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Lee Johnson

NAME

Net::OAuth2::AuthorizationServer::Manual - How to use Net::OAuth2::AuthorizationServer

DESCRIPTION

The modules within the Net::OAuth2::AuthorizationServer namespace implement the various OAuth2 grant type flows. Each module implements a specific grant flow and is designed to "just work" with minimal detail and effort.

However there are some limitations in using the grant modules in a minimal way, such as inability to store tokens across restarts or multi-proc and losing tokens over a restart. You can get around these limitations by supplying a jwt_secret or by supplying your own overrides. The overrides are detailed in the "CALLBACK FUNCTIONS" section below - each grant module's docs lists the supported callback functions.

If you would still like to use the grant modules in an easy way, but also have tokens persistent across restarts and shared between multi processes then you can supply a jwt_secret. What you lose when doing this is the ability for tokens to be revoked. You could implement the verify_auth_code and verify_access_token methods to handle the revoking in your app. So that would be halfway between the "simple" and the "realistic" way. "CLIENT SECRET, TOKEN SECURITY, AND JWT" has more detail about JWTs.

WHICH GRANT TYPE SHOULD I USE?

You are advised to read https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6749 and figure that out depending on your needs, but to simplify - if you are implementing an app server and need to give out access tokens you should be using the "Authorization Code Grant" as this is the most secure flow. If you need to do a call from javascript then the "Implicit Grant" is probably what you need. You should not use the "Password Grant" or "Client Credentials Grant" unless your client/server apps are non-public facing or you really know what you are doing.

The "Authorization Code Grant" is used to obtain both access tokens and refresh tokens and is optimized for confidential clients. Since this is a redirection-based flow, the client must be capable of interacting with the resource owner's user-agent (typically a web browser) and capable of receiving incoming requests (via redirection) from the authorization server.

The "Implicit Grant" is used to obtain access tokens (it does not support the issuance of refresh tokens) and is optimized for public clients known to operate a particular redirection URI. These clients are typically implemented in a browser using a scripting language such as JavaScript.

The "Password Grant" type is suitable in cases where the resource owner has a trust relationship with the client, such as the device operating system or a highly privileged application. The authorization server should take special care when enabling this grant type and only allow it when other flows are not viable.

The "Client Credentials Grant" can request an access token using only its client credentials (or other supported means of authentication) when the client is requesting access to the protected resources under its control, or those of another resource owner that have been previously arranged with the authorization server.

CONSTRUCTOR ARGUMENTS

The following are accepted by all grant types

clients

A hashref of client details keyed like so:

  clients => {
    $client_id => {
      client_secret => $client_secret,
      redirect_uri  => $redirect_uri,  # in the case of "Implicit Grant"
      scopes        => {
        eat       => 1,
        drink     => 0,
        sleep     => 1,
      },
    },
  },

Note that setting a client_secret implies either "Authorization Code Grant" or "Client Credentials Grant". if this is not set then "Implicit Grant" is implied (that has an optional redirect_uri parameter)

Note the clients config is not required if you add all of the necessary callback functions detailed below, but is necessary for running the grant types in their simplest form (when there are *no* callbacks provided)

users

In the case of the "Password Grant" you should supply a hash of user to password mappings as well as the above client details:

        users => {
                test_user => 'reallyletmein',
        }

Again, the users config is not required if you add all of the necessary callback functions detailed below.

jwt_secret

This is optional. If set JWTs will be returned for the auth codes, access, and refresh tokens. JWTs allow you to validate tokens without doing a db lookup, but there are certain considerations (see "CLIENT SECRET, TOKEN SECURITY, AND JWT")

access_token_ttl

The validity period of the generated access token in seconds. Defaults to 3600 seconds (1 hour)

CALLBACK FUNCTIONS

These are the callbacks necessary to use the grant modules in a more realistic way, and are required to make the auth code, access token, refresh token, etc available across several processes and persistent.

