   kVietnamese
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Dictionary-like Data
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [A-Za-zx{E0}-x{1B0}x{1EA1}-x{1EF9}]+
 Introduced:    3.1.1

The character's pronunciation(s) in Quốc ngữ.

Xerox
 Tag:   kXerox
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Other Mappings
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        [0-9]{3}:[0-9]{3}

The Xerox code for this character.

ZVariant
 Tag:   kZVariant
 Status:        Provisional
 Category:      Variants
 Separator:     space
 Syntax:        U+2?[0-9A-F]{4}(:k[A-Za-z]+)?

The Unicode value(s) for known z-variants of this character.

Valid UniHan Ranges

 U+3400..U+4DB5   : CJK Unified Ideographs Extension A
 U+4E00..U+9FA5   : CJK Unified Ideographs
 U+9FA6..U+9FBB   : CJK Unified Ideographs (4.1)
 U+F900..U+FA2D   : CJK Compatibility Ideographs (a)
 U+FA30..U+FA6A   : CJK Compatibility Ideographs (b)
 U+FA70..U+FAD9   : CJK Compatibility Ideographs (4.1)
 U+20000..U+2A6D6 : CJK Unified Ideographs Extension B
 U+2F800..U+2FA1D : CJK Compatibility Supplement

ACCURACY OF THE DATA:

Not all of these fields have been checked and proofed as carefully as some others have been. Please report errata, corrections, and additions at http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reporting.html.

The following fields may be taken as completely accurate and their values are *normative* parts of Unicode and ISO/IEC 10646-1 and -2:

kIRG_GSource, kIRG_TSource, kIRG_JSource, kIRG_KSource, kIRG_KPSource, kIRG_VSource, and kIICore

The IRG dictionary fields have also been extensively proofed by IRG experts and may be taken as accurate.

The following fields have been extensively proofed by experts world-wide and may be taken as accurate:

kBigFive, kCNS1986, kGB0, kGB1, kGB3, kGB5, kGB7, kGB8, kJis0, kJis1, kJIS0213, kKSC0, kKSC1, kPseudoGB1, kCCCII, kCNS1992, kDaeJaweon, kHanYu, kIBMJapan, kKangXi, kMatthews, kMorohashi, kNelson, kXerox

The remaining fields have not been as extensively proofed and their values should be taken as provisional.

RELEASE NOTES

5.0 The kCheungBauer, kCheungBauerIndex, kFourCornerCode, and kHangul fields were added.

4.1 The kPhonetic data was regenerated to include multiple entries for individual characters. Duplicate entries were removed from the kMandarin and kCantonese fields. All fields are now complete. The kFenn field had substantial new data added. The kFennIndex field was added. The latest data sets for kSBGY and kHanYu were included. The kAlternateKangXi and kAlternateMorohashi fields were dropped. The syntax of the kSemanticVariant and kSpecializedSemanticVariant fields was extended to include source information. The data in these two fields were substantially extended. The Cantonese field has been changed to use jyutping instead of Yale romanization. Preliminary data for new characters has been added. The various kIRG* fields have had their values resynchronized with data in ISO/IEC 10646. Numerous other individual corrections and additions were made. The header has been restructured and expanded, in preparation for moving the field descriptions into a separate document. The kRSAdobe_Japan1_6 field was added. The Cantonese readings have been extended and corrected using data from the Hong Kong Linguistic Society and Hong Kong Polytechnic University. The kIICore field was added.

4.0.1 In addition to numerous small changes and corrections, the kMandarin field has been regenerated from earlier versions of the data with later corrections re-inserted. This was required because of a script error which incorrectly assigned readings to various characters. The order of the kMandarin field has been restored to frequency order. There have been substantial updates and corrections to the kCantonese, kCihaiT, kCowles, kDefinition, kGradeLevel, kHKGlyph, kLau, kMeyerWempe, and kVietnamese fields. (The kCihaiT, kCowles, kGradeLevel, and kLau fields are now complete.) The kHanyuPinlu, kIRG_USource, and kGSR fields have been added.

KNOWN ERRORS

The Japanese and Korean readings need to be normalized. The variant fields need to be extended.