Mail::Transport::Send - send a message


   is a Mail::Transport
   is a Mail::Reporter

 Mail::Transport::Send is extended by


 my $message = Mail::Message->new(...);

 # Some extensions implement sending:
 $message->send(via => 'sendmail');

 my $sender = Mail::Transport::SMTP->new(...);


Send a message to the destinations as specified in the header. The Mail::Transport::Send module is capable of autodetecting which of the following modules work on your system; you may simply call send without via options to get a message transported.

  • Mail::Transport::Sendmail

    Use sendmail to process and deliver the mail. This requires the sendmail program to be installed on your system. Whether this is an original sendmail, or a replacement from Postfix does matter.

  • Mail::Transport::Exim

    Use exim to distribute the message.

  • Mail::Transport::Qmail

    Use qmail-inject to distribute the message.

  • Mail::Transport::SMTP

    In this case, Perl is handling mail transport on its own. This is less desired but more portable than sending with sendmail or qmail. The advantage is that this sender is environment independent, and easier to configure. However, there is no daemon involved which means that your program will wait until the message is delivered, and the message is lost when your program is interrupted during delivery (which may take hours to complete).

  • Mail::Transport::Mailx

    Use the external mail, mailx, or Mail programs to send the message. Usually, the result is poor, because some versions of these programs do not support MIME headers. Besides, these programs are known to have exploitable security breaches.



 -Option    --Defined in     --Default
  executable  Mail::Transport  undef
  hostname    Mail::Transport  'localhost'
  interval    Mail::Transport  30
  log         Mail::Reporter   'WARNINGS'
  password    Mail::Transport  undef
  port        Mail::Transport  undef
  proxy       Mail::Transport  undef
  retry       Mail::Transport  <false>
  timeout     Mail::Transport  120
  trace       Mail::Reporter   'WARNINGS'
  username    Mail::Transport  undef
  via         Mail::Transport  'sendmail'
executable => FILENAME
interval => SECONDS
log => LEVEL
password => STRING
port => INTEGER
proxy => PATH
retry => NUMBER|undef
timeout => SECONDS
trace => LEVEL
username => STRING

Sending mail


Determine the destination for this message. If a valid ADDRESS is defined, this is used to overrule the addresses within the message. If the ADDRESS is undef it is ignored.

If no ADDRESS is specified, the message is scanned for resent groups (see Mail::Message::Head::Complete::resentGroups()). The addresses found in the first (is latest added) group are used. If no resent groups are found, the normal To, Cc, and Bcc lines are taken.


Print the content of the MESSAGE to the FILEHANDLE.

 -Option     --Default
  body_only    <false>
  undisclosed  <false>
body_only => BOOLEAN

Print only the body of the message, not the whole.

undisclosed => BOOLEAN

Do not print the Bcc and Resent-Bcc lines. Default false, which means that they are not printed.

$obj->send(MESSAGE, OPTIONS)

Transmit the MESSAGE, which may be anything what can be coerced into a Mail::Message, so including Mail::Internet and MIME::Entity messages. It returns true when the transmission was successfully completed.

 -Option  --Default
  interval  new(interval)
  retry     new(retry)
  to        undef
interval => SECONDS
retry => INTEGER
to => STRING

Overrules the destination(s) of the message, which is by default taken from the (Resent-)To, (Resent-)Cc, and (Resent-)Bcc.

$obj->trySend(MESSAGE, OPTIONS)

Try to send the message. This will return true if successful, and false in case some problems where detected. The $? contains the exit status of the command which was started.

Server connection

$obj->findBinary(NAME [, DIRECTORIES])

See "Server connection" in Mail::Transport


See "Server connection" in Mail::Transport


See "Server connection" in Mail::Transport

Error handling


See "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter


See "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter


Mail::Transport::Send->defaultTrace([LEVEL]|[LOGLEVEL, TRACELEVEL]|[LEVEL, CALLBACK])

See "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter


See "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter

$obj->log([LEVEL [,STRINGS]])

Mail::Transport::Send->log([LEVEL [,STRINGS]])

See "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter



See "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter


See "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter


See "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter


See "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter


See "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter


See "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter


See "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter



See "Cleanup" in Mail::Reporter


See "Cleanup" in Mail::Reporter


Warning: Message has no destination

It was not possible to figure-out where the message is intended to go to.

Error: Package $package does not implement $method.

Fatal error: the specific package (or one of its superclasses) does not implement this method where it should. This message means that some other related classes do implement this method however the class at hand does not. Probably you should investigate this and probably inform the author of the package.

Warning: Resent group does not specify a destination

The message which is sent is the result of a bounce (for instance created with Mail::Message::bounce()), and therefore starts with a Received header field. With the bounce, the new destination(s) of the message are given, which should be included as Resent-To, Resent-Cc, and Resent-Bcc.

The To, Cc, and Bcc header information is only used if no Received was found. That seems to be the best explanation of the RFC.

As alternative, you may also specify the to option to some of the senders (for instance Mail::Transport::SMTP::send(to) to overrule any information found in the message itself about the destination.

Error: Transporters of type $class cannot send.

The Mail::Transport object of the specified type can not send messages, but only receive message.


This module is part of Mail-Box distribution version 2.097, built on January 26, 2011. Website:


Copyrights 2001-2011 by Mark Overmeer. For other contributors see ChangeLog.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself. See