++ed by:
KEEDI

1 PAUSE user(s)
1 non-PAUSE user(s).

Marc Lehmann

NAME

Perl::LibExtractor - determine perl library subsets for building distributions

SYNOPSIS

   use Perl::LibExtractor;

DESCRIPTION

The purpose of this module is to determine subsets of your perl library, that is, a set of files needed to satisfy certain dependencies (e.g. of a program).

The goal is to extract a part of your perl installation including dependencies. A typical use case for this module would be to find out which files are needed to be build a PAR distribution, to link into an App::Staticperl binary, or to pack with Urlader, to create stand-alone distributions tailormade to run your app.

METHODS

To use this module, first call the new-constructor and then as many other methods as you want, to generate a set of files. Then query the set of files and do whatever you want with them.

The command-line utility perl-libextract can be a convenient alternative to using this module directly, and offers a few extra options, such as to copy out the files into a new directory, strip them and/or manipulate them in other ways.

CREATION

$extractor = new Perl::LibExtractor [key => value...]

Creates a new extractor object. Each extractor object stores some configuration options and a subset of files that can be queried at any time,.

Binary executables (such as the perl interpreter) are stored inside bin/, perl scripts are stored under script/, perl library files are stored under lib/ and shared libraries are stored under dll/.

The following key-value pairs exist, with default values as specified.

inc => \@INC without "."

An arrayref with paths to perl library directories. The default is \@INC, with . removed.

To prepend custom dirs just do this:

   inc => ["mydir", @INC],
use_packlist => 1

Enable (if true) or disable the use of .packlist files. If enabled, then each time a file is traced, the complete distribution that contains it is included (but not traced).

If disabled, only shared objects and autoload files will be added.

Debian GNU/Linux doesn't completely package perl or any perl modules, so this option will fail. Other perls should be fine.

extra_deps => { file => [files...] }

Some (mainly runtime dependencies in the perl core library) cannot be detected automatically by this module, especially if you don't use packlists and add_core.

This module comes with a set of default dependencies (such as Carp requiring Carp::Heavy), which you cna override with this parameter.

To see the default set of dependencies that come with this module, use this:

   perl -MPerl::LibExtractor -MData::Dumper -e 'print Dumper $Perl::LibExtractor::EXTRA_DEPS'

TRACE/PACKLIST BASED ADDING

The following methods add various things to the set of files.

Each time a perl file is added, it is scanned by tracing either loading, execution or compiling it, and seeing which other perl modules and libraries have been loaded.

For each library file found this way, additional dependencies are added: if packlists are enabled, then all files of the distribution that contains the file will be added. If packlists are disabled, then only shared objects and autoload files for modules will be added.

Only files from perl library directories will be added automatically. Any other files (such as manpages or scripts installed in the bin directory) are skipped.

If there is an error, such as a module not being found, then this module croaks (as opposed to silently skipping). If you want to add something of which you are not sure it exists, then you can wrap the call into eval {}. In some cases, you can avoid this by executing the code you want to work later using add_eval - see add_core_support for an actual example of this technique.

Note that packlists are meant to add files not covered by other mechanisms, such as resource files and other data files loaded directly by a module - they are not meant to add dependencies that are missed because they only happen at runtime.

For example, with packlists, when using AnyEvent, then all event loop backends are automatically added as well, but not any event loops (i.e. AnyEvent::Impl::POE is added, but POE itself is not). Without packlists, only the backend that is being used is added (i.e. normally none, as loading AnyEvent does not instantly load any backend).

To catch the extra event loop dependencies, you can either initialise AnyEvent so it picks a suitable backend:

   $extractor->add_eval ("use AnyEvent; AnyEvent::detect");

Or you can directly load the backend modules you plan to use:

   $extractor->add_mod ("AnyEvent::Impl::EV", "AnyEvent::Impl::Perl");

An example of a program (or module) that has extra resource files is Deliantra::Client - the normal tracing (without packlist usage) will correctly add all submodules, but miss the fonts and textures. By using the packlist, those files are added correctly.

$extractor->add_mod ($module[, $module...])

Adds the given module(s) to the file set - the module name must be specified as in use, i.e. with :: as separators and without .pm.

