++ed by:
BEROV PWBENNETT JMATES RSCHABER KARJALA

37 PAUSE users
27 non-PAUSE users.

Matt S Trout
and 1 contributors

NAME

SQL::Abstract::ExtraClauses - new/experimental additions to SQL::Abstract

SYNOPSIS

  my $sqla = SQL::Abstract->new;
  SQL::Abstract::ExtraClauses->apply_to($sqla);

WARNING

This module is basically a nursery for things that seem like a good idea to live in until we figure out if we were right about that.

METHODS

apply_to

Applies the plugin to an SQL::Abstract object.

register_extensions

Registers the extensions described below

cb

For plugin authors, creates a callback to call a method on the plugin.

register

For plugin authors, registers callbacks more easily.

sqla

Available only during plugin callback executions, contains the currently active SQL::Abstract object.

NODE TYPES

alias

Represents a table alias. Expands name and column names with ident as default.

  # expr
  { -alias => [ 't', 'x', 'y', 'z' ] }

  # aqt
  { -alias => [
      { -ident => [ 't' ] }, { -ident => [ 'x' ] },
      { -ident => [ 'y' ] }, { -ident => [ 'z' ] },
  ] }

  # query
  t(x, y, z)
  []

as

Represents an sql AS. LHS is expanded with ident as default, RHS is treated as a list of arguments for the alias node.

  # expr
  { foo => { -as => 'bar' } }

  # aqt
  { -as => [ { -ident => [ 'foo' ] }, { -ident => [ 'bar' ] } ] }

  # query
  foo AS bar
  []

  # expr
  { -as => [ { -select => { _ => 'blah' } }, 't', 'blah' ] }

  # aqt
  { -as => [
      { -select =>
          { select => { -op => [ ',', { -ident => [ 'blah' ] } ] } }
      },
      { -alias => [ { -ident => [ 't' ] }, { -ident => [ 'blah' ] } ] },
  ] }

  # query
  (SELECT blah) AS t(blah)
  []

cast

  # expr
  { -cast => [ { -ident => 'birthday' }, 'date' ] }

  # aqt
  { -func => [
      'cast', {
        -as => [ { -ident => [ 'birthday' ] }, { -ident => [ 'date' ] } ]
      },
  ] }

  # query
  CAST(birthday AS date)
  []

join

If given an arrayref, pretends it was given a hashref with the first element of the arrayref as the value for 'to' and the remaining pairs copied.

Given a hashref, the 'as' key is if presented expanded to wrap the 'to'.

If present the 'using' key is expanded as a list of idents.

Known keys are: 'from' (the left hand side), 'type' ('left', 'right', or nothing), 'to' (the right hand side), 'on' and 'using'.

  # expr
  { -join => {
      from => 'lft',
      on => { 'lft.bloo' => { '>' => 'rgt.blee' } },
      to => 'rgt',
      type => 'left',
  } }

  # aqt
  { -join => {
      from => { -ident => [ 'lft' ] },
      on => { -op => [
          '>', { -ident => [ 'lft', 'bloo' ] },
          { -ident => [ 'rgt', 'blee' ] },
      ] },
      to => { -ident => [ 'rgt' ] },
      type => 'left',
  } }

  # query
  lft LEFT JOIN rgt ON lft.bloo > rgt.blee
  []

from_list

List of components of the FROM clause; -foo type elements indicate a pair with the next element; this is easiest if I show you:

  # expr
  { -from_list => [
      't1', -as => 'table_one', -join =>
      [ 't2', 'on', { 'table_one.x' => 't2.x' } ],
  ] }

  # aqt
  { -join => {
      from =>
        {
          -as => [ { -ident => [ 't1' ] }, { -ident => [ 'table_one' ] } ]
        },
      on => { -op => [
          '=', { -ident => [ 'table_one', 'x' ] },
          { -ident => [ 't2', 'x' ] },
      ] },
      to => { -ident => [ 't2' ] },
      type => undef,
  } }

  # query
  t1 AS table_one JOIN t2 ON table_one.x = t2.x
  []

Or with using:

  # expr
  { -from_list =>
      [ 't1', -as => 'table_one', -join => [ 't2', 'using', [ 'x' ] ] ]
  }

  # aqt
  { -join => {
      from =>
        {
          -as => [ { -ident => [ 't1' ] }, { -ident => [ 'table_one' ] } ]
        },
      to => { -ident => [ 't2' ] },
      type => undef,
      using =>
        { -op => [ 'or', { -op => [ 'or', { -ident => [ 'x' ] } ] } ] },
  } }

  # query
  t1 AS table_one JOIN t2 USING ( x )
  []

With oddities:

  # expr
  { -from_list => [
      'x', -join =>
      [ [ 'y', -join => [ 'z', 'type', 'left' ] ], 'type', 'left' ],
  ] }

  # aqt
  { -join => {
      from => { -ident => [ 'x' ] },
      to => { -join => {
          from => { -ident => [ 'y' ] },
          to => { -ident => [ 'z' ] },
          type => 'left',
      } },
      type => 'left',
  } }