The should be passed to the grant module constructor, each should be a reference to a subroutine:

  my $Grant = Net::OAuth2::AuthorizationServer::AuthorizationCodeGrant->new(
    ...
    confirm_by_resource_owner_cb => \&your_subroutine,
  );

The examples below use monogodb (a db helper returns a MongoDB::Database object) for the code that would be bespoke to your application - such as finding access codes in the database, and so on. You can refer to the tests in t/ and examples in examples/ in this distribution for how it could be done and to actually play around with the code both in a browser and on the command line.

The examples below are also using a "mojo_controller" object within the args hash passed to the callbacks - you can pass any extra keys/values you want within the args hash so you can do the necessary things (e.g. logging) along with the required args

confirm_by_resource_owner_cb

A callback to tell the grant module if the Resource Owner allowed or denied access to the Resource Server by the Client. The args hash should contain the client id, and an array reference of scopes requested by the client.

The callback should return a list with three elements. The first element is 1 if access is allowed, 0 if access is not allowed, otherwise undef if the flow was interrupted (e.g. calling redirect in a controller). The second element element should be the error message in the case of problems with the confirmation of the scopes. The third element should be an array reference of scopes as the user may choose to modify the list of requested scopes when confirming them.

  my $resource_owner_confirm_scopes_sub = sub {
    my ( %args ) = @_;

    my ( $obj,$client_id,$scopes_ref,$redirect_uri,$response_type )
        = @args{ qw/ mojo_controller client_id scopes redirect_uri response_type / };

    my $error;
    my $is_allowed = $obj->flash( "oauth_${client_id}" );

    # if user hasn't yet allowed the client access, or if they denied
    # access last time, we check [again] with the user for access
    if ( ! $is_allowed ) {
      $obj->flash( client_id => $client_id );
      $obj->flash( scopes    => $scopes_ref );

      # we need to redirect back to the /oauth/authorize route after
      # confirm/deny by resource owner (with the original params)
      my $uri = join( '?',$obj->url_for('current'),$obj->url_with->query );
      $obj->flash( 'redirect_after_login' => $uri );
      $obj->redirect_to( '/oauth/confirm_scopes' );
    }

    return ( $is_allowed,$error,$scopes_ref );
  };

Note that you need to pass on the current url (with query) so it can be returned to after the user has confirmed/denied access, and the confirm/deny result is stored in the flash (this could be stored in the user session if you do not want the user to confirm/deny every single time the Client requests access). Also note the caveat regarding flash and Path as documented above (login_resource_owner)

login_resource_owner_cb

A callback to tell the grant module if the Resource Owner is logged in. You can pass a hash of arguments should you need to do anything within the callback It should return 1 if the Resource Owner is logged in, otherwise it should do the required things to login the resource owner (e.g. redirect) and return 0:

  my $resource_owner_logged_in_sub = sub {
    my ( %args ) = @_;

    my $c = $args{mojo_controller};

    if ( ! $c->session( 'logged_in' ) ) {
      # we need to redirect back to the /oauth/authorize route after
      # login (with the original params)
      my $uri = join( '?',$c->url_for('current'),$c->url_with->query );
      $c->flash( 'redirect_after_login' => $uri );
      $c->redirect_to( '/oauth/login' );
      return 0;
    }

    return 1;
  };

Note that you need to pass on the current url (with query) so it can be returned to after the user has logged in. You can see that the flash is in use here - be aware that the default routes (if you don't pass them to grant module constructor) for authorize and access_token are under /oauth/ so it is possible that the flash may have a Path of /oauth/ - the consequence of this is that if your login route is under a different path (likely) you will not be able to access the value you set in the flash. The solution to this? Simply create another route under /oauth/ (so in this case /oauth/login) that points to the same route as the /login route

verify_client_cb

References: http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6749#section-4.1.1, http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6749#section-4.2.1, http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6749#section-4.3.1, http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6749#section-4.4.1,

A callback to verify if the client asking for authorization is known to the authorization server and allowed to get authorization for the passed scopes.

The args hash will always contain the client id and an array reference of requested scopes. Additionally for a ClientCredentials Grant the args hash will also contain the client secret or for an Implicit Grant response type and optionally redirect uri will be present, or for a Code Grant response type will be present.