The program will be loaded with the default import list, any dependent files, such as the shared object implementing xs functions, or autoload files, will also be added.

If you want to use a different import list (for those rare modules wghere import lists trigger different backend modules to be loaded for example), you can use add_eval instead:

  $extractor->add_eval ("use Module qw(a b c)");

Example: add Coro.pm and AnyEvent/AIO.pm, and all relevant files from the distribution they are part of.

  $extractor->add_mod ("Coro", "AnyEvent::AIO");
$extractor->add_require ($name[, $name...])

Works like add_mod, but uses require $name to load the module, i.e. the name must be a filename.

Example: load Coro and AnyEvent::AIO, but using add_require instead of add_mod.

   $extractor->add_require ("Coro.pm", "AnyEvent/AIO.pm");
$extractor->add_bin ($name[, $name...])

Adds the given (perl) program(s) to the file set, that is, a program installed by some perl module, written in perl (an example would be the perl-libextract program that is part of the Perl::LibExtractor distribution).

Example: add the deliantra client program installed by the Deliantra::Client module and put it under bin/deliantra.

   $extractor->add_bin ("deliantra");
$extractor->add_eval ($string)

Evaluates the string as perl code and adds all modules that are loaded by it. For example, this would add AnyEvent and the default backend implementation module and event loop module:

   $extractor->add_eval ("use AnyEvent; AnyEvent::detect");

Each code snippet will be executed in its own package and under use strict.

OTHER METHODS FOR ADDING FILES

The following methods add commonly used files that are either not covered by other methods or add commonly-used dependencies.

$extractor->add_perl

Adds the perl binary itself to the file set, including the libperl dll, if needed.

For example, on UNIX systems, this usually adds a exe/perl and possibly some dll/libperl.so.XXX.

$extractor->add_core_support

Try to add modules and files needed to support commonly-used builtin language features. For example to open a scalar for I/O you need the PerlIO::scalar module:

   open $fh, "<", \$scalar

A number of regex and string features (e.g. ucfirst) need some unicore files, e.g.:

   'my $x = chr 1234; "\u$x\U$x\l$x\L$x"; $x =~ /\d|\w|\s|\b|$x/i';

This call adds these files (simply by executing code similar to the above code fragments).

Notable things that are missing are other PerlIO layers, such as PerlIO::encoding, and named character and character class matches.

$extractor->add_unicore

Adds (hopefully) all files from the unicore database that will ever be needed.

If you are not sure which unicode character classes and similar unicore databases you need, and you do not care about an extra one thousand(!) files comprising 4MB of data, then you can just call this method, which adds basically all files from perl's unicode database.

Note that add_core_support also adds some unicore files, but it's not a subset of add_unicore - the former adds all files neccessary to support core builtins (which includes some unicore files and other things), while the latter adds all unicore files (but nothing else).

When in doubt, use both.

$extractor->add_core

This adds all files from the perl core distribution, that is, all library files that come with perl.

This is a superset of add_core_support and add_unicore.

This is quite a lot, but on the plus side, you can be sure nothing is missing.

This requires a full perl installation - Debian GNU/Linux doesn't package the full perl library, so this function will not work there.

GLOB-BASED ADDING AND FILTERING

These methods add or manipulate files by using glob-based patterns.

These glob patterns work similarly to glob patterns in the shell:

/

A / at the start of the pattern interprets the pattern as a file path inside the file set, almost the same as in the shell. For example, /bin/perl* would match all files whose names starting with perl inside the bin directory in the set.

If the / is missing, then the pattern is interpreted as a module name (a .pm file). For example, Coro matches the file lib/Coro.pm , while Coro::* would match lib/Coro/*.pm.

*

A single star matches anything inside a single directory component. For example, /lib/Coro/*.pm would match all .pm files inside the lib/Coro/ directory, but not any files deeper in the hierarchy.

Another way to look at it is that a single star matches anything but a slash (/).

**

A double star matches any number of characters in the path, including /.

For example, AnyEvent::** would match all modules whose names start with AnyEvent::, no matter how deep in the hierarchy they are.

$extractor->add_glob ($modglob[, $modglob...])

Adds all files from the perl library that match the given glob pattern.

For example, you could implement add_unicore yourself like this:

   $extractor->add_glob ("/unicore/**.pl");
$extractor->filter ($pattern[, $pattern...])

