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4 PAUSE user(s)
1 non-PAUSE user(s).

Marc Chantreux


A math example: every elements of fibo below 1000 (1 element a time in memory)

    use Perlude;
    use Modern::Perl;

    sub fibo {
        my @seed = @_;
        sub {
            push @seed, $seed[0] + $seed[1];
            shift @seed

    now {say} takeWhile { $_ < 1000 } fibo 1,1;

A sysop example: throw your shellscripts away

    use Perlude;
    use strictures;
    use 5.10.0;

    # iterator on a glob matches stolen from Perlude::Sh module
    sub ls {
        my $glob = glob shift;
        my $match;
        sub {
            return $match while $match = <$glob>;

    # show every txt files in /tmp
    now {say} ls "/tmp/*txt

    # remove empty files from tmp
    now { unlink if -f && ! -s } ls "/tmp/*"

    # something more reusable/readable ? 

    sub is_empty_file { -f && ! -s }
    sub empty_files_of { filter {is_empty_file} shift }
    sub rm { now {unlink} shift }

    rm empty_files_of ls "/tmp/*./txt";


Perlude is a brunch of functions (mainly stolen from the haskell Prelude) that ease programming with iterators by showing them as a stream (list of values that may be computed) instead of a sequence of calls. If you're used to a functionnal langage, the unix shell or the powershell: you're at home!

See a basic example (explanations and definition right after the code)

    sub seq { # the generator

        my $max = shift;
        my $x   = 1;

        sub { # the iterator construction

            # returning an empty list means that the stream is exhausted
            return if $x > $max;

            # else, return the next value of the stream
            # (undef is a valid value!)

    my $to5 = seq 5; # the iterator
    # remaining $to5 stream = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

    say "first iteration: ", $to5->();
    # prints 1
    # remaining $to5 stream = 2, 3, 4, 5

    say join ', ', map $to5->(), 1..100;
    # call the remaining stream: exhaustion

    say to5->();
    # says nothing: $to5 is an exhausted stream

    # folding: store a stream in a array

    $to5 = seq 75;

    # fold 50 first values
    my @first = map $to5->(), 1..50;

    # fold 25 last  values
    my @last = map $to5->(), 1..50;

seq is a "generator": a function that returns an iterator.

$to5 is an "iterator": is a function can compute a complete list by the mean of releasing one element by call.

An "iteration" is the action of calling an iterator.

Folding a stream is the action of releasing a set of the stream values in an array.

We can see an empty list as a tail of any list as all those notations are equivalent

    1, 2, 3, 4, 5
    1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
    1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ()

So the empty list is used as convention to say that the stream is exhausted. Note that undef is a valid element of a stream. That's why is () maybe called "bound" in this documentation. Note that Perlude functions are using array context to read the iterators so

    return unless $something_to_release

will return () which is a valid way to end the stream

Function composition

When relevant, i used the Haskell Prelude documentation descriptions and examples. for example, the take documentation comes from http://hackage.haskell.org/packages/archive/base/latest/doc/html/Prelude.html#v:take



range $begin, [ $end, [ $step ] ]

A range of numbers from $begin to $end (infinity if $end isn't set) $step by $step.

    range 5     # from 5 to infinity
    range 5,9   # 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
    range 5,9,2 # 5, 7, 9

cycle @set

infinitly loop on a set of values

    cycle 1,4,7

    # 1,4,7,1,4,7,1,4,7,1,4,7,1,4,7,...

records $ref

given any kind of ref that implements the "<>" iterator, returns a Perlude compliant iterator.

    now {print if /data/} records do {
        open my $fh,"foo";


same as records but chomp all records before release.

    now {say if /data/} records do {
        open my $fh,"foo";


filters are composition functions that take a stream and returns a modified stream.



take $n, $xs

take $n, applied to a list $xs, returns the prefix of $xs of length $n, or $xs itself if $n > length $xs:

    sub top10 { take 10, shift }

    take 5, range 1, 10
    # 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ()

    take 5, range 1, 3
    # 1, 2, 3, ()

takeWhile $predicate, $xs

takeWhile, applied to a predicate $p and a list $xs, returns the longest prefix (possibly empty) of $xs of elements that satisfy $p

    takeWhile { 10 > ($_*2) } range 1,5
    # 1, 2, 3, 4

drop $n, $xs

drop $n $xs returns the suffix of $xs after the first $n elements, or () if $n > length $xs:

    drop 3, range 1,5
    # 4 , 5 

    drop 3, range 1,2
    # ()

dropWhile $predicate, $xs

dropWhile $predicate, $xs returns the suffix remaining after dropWhile $predicate, $xs

     dropWhile { $_ < 3 } unfold [1,2,3,4,5,1,2,3] # [3,4,5,1,2,3]
     dropWhile { $_ < 9 } unfold [1,2,3]           # []
     dropWhile { $_ < 0 } unfold [1,2,3]           # [1,2,3]


unfold $array

unfold returns an iterator on the $array ref so that every Perlude goodies can be applied. there is no side effect on the referenced array.

    my @lower = fold takeWhile {/data/} unfold $abstract

see also fold


now {actions} $xs

read the $xs stream and execute the {actions} block with the returned element as $_ until the $xs stream exhausts. it also returns the last transformed element so that it can be used to foldl.

(compare it to perl6 "eager" or haskell foldl)

fold $xs

returns the array of all the elements computed by $xs

    say join ',',      take 5, sub { state $x=-2; $x+=2 } # CODE(0x180bad8)
    say join ',', fold take 5, sub { state $x=-2; $x+=2 } # 0,2,4,6,8

see also unfold

nth $xs

returns the nth element of a stream

    say fold nth 5, sub { state $x=1; $x++ }
    # 5


concat @streams

concat takes a list of streams and returns them as a unique one:

    concat map { unfold [split //] } split /\s*/; 

streams every chars of the words of the text

concatC $stream_of_streams

takes a stream of streams $stream_of_streams and expose them as a single one. A stream of streams is a steam that returns streams.

    concatC { take 3, range $_ } lines $fh

take 3 elements from the range started by the values of $fh, so if $fh contains (5,10), the stream is (5,6,7,10,11,12)

concatM $apply, $stream

applying $apply on each iterations of $stream must return a new stream. concatM expose them as a single stream.

    # ls is a generator for a glob

    sub cat { concatM {lines} ls shift } 
    cat "/tmp/*.conf"


  • Philippe Bruhat (BooK)

  • Marc Chantreux (eiro)

  • Olivier Mengué (dolmen)


Burak Gürsoy (cpanization)


  • Thanks to Nicolas Pouillard and Valentin (#haskell-fr), i leanrt a lot about streams, lazyness, lists and so on. Lazyness.pm was my first attempt.

  • The name "Perlude" is an idea from Germain Maurice, the amazing sysop of http://linkfluence.com back to early 2010.

  • Former versions of Perlude used undef as stream terminator. After my talk at the French Perl Workshop 2011, dolmen suggested to use () as stream terminator, which makes sense not only because undef is a value but also because () is the perfect semantic to end a stream. So Book, Dolmen and myself rewrote the entire module from scratch in the hall of the hotel with a bottle of chartreuse and Cognominal.

    We also tried some experiments about real lazyness, memoization and so on. it becomes clear now that this is hell to implement correctly: use perl6 instead :)

    I was drunk and and mispelled Perlude as "Perl dude" so Cognominal collected some quotes of "The Big Lebowski" and we called ourselves "the Perl Dudes". This is way my best remember of peer programming and one of the best moment i shared with my friends mongueurs.

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