The callback should return a list with three elements. The first element is either 1 or 0 to say that the client is allowed or disallowed, the second element should be the error message in the case of the client being disallowed and the third should be the ammended scopes_ref denoting the allowed scopes after filtering by the client allowed scopes:

  my $verify_client_sub = sub {
    my ( %args ) = @_;

    my ( $obj,$client_id,$scopes_ref,$client_secret,$redirect_uri,$response_type )
        = @args{ qw/ mojo_controller client_id scopes client_secret redirect_uri response_type / };

    if (my $client = $obj->db->get_collection( 'clients' )->find_one({ client_id => $client_id })) {
        my $client_scopes = [];

        # Check scopes
        foreach my $scope ( @{ $scopes_ref // [] } ) {

          if ( ! exists( $client->{scopes}{$scope} ) ) {
            return ( 0,'invalid_scope' );
          } elsif ( $client->{scopes}{$scope} ) {
            push @{$client_scopes}, $scope;
          }
        }

        # Implicit Grant Checks
        if ( $response_type && $response_type eq 'token' ) {
          # If 'credentials' have been assigned Implicit Grant should be prevented, so check for secret
          return (0, 'unauthorized_grant') if $client->{'secret'};

          # Check redirect_uri
          return (0, 'access_denied') 
              if ($client->{'redirect_uri'} && (!$redirect_uri || $redirect_uri ne $client->{'redirect_uri'});
        }

        # Credentials Grant Checks
        if ($client_secret && $client_secret ne $client->{'secret'}) {
            return (0, 'access_denied');
        }

        return ( 1, undef, $client_scopes );
    }

    return ( 0,'unauthorized_client' );
  };

store_auth_code_cb

A callback to allow you to store the generated authorization code. The args hash should contain the client id, the auth code validity period in seconds, the Client redirect URI, and a list of the scopes requested by the Client.

You should save the information to your data store, it can then be retrieved by the verify_auth_code callback for verification:

  my $store_auth_code_sub = sub {
    my ( %args ) = @_;

    my ( $obj,$auth_code,$client_id,$expires_in,$uri,$scopes_ref ) =
        @args{qw/ mojo_controller auth_code client_id expires_in redirect_uri scopes / };

    my $auth_codes = $obj->db->get_collection( 'auth_codes' );

    my $id = $auth_codes->insert({
      auth_code    => $auth_code,
      client_id    => $client_id,
      user_id      => $obj->session( 'user_id' ),
      expires      => time + $expires_in,
      redirect_uri => $uri,
      scope        => { map { $_ => 1 } @{ $scopes_ref // [] } },
    });

    return;
  };

verify_auth_code_cb

Reference: http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6749#section-4.1.3

A callback to verify the authorization code passed from the Client to the Authorization Server. The args hash should contain the client_id, the client_secret, the authorization code, and the redirect uri.

The callback should verify the authorization code using the rules defined in the reference RFC above, and return a list with 4 elements. The first element should be a client identifier (a scalar, or reference) in the case of a valid authorization code or 0 in the case of an invalid authorization code. The second element should be the error message in the case of an invalid authorization code. The third element should be a hash reference of scopes as requested by the client in the original call for an authorization code. The fourth element should be a user identifier:

  my $verify_auth_code_sub = sub {
    my ( %args ) = @_;

    my ( $obj,$client_id,$client_secret,$auth_code,$uri )
        = @args{qw/ mojo_controller client_id client_secret auth_code redirect_uri / };

    my $auth_codes      = $obj->db->get_collection( 'auth_codes' );
    my $ac              = $auth_codes->find_one({
      client_id => $client_id,
      auth_code => $auth_code,
    });

    my $client = $obj->db->get_collection( 'clients' )
      ->find_one({ client_id => $client_id });

