CGI::FormBuilder::Messages - Localized message support for FormBuilder


    use CGI::FormBuilder::Messages;

    my $mesg = CGI::FormBuilder::Messages->new($file || \%hash);

    print $mesg->js_invalid_text;


This module handles multilingual messaging for FormBuilder. It is invoked by specifying the messages option to the top-level new() method. Each message that FormBuilder outputs is given a unique key. If you specify a custom message for a given key, then that message is used. Otherwise, the default is printed. Note that it is up to you to figure out what to pass in - there is no magic LC_MESSAGES mysterium to this module.

For example, let's say you wrote a script that needed to display custom JavaScript error messages. You could do something like this:

    # Get language requested
    my $lang = $ENV{HTTP_ACCEPT_LANGUAGE} || 'en';

    # Get the appropriate file
    my $langfile = "/languages/formbuilder/messages.$lang";

    my $form = CGI::FormBuilder->new(
                    fields => \@fields,
                    messages => $langfile,

    print $form->render;

Your language file would then contain something like the following:

    # FormBuilder messages for "en" locale
    js_invalid_start      %s error(s) were found in your form:\n
    js_invalid_end        Fix these fields and try again!
    js_invalid_select     - You must choose an option for the "%s" field\n

Alternatively, you could specify this directly as a hashref:

    my $form = CGI::FormBuilder->new(
                    fields => \@fields,
                    messages => {
                        js_invalid_start  => '%s error(s) were found in your form:\n',
                        js_invalid_end    => 'Fix these fields and try again!',
                        js_invalid_select => '- Choose an option from the "%s" list\n',

Although in practice this is rarely useful, unless you just want to tweak one or two things.

This system is easy, and there are many many messages that can be customized. Here is a list of messages, along with their default values:

    form_invalid_checkbox       Check one or more options
    form_invalid_color          red
    form_invalid_default        Invalid entry
    form_invalid_file           Invalid filename
    form_invalid_input          Invalid entry
    form_invalid_opentag        <font color="red"><b>
    form_invalid_radio          Choose an option
    form_invalid_select         Select an option from this list
    form_invalid_textarea       Please fill this in

    form_invalid_text           <p>%s error(s) were encountered with your submission.
                            Please correct the fields %shighlighted%s below.</p>
    form_invalid_closetag       </b></font>
    form_invalid_password       Invalid entry

    form_required_text          <p>Fields that are %shighlighted%s are required.</p>
    form_required_closetag      </b>
    form_required_opentag       <b>

    form_confirm_text           Success! Your submission has been received %s.

    form_select_default         -select-
    form_grow_default           Additional %s
    form_other_default          Other:
    form_reset_default          Reset
    form_submit_default         Submit

    js_noscript                 <p><font color="red"><b>Please enable JavaScript or use a newer browser.</b></font></p>
    js_invalid_start            %s error(s) were encountered with your submission:
    js_invalid_end              Please correct these fields and try again.

    js_invalid_checkbox         - Check one or more of the "%s" options
    js_invalid_default          - Invalid entry for the "%s" field
    js_invalid_file             - Invalid filename for the "%s" field
    js_invalid_input            - Invalid entry for the "%s" field
    js_invalid_multiple         - Select one or more options from the "%s" list
    js_invalid_password         - Invalid entry for the "%s" field
    js_invalid_radio            - Choose one of the "%s" options
    js_invalid_select           - Select an option from the "%s" list
    js_invalid_textarea         - Please fill in the "%s" field

    mail_confirm_subject        %s Submission Confirmation
    mail_confirm_text           Your submission has been received %s, and will be processed shortly.

The js_ tags are used in JavaScript alerts, whereas the form_ tags are used in HTML and templates managed by FormBuilder.

In some of the messages, you will notice a %s printf format. This is because these messages will include certain details for you. For example, the js_invalid_start tag will print the number of errors if you include the %s format tag. Of course, this is optional, and you can leave it out.

The best way to get an idea of how these work is to experiment a little. It should become obvious really quickly.


In addition, this module can be used as a base class which you can override to create arbitrarily complicated message handling routines. For each message type, FormBuilder calls an accessor method for that message. For example:

    my $select_error = $mesg->form_invalid_select;

As such, you could create a sub class, say My::Messages, that overrode this message:

    package My::Messages;
    use base 'CGI::FormBuilder::Messages';

    sub form_invalid_select {
        return 'oopsie! the "%s" field is broken!';

Then, you would instantiate an object from this class and pass that to the top-level new() method:

    use CGI::FormBuilder;
    use My::Messages;

    my $mesg = My::Messages->new;   # provided in base class
    my $form = CGI::FormBuilder->new(
                    messages => $mesg

If this doesn't make immediate sense, just stick to using a messages file.




$Id:,v 1.16 2005/04/12 21:38:59 nwiger Exp $


Copyright (c) 2000-2005 Nathan Wiger <>. All Rights Reserved.

This module is free software; you may copy this under the terms of the GNU General Public License, or the Artistic License, copies of which should have accompanied your Perl kit.