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5 PAUSE users
4 non-PAUSE users.

Jarkko Hietaniemi


Graph::TransitiveClosure::Matrix - create and query transitive closure of graph


    use Graph::TransitiveClosure::Matrix;
    use Graph::Directed; # or Undirected

    my $g  = Graph::Directed->new;
    $g->add_...(); # build $g

    # Compute the transitive closure matrix.
    my $tcm = Graph::TransitiveClosure::Matrix->new($g);

    # Being reflexive is the default,
    # meaning that null transitions are included.
    my $tcm = Graph::TransitiveClosure::Matrix->new($g, reflexive => 1);
    $tcm->is_reachable($u, $v)

    # is_reachable(u, v) is always reflexive.
    $tcm->is_reachable($u, $v)

    # The reflexivity of is_transitive(u, v) depends of the reflexivity
    # of the transitive closure.
    $tcg->is_transitive($u, $v)

    my $tcm = Graph::TransitiveClosure::Matrix->new($g, path_length => 1);
    $tcm->path_length($u, $v)

    my $tcm = Graph::TransitiveClosure::Matrix->new($g, path_vertices => 1);
    $tcm->path_vertices($u, $v)

    my $tcm = Graph::TransitiveClosure::Matrix->new($g, attribute_name => 'length');
    $tcm->path_length($u, $v)



You can use Graph::TransitiveClosure::Matrix to compute the transitive closure matrix of a graph and optionally also the minimum paths (lengths and vertices) between vertices, and after that query the transitiveness between vertices by using the is_reachable() and is_transitive() methods, and the paths by using the path_length() and path_vertices() methods.

If you modify the graph after computing its transitive closure, the transitive closure and minimum paths may become invalid.


Class Methods


Construct the transitive closure matrix of the graph $g.

new($g, options)

Construct the transitive closure matrix of the graph $g with options as a hash. The known options are

attribute_name => attribute_name

By default the edge attribute used for distance is w. You can change that by giving another attribute name with the attribute_name attribute to the new() constructor.

reflexive => boolean

By default the transitive closure matrix is not reflexive: that is, the adjacency matrix has zeroes on the diagonal. To have ones on the diagonal, use true for the reflexive option.

NOTE: this behaviour has changed from Graph 0.2xxx: transitive closure graphs were by default reflexive.

path_length => boolean

By default the path lengths are not computed, only the boolean transitivity. By using true for path_length also the path lengths will be computed, they can be retrieved using the path_length() method.

path_vertices => boolean

By default the paths are not computed, only the boolean transitivity. By using true for path_vertices also the paths will be computed, they can be retrieved using the path_vertices() method.

Object Methods

is_reachable($u, $v)

Return true if the vertex $v is reachable from the vertex $u, or false if not.

path_length($u, $v)

Return the minimum path length from the vertex $u to the vertex $v, or undef if there is no such path.

path_vertices($u, $v)

Return the minimum path (as a list of vertices) from the vertex $u to the vertex $v, or an empty list if there is no such path, OR also return an empty list if $u equals $v.

has_vertices($u, $v, ...)

Return true if the transitive closure matrix has all the listed vertices, false if not.

is_transitive($u, $v)

Return true if the vertex $v is transitively reachable from the vertex $u, false if not.


Return the list of vertices in the transitive closure matrix.


Return the predecessor of vertex $v in the transitive closure path going back to vertex $u.


For path_length() the return value will be the sum of the appropriate attributes on the edges of the path, weight by default. If no attribute has been set, one (1) will be assumed.

If you try to ask about vertices not in the graph, undefs and empty lists will be returned.


The transitive closure algorithm used is Warshall and Floyd-Warshall for the minimum paths, which is O(V**3) in time, and the returned matrices are O(V**2) in space.




Jarkko Hietaniemi jhi@iki.fi


This module is licensed under the same terms as Perl itself.