Applies a series of include/exclude filters. Each filter must start with either + or -, to designate the pattern as include or exclude pattern. The rest of the pattern is a normal glob pattern.

An exclude pattern (-) instantly removes all matching files from the set. An include pattern (+) protects matching files from later removals.

That is, if you have an include pattern then all files that were matched by it will be included in the set, regardless of any further exclude patterns matching the same files.

Likewise, any file excluded by a pattern will not be included in the set, even if matched by later include patterns.

Any files not matched by any expression will simply stay in the set.

For example, to remove most of the useless autoload functions by the POSIX module (they either do the same thing as a builtin or always raise an error), you would use this:

   $extractor->filter ("-/lib/auto/POSIX/*.al");

This does not remove all autoload files, only the ones not defined by a subclass (e.g. it leaves POSIX::SigRt::xxx alone).

$extractor->runtime_only

This removes all files that are not needed at runtime, such as static archives, header and other files needed only for compilation of modules, and pod and html files (which are unlikely to be needed at runtime).

This is quite useful when you want to have only files actually needed to execute a program.

RESULT SET

$set = $extractor->set

Returns a hash reference that represents the result set. The hash is the actual internal storage hash and can only be modified as described below.

Each key in the hash is the path inside the set, without a leading slash, e.g.:

   bin/perl
   lib/unicore/lib/Blk/Superscr.pl
   lib/AnyEvent/Impl/EV.pm

The value is an array reference with mostly unspecified contents, except the first element, which is the file system path where the actual file can be found.

This code snippet lists all files inside the set:

   print "$_\n"
      for sort keys %{ $extractor->set });

This code fragment prints filesystem_path => set_path pairs for all files in the set:

   my $set = $extractor->set;
   while (my ($set,$fspath) = each %$set) {
      print "$fspath => $set\n";
   }

You can implement your own filtering by asking for the result set with $extractor->set, and then deleting keys from the referenced hash - since you can ask for the result set at any time you can add things, filter them out this way, and add additional things.

EXAMPLE

To package he deliantra client (Deliantra::Client), finding all (perl) files needed to run it is a first step. This can be done by using something like the following code snippet:

   my $ex = new Perl::LibExtractor;

   $ex->add_perl;
   $ex->add_core_support;
   $ex->add_bin ("deliantra");
   $ex->add_mod ("AnyEvent::Impl::EV");
   $ex->add_mod ("AnyEvent::Impl::Perl");
   $ex->add_mod ("Urlader");
   $ex->filter ("-/*/auto/POSIX/**.al");
   $ex->runtime_only;

First it sets the perl library directory to pm and . (the latter to work around some AutoLoader bugs), so perl uses only the perl library files that came with the binary package.

Then it sets some environment variable to override the system default (which might be incompatible).

Then it runs the client itself, using require. Since require only looks in the perl library directory this is the reaosn why the scripts were put there (of course, since . is also included it doesn't matter, but I refuse to yield to bugs).

Finally it exits with a clean status to signal "ok" to Urlader.

Back to the original Perl::LibExtractor script: after initialising a new set, the script simply adds the perl interpreter and core support files (just in case, not all are needed, but some are, and I am too lazy to find out which ones exactly).

Then it adds the deliantra executable itself, which in turn adds most of the required modules. After that, the AnyEvent implementation modules are added because these dependencies are not picked up automatically.

The Urlader module is added because the client itself does not depend on it at all, but the wrapper does.

At this point, all required files are present, and it's time to slim down: most of the ueseless POSIX autoloaded functions are removed, not because they are so big, but because creating files is a costly operation in itself, so even small fiels have considerable overhead when unpacking. Then files not required for running the client are removed.

And that concludes it, the set is now ready.

SEE ALSO

The utility program that comes with this module: perl-libextract.

App::Staticperl, Urlader, Perl::Squish.

LICENSE

This software package is licensed under the GPL version 3 or any later version, see COPYING for details.

This license does not, of course, apply to any output generated by this software.

AUTHOR

   Marc Lehmann <schmorp@schmorp.de>
   http://home.schmorp.de/

1 POD Error

The following errors were encountered while parsing the POD:

Around line 735:

Expected text after =item, not a bullet




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