    $client || return ( 0,'unauthorized_client' );

    if (
      ! $ac
      or $ac->{verified}
      or ( $uri ne $ac->{redirect_uri} )
      or ( $ac->{expires} <= time )
      or ( $client_secret ne $client->{client_secret} )
    ) {

      if ( $ac->{verified} ) {
        # the auth code has been used before - we must revoke the auth code
        # and access tokens
        $auth_codes->remove({ auth_code => $auth_code });
        $obj->db->get_collection( 'access_tokens' )->remove({
          access_token => $ac->{access_token}
        });
      }

      return ( 0,'invalid_grant' );
    }

    # scopes are those that were requested in the authorization request, not
    # those stored in the client (i.e. what the auth request restriced scopes
    # to and not everything the client is capable of)
    my $scope = $ac->{scope};

    $auth_codes->update( $ac,{ verified => 1 } );

    return ( $client_id,undef,$scope,$ac->{user_id} );
  };

store_access_token_cb

A callback to allow you to store the generated access and refresh tokens. The args hash should contain the client identifier as returned from the verify_auth_code callback, the authorization code, the access token, the refresh_token, the validity period in seconds, the scope returned from the verify_auth_code callback, and the old refresh token,

Note that the passed authorization code could be undefined, in which case the access token and refresh tokens were requested by the Client by the use of an existing refresh token, which will be passed as the old refresh token variable. In this case you should use the old refresh token to find out the previous access token and revoke the previous access and refresh tokens (this is *not* a hard requirement according to the OAuth spec, but i would recommend it).

The callback does not need to return anything.

You should save the information to your data store, it can then be retrieved by the verify_access_token callback for verification:

  my $store_access_token_sub = sub {
    my ( %args ) = @_;

    my (
      $obj,$client,$auth_code,$access_token,$refresh_token,
      $expires_in,$scope,$old_refresh_token
    ) = @args{qw/
      mojo_controller client_id auth_code access_token
      refresh_token expires_in scopes old_refresh_token
    / };

    my $access_tokens  = $obj->db->get_collection( 'access_tokens' );
    my $refresh_tokens = $obj->db->get_collection( 'refresh_tokens' );

    my $user_id;

    if ( ! defined( $auth_code ) && $old_refresh_token ) {
      # must have generated an access token via refresh token so revoke the old
      # access token and refresh token (also copy required data if missing)
      my $prev_rt = $obj->db->get_collection( 'refresh_tokens' )->find_one({
        refresh_token => $old_refresh_token,
      });

      my $prev_at = $obj->db->get_collection( 'access_tokens' )->find_one({
        access_token => $prev_rt->{access_token},
      });

      # access tokens can be revoked, whilst refresh tokens can remain so we
      # need to get the data from the refresh token as the access token may
      # no longer exist at the point that the refresh token is used
      $scope //= $prev_rt->{scope};
      $user_id = $prev_rt->{user_id};

      # need to revoke the access token
      $obj->db->get_collection( 'access_tokens' )
        ->remove({ access_token => $prev_at->{access_token} });

    } else {
      $user_id = $obj->db->get_collection( 'auth_codes' )->find_one({
        auth_code => $auth_code,
      })->{user_id};
    }

    if ( ref( $client ) ) {
      $scope  = $client->{scope};
      $client = $client->{client_id};
    }

    # if the client has en existing refresh token we need to revoke it
    $refresh_tokens->remove({ client_id => $client, user_id => $user_id });

    $access_tokens->insert({
      access_token  => $access_token,
      scope         => $scope,
      expires       => time + $expires_in,
      refresh_token => $refresh_token,
      client_id     => $client,
      user_id       => $user_id,
    });

    $refresh_tokens->insert({
      refresh_token => $refresh_token,
      access_token  => $access_token,
      scope         => $scope,
      client_id     => $client,
      user_id       => $user_id,
    });

    return;
  };

verify_access_token_cb

Reference: http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6749#section-7

A callback to verify the access token. The args hash should contain the access token, an optional reference to a list of the scopes and if the access_token is actually a refresh token. Note that the access token could be the refresh token, as this method is also called when the Client uses the refresh token to get a new access token (in which case the value of the $is_refresh_token variable will be true).

The callback should verify the access code using the rules defined in the reference RFC above, and return false if the access token is not valid otherwise it should return something useful if the access token is valid - since this method is called by the call to $c->oauth you probably need to return a hash of details that the access token relates to (client id, user id, etc).

