++ed by:
BHANN EGOR

2 PAUSE user(s)

Kevin Ryde

NAME

Math::PlanePath::Hypot -- points in order of hypotenuse distance

SYNOPSIS

 use Math::PlanePath::Hypot;
 my $path = Math::PlanePath::Hypot->new;
 my ($x, $y) = $path->n_to_xy (123);

DESCRIPTION

This path visits integer points X,Y in order of their distance from the origin 0,0, or anti-clockwise from the X axis among those of equal distance,

                    84  73  83                         5
            74  64  52  47  51  63  72                 4
        75  59  40  32  27  31  39  58  71             3
        65  41  23  16  11  15  22  38  62             2
    85  53  33  17   7   3   6  14  30  50  82         1
    76  48  28  12   4   1   2  10  26  46  70    <- Y=0
    86  54  34  18   8   5   9  21  37  57  89        -1
        66  42  24  19  13  20  25  45  69            -2
        77  60  43  35  29  36  44  61  81            -3
            78  67  55  49  56  68  80                -4
                    87  79  88                        -5

                         ^
    -5  -4  -3  -2  -1  X=0  1   2   3   4   5

For example N=58 is at X=4,Y=-1 is sqrt(4*4+1*1) = sqrt(17) from the origin. The next furthest from the origin is X=3,Y=3 at sqrt(18).

See TriangularHypot for points in order of X^2+3*Y^2, or DiamondSpiral and PyrmaidSides in order of plain sum X+Y.

Equal Distances

Points with the same distance are taken in anti-clockwise order around from the X axis. For example X=3,Y=1 is sqrt(10) from the origin, as are the swapped X=1,Y=3, and X=-1,Y=3 etc in other quadrants, for a total 8 points N=30 to N=37 all the same distance.

When one of X or Y is 0 there's no negative, so just four negations like N=10 to 13 points X=2,Y=0 through X=0,Y=-2. Or on the diagonal X==Y there's no swap, so just four like N=22 to N=25 points X=3,Y=3 through X=3,Y=-3.

There can be more than one way for the same distance to arise. A Pythagorean triple like 3^2 + 4^2 == 5^2 has 8 points from the 3,4, then 4 points from the 5,0 giving a total 12 points N=70 to N=81. Other combinations like 20^2 + 15^2 == 24^2 + 7^2 occur too, and also with more than two different ways to have the same sum.

Multiples of 4

The first point of a given distance from the origin is either on the X axis or somewhere in the first octant. The row Y=1 just above the axis is the first of its equals from X>=2 onwards, and similarly further rows for big enough X.

There's always a multiple of 4 many points with the same distance so the first point has N=4*k+2, and similarly on the negative X side N=4*j, for some k or j. If you plot the prime numbers on the path then those even N's (composites) are gaps just above the positive X axis, and on or just below the negative X axis.

Circle Lattice

Gauss's circle lattice problem asks how many integer X,Y points there are within a circle of radius R.

The points on the X axis N=2,10,26,46, etc are the first for which X^2+Y^2==R^2 (integer X==R). Adding option n_start=>0 to make them each 1 less gives the number of points strictly inside, ie. X^2+Y^2 < R^2.

The last point satisfying X^2+Y^2==R^2 is either in the octant below the X axis, or is on the negative Y axis. Those N's are the number of points X^2+Y^2<=R^2, Sloane's A000328.

When that A000328 sequence is plotted on the path a straight line can be seen in the fourth quadrant extending down just above the diagonal. It arises from multiples of the Pythagorean 3^2 + 4^2, first X=4,Y=-3, then X=8,Y=-6, etc X=4*k,Y=-3*k. But sometimes the multiple is not the last among those of that 5*k radius, so there's gaps in the line. For example 20,-15 is not the last since because 24,-7 is also 25 away from the origin.

Even Points

Option points => "even" visits just the even points, meaning the sum X+Y even, so X,Y both even or both odd.

    points => "even"

          52    40    39    51             5
       47    32    23    31    46          4
    53    27    16    15    26    50       3
       33    11     7    10    30          2
    41    17     3     2    14    38       1
       24     8     1     6    22     <- Y=0
    42    18     4     5    21    45      -1
       34    12     9    13    37         -2
    54    28    19    20    29    57      -3
       48    35    25    36    49         -4
          55    43    44    56            -5

                    ^
    -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 X=0 1  2  3  4  5

Even points can be mapped to all points by a 45 degree rotate and flip. N=1,6,22,etc on the X axis here is on the X=Y diagonal of all-points. And conversely N=1,2,10,26,etc on the X=Y diagonal here is the X axis of all-points.

The sets of points with equal hypotenuse are the same in the even and all, but the flip takes them in a reversed order.

Odd Points

Option points => "odd" visits just the odd points, meaning sum X+Y odd, so X,Y one odd the other even.

    points => "odd"

                                             
             71    55    54    70                6
          63    47    36    46    62             5  
       64    37    27    26    35    61          4  
    72    38    19    14    18    34    69       3  
       48    20     7     6    17    45          2  
    56    28     8     2     5    25    53       1  
       39    15     3  +  1    13    33     <- Y=0  
    57    29     9     4    12    32    60      -1  
       49    21    10    11    24    52         -2  
    73    40    22    16    23    44    76      -3  
       65    41    30    31    43    68         -4  
          66    50    42    51    67            -5  
             74    58    59    75               -6
                                             
                       ^
    -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 X=0 1  2  3  4  5  6

Odd points can be mapped to all points by a 45 degree rotate and a shift X-1,Y+1 to put N=1 at the origin. The effect of that shift is as if the hypot measure in "all" points was (X-1/2)^2+(Y-1/2)^2 and for that reason the sets of points with equal hypots are not the same in odd and all.

FUNCTIONS

See "FUNCTIONS" in Math::PlanePath for behaviour common to all path classes.

$path = Math::PlanePath::Hypot->new ()
$path = Math::PlanePath::Hypot->new (points => $str), n_start => $n

Create and return a new hypot path object. The points option can be

    "all"         all integer X,Y (the default)
    "even"        only points with X+Y even
    "odd"         only points with X+Y odd
($x,$y) = $path->n_to_xy ($n)

Return the X,Y coordinates of point number $n on the path.

For $n < 1 the return is an empty list, it being considered the first point at X=0,Y=0 is N=1.

Currently it's unspecified what happens if $n is not an integer. Successive points are a fair way apart, so it may not make much sense to say give an X,Y position in between the integer $n.

$n = $path->xy_to_n ($x,$y)

Return an integer point number for coordinates $x,$y. Each integer N is considered the centre of a unit square and an $x,$y within that square returns N.

For "even" and "odd" options only every second square in the plane has an N and if $x,$y is a position not covered then the return is undef.

FORMULAS

The calculations are not particularly efficient currently. Private arrays are built similar to what's described for HypotOctant, but with replication for negative and swapped X,Y.

OEIS

Entries in Sloane's Online Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences related to this path include

    points="all", n_start=0
      A051132    N on X axis, being count points norm < X^2

    points="odd"
      A005883    count of points with norm==4*n+1

SEE ALSO

Math::PlanePath, Math::PlanePath::HypotOctant, Math::PlanePath::TriangularHypot, Math::PlanePath::PixelRings, Math::PlanePath::PythagoreanTree

HOME PAGE

http://user42.tuxfamily.org/math-planepath/index.html

LICENSE

Copyright 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Kevin Ryde

This file is part of Math-PlanePath.

Math-PlanePath is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 3, or (at your option) any later version.

Math-PlanePath is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with Math-PlanePath. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.