  # query
  x LEFT JOIN ( y LEFT JOIN z )
  []

setops

Expanders are provided for union, union_all, intersect, intersect_all, except and except_all, and each takes an arrayref of queries:

  # expr
  { -union => [
      { -select => { _ => { -value => 1 } } },
      { -select => { _ => { -value => 2 } } },
  ] }

  # aqt
  { -union => { queries => [
        { -select =>
            { select => { -op => [ ',', { -bind => [ undef, 1 ] } ] } }
        },
        { -select =>
            { select => { -op => [ ',', { -bind => [ undef, 2 ] } ] } }
        },
  ] } }

  # query
  (SELECT ?) UNION (SELECT ?)
  [ 1, 2 ]

  # expr
  { -union_all => [
      { -select => { _ => { -value => 1 } } },
      { -select => { _ => { -value => 2 } } },
      { -select => { _ => { -value => 1 } } },
  ] }

  # aqt
  { -union => {
      queries => [
        { -select =>
            { select => { -op => [ ',', { -bind => [ undef, 1 ] } ] } }
        },
        { -select =>
            { select => { -op => [ ',', { -bind => [ undef, 2 ] } ] } }
        },
        { -select =>
            { select => { -op => [ ',', { -bind => [ undef, 1 ] } ] } }
        },
      ],
      type => 'all',
  } }

  # query
  (SELECT ?) UNION ALL (SELECT ?) UNION ALL (SELECT ?)
  [ 1, 2, 1 ]

STATEMENT EXTENSIONS

group by clause for select

Expanded as a list with an ident default:

  # expr
  { -select => { group_by => [ 'foo', 'bar' ] } }

  # aqt
  { -select => { group_by =>
        {
          -op => [ ',', { -ident => [ 'foo' ] }, { -ident => [ 'bar' ] } ]
        }
  } }

  # query
  GROUP BY foo, bar
  []

having clause for select

Basic expr, just like where, given having is pretty much post-group-by where clause:

  # expr
  { -select =>
      { having => { '>' => [ { -count => { -ident => 'foo' } }, 3 ] } }
  }

  # aqt
  { -select => { having => { -op => [
          '>', { -func => [ 'count', { -ident => [ 'foo' ] } ] },
          { -bind => [ undef, 3 ] },
  ] } } }

  # query
  HAVING COUNT(foo) > ?
  [ 3 ]

setop clauses

If a select query contains a clause matching any of the setop node types, clauses that appear before the setop would in the resulting query are gathered together and moved into an inner select node:

  # expr
  { -select => {
      _ => '*',
      from => 'foo',
      order_by => 'baz',
      union =>
        {
          -select => { _ => '*', from => 'bar', where => { thing => 1 } }
        },
      where => { thing => 1 },
  } }

  # aqt
  { -select => {
      order_by => { -op => [ ',', { -ident => [ 'baz' ] } ] },
      setop => { -union => { queries => [
            { -select => {
                from => { -ident => [ 'foo' ] },
                select => { -op => [ ',', { -ident => [ '*' ] } ] },
                where => { -op => [
                    '=', { -ident => [ 'thing' ] },
                    { -bind => [ 'thing', 1 ] },
                ] },
            } },     ] },
            { -select => {
                from => { -ident => [ 'bar' ] },
                select => { -op => [ ',', { -ident => [ '*' ] } ] },
                where => { -op => [
                    '=', { -ident => [ 'thing' ] },
                    { -bind => [ 'thing', 1 ] },
            } },
      ] } },
  } }

  # query
  (SELECT * FROM foo WHERE thing = ?) UNION (
    SELECT * FROM bar WHERE thing = ?
  )
  ORDER BY baz
  [ 1, 1 ]

update from clause

Some databases allow an additional FROM clause to reference other tables for the data to update; this clause is expanded as a normal from list, check your database for what is and isn't allowed in practice.

  # expr
  { -update => {
      _ => 'employees',
      from => 'accounts',
      set => { sales_count => { sales_count => { '+' => \1 } } },
      where => {
        'accounts.name' => { '=' => \"'Acme Corporation'" },
        'employees.id' => { -ident => 'accounts.sales_person' },
      },
  } }

  # aqt
  { -update => {
      from => { -ident => [ 'accounts' ] },
      set => { -op => [
          ',', { -op => [
              '=', { -ident => [ 'sales_count' ] }, { -op => [
                  '+', { -ident => [ 'sales_count' ] },
                  { -literal => [ 1 ] },
              ] },
          ] },
      ] },
      target => { -ident => [ 'employees' ] },
      where => { -op => [
          'and', { -op => [
              '=', { -ident => [ 'accounts', 'name' ] },
              { -literal => [ "'Acme Corporation'" ] },
          ] }, { -op => [
              '=', { -ident => [ 'employees', 'id' ] },
              { -ident => [ 'accounts', 'sales_person' ] },
          ] },
      ] },
  } }

  # query
  UPDATE employees SET sales_count = sales_count + 1 FROM accounts
  WHERE (
    accounts.name = 'Acme Corporation'
    AND employees.id = accounts.sales_person
  )
  []

delete using clause

Some databases allow an additional USING clause to reference other tables for the data to update; this clause is expanded as a normal from list, check your database for what is and isn't allowed in practice.