In the event of an invalid, expired, etc, access or refresh token you should return a list where the first element is 0 and the second contains the error message (almost certainly 'invalid_grant' in this case)

  my $verify_access_token_sub = sub {
    my ( %args ) = @_;

    my ( $obj,$access_token,$scopes_ref,$is_refresh_token )
          = @args{qw/ mojo_controller access_token scopes is_refresh_token /};

    my $rt = $obj->db->get_collection( 'refresh_tokens' )->find_one({
      refresh_token => $access_token
    });

    if ( $is_refresh_token && $rt ) {

      if ( $scopes_ref ) {
        foreach my $scope ( @{ $scopes_ref // [] } ) {
          if ( ! exists( $rt->{scope}{$scope} ) or ! $rt->{scope}{$scope} ) {
            return ( 0,'invalid_grant' )
          }
        }
      }

      # $rt contains client_id, user_id, etc
      return $rt;
    }
    elsif (
      my $at = $obj->db->get_collection( 'access_tokens' )->find_one({
        access_token => $access_token,
      })
    ) {

      if ( $at->{expires} <= time ) {
        # need to revoke the access token
        $obj->db->get_collection( 'access_tokens' )
          ->remove({ access_token => $access_token });

        return ( 0,'invalid_grant' )
      } elsif ( $scopes_ref ) {

        foreach my $scope ( @{ $scopes_ref // [] } ) {
          if ( ! exists( $at->{scope}{$scope} ) or ! $at->{scope}{$scope} ) {
            return ( 0,'invalid_grant' )
          }
        }

      }

      # $at contains client_id, user_id, etc
      return $at;
    }

    return ( 0,'invalid_grant' )
  };

verify_user_password_cb

A callback to verify a username and password. The args hash should contain the client_id, client_secret, username, password, an optional reference to a list of the scopes.

The callback should verify client details and username + password and return a a hash list with 2 elements. The first element should a hash containing the client id if the client details + username is valid + scopes + username. The second element should be the error message in the case of bad credentials.

  my $verify_user_password_sub = sub {
    my ( $self, %args ) = @_;

    my ( $obj, $client_id, $client_secret, $username, $password, $scopes ) =
      @args{ qw/ mojo_controller client_id client_secret username password scopes / };

    my $client = $obj->db->get_collection( 'clients' )
      ->find_one({ client_id => $client_id });

    $client || return ( 0, 'unauthorized_client' );

    my $user = $obj->db->get_collection( 'users' )
      ->find_one({ username => $username });

    if (
      ! $user
      or $client_secret ne $client->{client_secret}
      # some routine to check the password against hashed + salted
      or ! $obj->passwords_match( $user->{password},$password )
    ) {
      return ( 0, 'invalid_grant' );
    }
    else {
      return ({
          client_id => $client_id,
          scopes    => $scopes,
          username  => $username,
      });
    }

  };

PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER

Having defined the above callbacks, customized to your app/data store/etc, you can configuration the grant module. This example is using the for Net::OAuth2::AuthorizationServer::AuthorizationCodeGrant:

  my $Grant = Net::OAuth2::AuthorizationServer::AuthorizationCodeGrant->new(
    login_resource_owner_cb      => $resource_owner_logged_in_sub,
    confirm_by_resource_owner_cb => $resource_owner_confirm_scopes_sub,
    verify_client_cb             => $verify_client_sub,
    store_auth_code_cb           => $store_auth_code_sub,
    verify_auth_code_cb          => $verify_auth_code_sub,
    store_access_token_cb        => $store_access_token_sub,
    verify_access_token_cb       => $verify_access_token_sub,
  );

Note because we are using the verify_client_cb above we do not need to pass a hashref of clients - this will be handled in the verify_client_cb sub

SCOPES

Access tokens can have the concept of "scopes", which you can roughly translate to permissions/privileges on your application side. The RFC covers the details: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6749#section-3.3. You've probably seen this in action when logging into a service using a social login option, you see a list of things the service would like to be able to do on your behalf and in most cases you are allowed to uncheck certain permissions from the list.

