++ed by:

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65 non-PAUSE users.

Chad Granum
and 1 contributors


Test::Stream::ArrayBase - Base class for classes that use an arrayref instead of a hash.


A class:

    package My::Class;
    use strict;
    use warnings;

    use Test::Stream::ArrayBase accessors => [qw/foo bar baz/];

    # Chance to initialize defaults
    sub init {
        my $self = shift;    # No other args
        $self->[FOO] ||= "foo";
        $self->[BAR] ||= "bar";
        $self->[BAZ] ||= "baz";

    sub print {
        print join ", " => map { $self->[$_] } FOO, BAR, BAZ;

Subclass it

    package My::Subclass;
    use strict;
    use warnings;
    use Test::Stream::ArrayBase base => 'My::Class',    # subclass
        accessors                    => ['bat'];

    sub init {
        my $self = shift;

        # We get the constants from the base class for free.
        $self->[FOO] ||= 'SubFoo';
        $self->[BAT] || = 'bat';


use it:

    package main;
    use strict;
    use warnings;
    use My::Class;

    my $one = My::Class->new('MyFoo', 'MyBar');

    # Accessors!
    my $foo = $one->foo;    # 'MyFoo'
    my $bar = $one->bar;    # 'MyBar'
    my $baz = $one->baz;    # Defaulted to: 'baz'

    # Setters!
    $one->set_foo('A Foo');
    $one->set_bar('A Bar');
    $one->set_baz('A Baz');

    # It is an arrayref, you can do this!
    my ($foo, $bar, $baz) = @$one;

    # import constants:
    use My::Class qw/FOO BAR BAZ/;

    $one->[FOO] = 'xxx';


This package is used to generate classes based on arrays instead of hashes. The primary motivation for this is performance (not premature!). Using this class will give you a new() method, as well as generating accessors you request. Generated accessors will be getters, set_ACCESSOR setters will also be generated for you. You also get constants for each accessor (all caps) which return the index into the array for that accessor. Single inheritence is also supported. For obvious reasons you cannot use multiple inheritence with an array based object.



$it = $class->new(@VALUES)

Create a new instance from a list of ordered values.

$it = $class->new_from_pairs(%ACCESSOR_VAL_PAIRS)

Create a new instance using key/value pairs.

$hr = $it->to_hash()

Get a hashref dump of the object. This will also dump any ArrayBase objects within to a hash, but only surface-depth ones.


This import method is actually provided by Test::Stream::Exporter and allows you to import the constants generated for you.



This gives you the chance to set some default values to your fields. The only argument is $self with its indexes already set from the constructor.


To generate accessors you list them when using the module:

    use Test::Stream::ArrayBase accessors => [qw/foo/];

This will generate the following subs in your namespace:


This will let you import the constants


Getter, used to get the value of the foo field.


Setter, used to set the value of the foo field.


Constant, returs the field foo's index into the class arrayref. This function is also exported, but only when requested. Subclasses will also get this function as a constant, not simply a method, that means it is copied into the subclass namespace.


You can subclass an existing ArrayBase class.

    use Test::Stream::ArrayBase
        base      => 'Another::ArrayBase::Class',
        accessors => [qw/foo bar baz/],

Once an ArrayBase class is used as a subclass it is locked and no new fields can be added. All fields in any subclass will start at the next index after the last field of the parent. All constants from base classes are added to subclasses automatically.


Switching to an arrayref base has resulted in significant performance boosts.

When Test::Builder was initially refactored to support events, it was slow beyond reason. A large part of the slowdown was due to the use of proper methods instead of directly accessing elements. We also switched to using a LOT more objects that have methods.


The source code repository for Test::More can be found at http://github.com/Test-More/test-more/.


Chad Granum <exodist@cpan.org>


The following people have all contributed to the Test-More dist (sorted using VIM's sort function).

Chad Granum <exodist@cpan.org>
Fergal Daly <fergal@esatclear.ie>>
Mark Fowler <mark@twoshortplanks.com>
Michael G Schwern <schwern@pobox.com>


There has been a lot of code migration between modules, here are all the original copyrights together:


Copyright 2014 Chad Granum <exodist7@gmail.com>.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

See http://www.perl.com/perl/misc/Artistic.html


Originally authored by Michael G Schwern <schwern@pobox.com> with much inspiration from Joshua Pritikin's Test module and lots of help from Barrie Slaymaker, Tony Bowden, blackstar.co.uk, chromatic, Fergal Daly and the perl-qa gang.

Idea by Tony Bowden and Paul Johnson, code by Michael G Schwern <schwern@pobox.com>, wardrobe by Calvin Klein.

Copyright 2001-2008 by Michael G Schwern <schwern@pobox.com>.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

See http://www.perl.com/perl/misc/Artistic.html


To the extent possible under law, 唐鳳 has waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to Test-use-ok.

This work is published from Taiwan.



This module is copyright 2005 Fergal Daly <fergal@esatclear.ie>, some parts are based on other people's work.

Under the same license as Perl itself

See http://www.perl.com/perl/misc/Artistic.html


Copyright Mark Fowler <mark@twoshortplanks.com> 2002, 2004.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.