Catalyst::Response - stores output responding to the current client request


    $res = $c->response;


This is the Catalyst Response class, which provides methods for responding to the current client request. The appropriate Catalyst::Engine for your environment will turn the Catalyst::Response into a HTTP Response and return it to the client.


$res->body( $text | $fh | $iohandle_object )

    $c->response->body('Catalyst rocks!');

Sets or returns the output (text or binary data). If you are returning a large body, you might want to use a IO::Handle type of object (Something that implements the read method in the same fashion), or a filehandle GLOB. Catalyst will write it piece by piece into the response.

When using a IO::Handle type of object and no content length has been already set in the response headers Catalyst will make a reasonable attempt to determine the size of the Handle. Depending on the implementation of your handle object, setting the content length may fail. If it is at all possible for you to determine the content length of your handle object, it is recommended that you set the content length in the response headers yourself, which will be respected and sent by Catalyst in the response.


Predicate which returns true when a body has been set.


Alias for $res->status.


Shortcut for $res->headers->content_encoding.


Shortcut for $res->headers->content_length.


Shortcut for $res->headers->content_type.

This value is typically set by your view or plugin. For example, Catalyst::Plugin::Static::Simple will guess the mime type based on the file it found, while Catalyst::View::TT defaults to text/html.


Returns a reference to a hash containing cookies to be set. The keys of the hash are the cookies' names, and their corresponding values are hash references used to construct a CGI::Simple::Cookie object.

    $c->response->cookies->{foo} = { value => '123' };

The keys of the hash reference on the right correspond to the CGI::Simple::Cookie parameters of the same name, except they are used without a leading dash. Possible parameters are:



Shortcut for $res->headers->header.


Returns an HTTP::Headers object, which can be used to set headers.

    $c->response->headers->header( 'X-Catalyst' => $Catalyst::VERSION );


Alias for $res->body.

$res->redirect( $url, $status )

Causes the response to redirect to the specified URL. The default status is 302.

    $c->response->redirect( '' );
    $c->response->redirect( '', 307 );

This is a convenience method that sets the Location header to the redirect destination, and then sets the response status. You will want to return or $c->detach() to interrupt the normal processing flow if you want the redirect to occur straight away.

Note: do not give a relative URL as $url, i.e: one that is not fully qualified (= http://..., etc.) or that starts with a slash (= /path/here). While it may work, it is not guaranteed to do the right thing and is not a standard behaviour. You may opt to use uri_for() or uri_for_action() instead.


Sets or returns the HTTP 'Location'.


Sets or returns the HTTP status.


$res->code is an alias for this, to match HTTP::Response->code.

$res->write( $data )

Writes $data to the output stream.


Returns a PSGI $writer object that has two methods, write and close. You can close over this object for asynchronous and nonblocking applications. For example (assuming you are using a supporting server, like Twiggy

    package AsyncExample::Controller::Root;

    use Moose;

    BEGIN { extends 'Catalyst::Controller' }

    sub prepare_cb {
      my $write_fh = pop;
      return sub {
        my $message = shift;
        $write_fh->write("Finishing: $message\n");

    sub anyevent :Local :Args(0) {
      my ($self, $c) = @_;
      my $cb = $self->prepare_cb($c->res->write_fh);

      my $watcher;
      $watcher = AnyEvent->timer(
        after => 5,
        cb => sub {
          $cb->(scalar localtime);
          undef $watcher; # cancel circular-ref

$res->print( @data )

Prints @data to the output stream, separated by $,. This lets you pass the response object to functions that want to write to an IO::Handle.


Writes headers to response if not already written


Given a PSGI response (either three element ARRAY reference OR coderef expecting a $responder) set the response from it.

Properly supports streaming and delayed response and / or async IO if running under an expected event loop.


    package MyApp::Web::Controller::Test;

    use base 'Catalyst::Controller';
    use Plack::App::Directory;

    my $app = Plack::App::Directory->new({ root => "/path/to/htdocs" })

    sub myaction :Local Args {
      my ($self, $c) = @_;

Please note this does not attempt to map or nest your PSGI application under the Controller and Action namespace or path.


Ensures that the response is flushed and closed at the end of the request.


Provided by Moose


Catalyst Contributors, see


This library is free software. You can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.