The various grant types supported by the modules in this distribution fully support the use of scopes and the important thing to note is that the various grant types (as used with no overrides) will validate any requested scopes against the configured scopes with the following logic:

  1) If a scope is requested that the client is not configured to have (does
  not exist in the client's scope list) then "invalid_scope" will be returned

  2) If a scope is requested that the client is not configured to use (exists
  in the client's scope list but is set to false) then "access_denied" wil be
  returned

Note that this may change slightly as we figure out the best implementation for various use cases when no overrides are supplied.

CLIENT SECRET, TOKEN SECURITY, AND JWT

The auth codes and access tokens generated by the grant modules should be unique. When jwt_secret is not supplied they are generated using a combination of the generation time (to microsecond precision) + rand() + a call to Crypt::PRNG's random_string function. These are then base64 encoded to make sure there are no problems with URL encoding.

If jwt_secret is set, which should be a strong secret, the tokens are created with the Mojo::JWT module and each token should contain a jti using a call to Crypt::PRNG's random_string function. You can decode the tokens, typically with Mojo::JWT, to get the information about the client and scopes - but you should not trust the token unless the signature matches.

As the JWT contains the client information and scopes you can, in theory, use this information to validate an auth code / access token / refresh token without doing a database lookup. However, it gets somewhat more complicated when you need to revoke tokens. For more information about JWTs and revoking tokens see https://auth0.com/blog/2015/03/10/blacklist-json-web-token-api-keys/ and https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7519. Ultimately you're going to have to use some shared store to revoke tokens, but using the jwt_secret config setting means you can simplify parts of the process as the JWT will contain the client, user, and scope information (JWTs are also easy to debug: http://jwt.io).

When using JWTs expiry dates will be automatically checked (Mojo::JWT has this built in to the decoding). The claims hash looks something like this:

  {
    'iat'     => 1435225100,               # generation time
    'exp'     => 1435228700,               # expiry time
    'aud'     => undef                     # redirect uri in case of type: auth
    'jti'     => 'psclb1AcC2OjAKtVJRg1JjRJumkVTkDj', # unique

    'type'    => 'access',                 # auth, access, or refresh
    'scopes'  => [ 'list','of','scopes' ], # as requested by client
    'client'  => 'some client id',         # as returned from verify_auth_code
    'user_id' => 'some user id',           # as returned from verify_auth_code
  };

If you wish to override the details set above you can pass a jwt_claims_cb in the call to token. This will be passed the details that are used above, and any returned keys will override the defaults:

  $Grant->token(
    ...
    jwt_claims_cb => sub {
      my ( $args ) = @_;

      return (
        user_id => 'foo', # override default user_id
        iss     => ...    # add extra claims
      );
    },
  );

the args hash passed to the callback looks like so:

  {
    user_id      => $user_id,
    client_id    => $client_id,
    type         => $type,
    scopes       => $scopes_ref,
    redirect_uri => $redirect_uri,
    jti          => $jti,
  }

Since a call for an access token requires both the authorization code and the client secret you don't need to worry too much about protecting the authorization code - however you obviously need to make sure the client secret and resultant access tokens and refresh tokens are stored securely. Since if any of these are compromised you will have your app endpoints open to use by who or whatever has access to them.

You should therefore treat the client secret, access token, and refresh token as you would treat passwords - so hashed, salted, and probably encrypted. As with the various checking functions required by the grant module, the securing of this data is left to you. More information:

https://stackoverflow.com/questions/1626575/best-practices-around-generating-oauth-tokens

https://stackoverflow.com/questions/1878830/securly-storing-openid-identifiers-and-oauth-tokens

https://stackoverflow.com/questions/4419915/how-to-keep-the-oauth-consumer-secret-safe-and-how-to-react-when-its-compromis

REFERENCES

EXAMPLES

There are examples included with this distribution in the examples/ dir. See examples/README for more information about these examples.

AUTHOR

Lee Johnson - leejo@cpan.org

LICENSE

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself. If you would like to contribute documentation or file a bug report then please raise an issue / pull request:

    https://github.com/Humanstate/net-oauth2-authorizationserver