  # expr
  { -delete => {
      from => 'x',
      using => 'y',
      where => { 'x.id' => { -ident => 'y.x_id' } },
  } }

  # aqt
  { -delete => {
      target => { -op => [ ',', { -ident => [ 'x' ] } ] },
      using => { -ident => [ 'y' ] },
      where => { -op => [
          '=', { -ident => [ 'x', 'id' ] },
          { -ident => [ 'y', 'x_id' ] },
      ] },
  } }

  # query
  DELETE FROM x USING y WHERE x.id = y.x_id
  []

insert rowvalues and select clauses

rowvalues and select are shorthand for

  { from => { -select ... } }

and

  { from => { -values ... } }

respectively:

  # expr
  { -insert =>
      { into => 'numbers', rowvalues => [ [ 1, 2 ], [ 3, 4 ], [ 5, 6 ] ] }
  }

  # aqt
  { -insert => {
      from => { -values => [
          { -row =>
              [ { -bind => [ undef, 1 ] }, { -bind => [ undef, 2 ] } ]
          },
          { -row =>
              [ { -bind => [ undef, 3 ] }, { -bind => [ undef, 4 ] } ]
          },
          { -row =>
              [ { -bind => [ undef, 5 ] }, { -bind => [ undef, 6 ] } ]
          },
      ] },
      target => { -ident => [ 'numbers' ] },
  } }

  # query
  INSERT INTO numbers VALUES (?, ?), (?, ?), (?, ?)
  [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 ]

  # expr
  { -insert =>
      { into => 'numbers', select => { _ => '*', from => 'old_numbers' } }
  }

  # aqt
  { -insert => {
      from => { -select => {
          from => { -ident => [ 'old_numbers' ] },
          select => { -op => [ ',', { -ident => [ '*' ] } ] },
      } },
      target => { -ident => [ 'numbers' ] },
  } }

  # query
  INSERT INTO numbers SELECT * FROM old_numbers
  []

with and with_recursive clauses

These clauses are available on select/insert/update/delete queries; check your database for applicability (e.g. mysql supports all four but mariadb only select).

The value should be an arrayref of name/query pairs:

  # expr
  { -select => {
      from => 'foo',
      select => '*',
      with => [ 'foo', { -select => { select => \1 } } ],
  } }

  # aqt
  { -select => {
      from => { -ident => [ 'foo' ] },
      select => { -op => [ ',', { -ident => [ '*' ] } ] },
      with => { queries => [ [
            { -ident => [ 'foo' ] }, { -select =>
                { select => { -op => [ ',', { -literal => [ 1 ] } ] } }
            },
      ] ] },
  } }

  # query
  WITH foo AS (SELECT 1) SELECT * FROM foo
  []

A more complete example (designed for mariadb, (ab)using the fact that mysqloids materialise subselects in FROM into an unindexed temp table to circumvent the restriction that you can't select from the table you're currently updating:

  # expr
  { -update => {
      _ => [
        'tree_table', -join => {
          as => 'tree',
          on => { 'tree.id' => 'tree_with_path.id' },
          to => { -select => {
              from => 'tree_with_path',
              select => '*',
              with_recursive => [
                [ 'tree_with_path', 'id', 'parent_id', 'path' ],
                { -select => {
                    _ => [
                      'id', 'parent_id', { -as => [
                          { -cast => { -as => [ 'id', 'char', 255 ] } },
                          'path',
                      ] } ],
                    from => 'tree_table',
                    union_all => { -select => {
                        _ => [
                          't.id', 't.parent_id', { -as => [
                              { -concat => [ 'r.path', \"'/'", 't.id' ] },
                              'path',
                          ] },
                        ],
                        from => [
                          'tree_table', -as => 't', -join => {
                            as => 'r',
                            on => { 't.parent_id' => 'r.id' },
                            to => 'tree_with_path',
                          },
                        ],
                    } },
                    where => { parent_id => undef },
                } },
              ],
          } },
        },
      ],
      set => { path => { -ident => [ 'tree', 'path' ] } },
  } }

  # query
  UPDATE
    tree_table JOIN
    (
      WITH RECURSIVE
        tree_with_path(id, parent_id, path) AS (
          (
            SELECT id, parent_id, CAST(id AS char(255)) AS path
            FROM tree_table WHERE parent_id IS NULL
          ) UNION ALL (
            SELECT t.id, t.parent_id, CONCAT(r.path, '/', t.id) AS path
            FROM
              tree_table AS t JOIN tree_with_path AS r ON
              t.parent_id = r.id
          )
        )
      SELECT * FROM tree_with_path
    ) AS tree
    ON tree.id = tree_with_path.id
  SET path = tree.path
  []