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DBIx::Class::Storage::DBI - DBI storage handler



This class represents the connection to an RDBMS via DBI. See DBIx::Class::Storage for general information. This pod only documents DBI-specific methods and behaviors.



The arguments of connect_info are always a single array reference.

This is normally accessed via "connection" in DBIx::Class::Schema, which encapsulates its argument list in an arrayref before calling connect_info here.

The arrayref can either contain the same set of arguments one would normally pass to "connect" in DBI, or a lone code reference which returns a connected database handle. Please note that the DBI docs recommend that you always explicitly set AutoCommit to either 0 or 1. DBIx::Class further recommends that it be set to 1, and that you perform transactions via our "txn_do" method. DBIx::Class will set it to 1 if you do not do explicitly set it to zero. This is the default for most DBDs. See below for more details.

In either case, if the final argument in your connect_info happens to be a hashref, connect_info will look there for several connection-specific options:


Specifies things to do immediately after connecting or re-connecting to the database. Its value may contain:

an array reference

This contains SQL statements to execute in order. Each element contains a string or a code reference that returns a string.

a code reference

This contains some code to execute. Unlike code references within an array reference, its return value is ignored.


Takes arguments in the same form as on_connect_do and executes them immediately before disconnecting from the database.

Note, this only runs if you explicitly call disconnect on the storage object.


If set to a true value, this option will disable the caching of statement handles via "prepare_cached" in DBI.


Sets the limit dialect. This is useful for JDBC-bridge among others where the remote SQL-dialect cannot be determined by the name of the driver alone.


Specifies what characters to use to quote table and column names. If you use this you will want to specify name_sep as well.

quote_char expects either a single character, in which case is it is placed on either side of the table/column, or an arrayref of length 2 in which case the table/column name is placed between the elements.

For example under MySQL you'd use quote_char => '`', and user SQL Server you'd use quote_char => [qw/[ ]/].


This only needs to be used in conjunction with quote_char, and is used to specify the charecter that seperates elements (schemas, tables, columns) from each other. In most cases this is simply a ..


This Storage driver normally installs its own HandleError, sets RaiseError and ShowErrorStatement on, and sets PrintError off on all database handles, including those supplied by a coderef. It does this so that it can have consistent and useful error behavior.

If you set this option to a true value, Storage will not do its usual modifications to the database handle's attributes, and instead relies on the settings in your connect_info DBI options (or the values you set in your connection coderef, in the case that you are connecting via coderef).

Note that your custom settings can cause Storage to malfunction, especially if you set a HandleError handler that suppresses exceptions and/or disable RaiseError.


If this option is true, DBIx::Class will use savepoints when nesting transactions, making it possible to recover from failure in the inner transaction without having to abort all outer transactions.

These options can be mixed in with your other DBI connection attributes, or placed in a seperate hashref after all other normal DBI connection arguments.

Every time connect_info is invoked, any previous settings for these options will be cleared before setting the new ones, regardless of whether any options are specified in the new connect_info.

Another Important Note:

DBIC can do some wonderful magic with handling exceptions, disconnections, and transactions when you use AutoCommit => 1 combined with txn_do for transaction support.

If you set AutoCommit => 0 in your connect info, then you are always in an assumed transaction between commits, and you're telling us you'd like to manage that manually. A lot of DBIC's magic protections go away. We can't protect you from exceptions due to database disconnects because we don't know anything about how to restart your transactions. You're on your own for handling all sorts of exceptional cases if you choose the AutoCommit => 0 path, just as you would be with raw DBI.


  # Simple SQLite connection
  ->connect_info([ 'dbi:SQLite:./foo.db' ]);

  # Connect via subref
  ->connect_info([ sub { DBI->connect(...) } ]);

  # A bit more complicated
      { AutoCommit => 1 },
      { quote_char => q{"}, name_sep => q{.} },

  # Equivalent to the previous example
      { AutoCommit => 1, quote_char => q{"}, name_sep => q{.} },

  # Subref + DBIC-specific connection options
      sub { DBI->connect(...) },
          quote_char => q{`},
          name_sep => q{@},
          on_connect_do => ['SET search_path TO myschema,otherschema,public'],
          disable_sth_caching => 1,


This method is deprecated in favor of setting via "connect_info".


Arguments: ($subref | $method_name), @extra_coderef_args?

Execute the given $subref or $method_name using the new exception-based connection management.

The first two arguments will be the storage object that dbh_do was called on and a database handle to use. Any additional arguments will be passed verbatim to the called subref as arguments 2 and onwards.

Using this (instead of $self->_dbh or $self->dbh) ensures correct exception handling and reconnection (or failover in future subclasses).

Your subref should have no side-effects outside of the database, as there is the potential for your subref to be partially double-executed if the database connection was stale/dysfunctional.


  my @stuff = $schema->storage->dbh_do(
    sub {
      my ($storage, $dbh, @cols) = @_;
      my $cols = join(q{, }, @cols);
      $dbh->selectrow_array("SELECT $cols FROM foo");


Our disconnect method also performs a rollback first if the database is not in AutoCommit mode.


Returns the dbh - a data base handle of class DBI.


Arguments: $ident, $select, $condition, $attrs

Handle a SQL select statement.


Arguments: $sql

Returns a DBI sth (statement handle) for the supplied SQL.


Return the row id of the last insert.


Returns the database driver name.


Given a datatype from column info, returns a database specific bind attribute for $dbh->bind_param($val,$attribute) or nothing if we will let the database planner just handle it.

Generally only needed for special case column types, like bytea in postgres.


Arguments: $schema \@databases, $version, $directory, $preversion, \%sqlt_args

Creates a SQL file based on the Schema, for each of the specified database types, in the given directory.

By default, \%sqlt_args will have

 { add_drop_table => 1, ignore_constraint_names => 1, ignore_index_names => 1 }

merged with the hash passed in. To disable any of those features, pass in a hashref like the following

 { ignore_constraint_names => 0, # ... other options }


Arguments: $schema, $type, $version, $directory, $sqlt_args

Returns the statements used by "deploy" and "deploy" in DBIx::Class::Schema. The database driver name is given by $type, though the value from "sqlt_type" is used if it is not specified.

$directory is used to return statements from files in a previously created "create_ddl_dir" directory and is optional. The filenames are constructed from "ddl_filename" in DBIx::Class::Schema, the schema name and the $version.

If no $directory is specified then the statements are constructed on the fly using SQL::Translator and $version is ignored.

See "METHODS" in SQL::Translator for a list of values for $sqlt_args.


Returns the datetime parser class


Defines (returns) the datetime parser class - currently hardwired to DateTime::Format::MySQL


See "datetime_parser"


A boolean that reports if a particular DBIx::Class::Storage::DBI is set to replicate from a master database. Default is undef, which is the result returned by databases that don't support replication.


Returns a number that represents a certain amount of lag behind a master db when a given storage is replicating. The number is database dependent, but starts at zero and increases with the amount of lag. Default in undef


The module defines a set of methods within the DBIC::SQL::Abstract namespace. These build on SQL::Abstract::Limit to provide the SQL query functions.

The following methods are extended:-


See "connect_info" for details. For setting, this method is deprecated in favor of "connect_info".


See "connect_info" for details. For setting, this method is deprecated in favor of "connect_info".


See "connect_info" for details. For setting, this method is deprecated in favor of "connect_info".


Matt S. Trout <mst@shadowcatsystems.co.uk>

Andy Grundman <andy@hybridized.org>


You may distribute this code under the same terms as Perl itself.