Vector2

Manipulate 2D vectors

PhilipRBrenan@yahoo.com, 2004, Perl License

Synopsis

Example t/vector2.t

 #_ Vector _____________________________________________________________
 # Test 2d vectors    
 # philiprbrenan@yahoo.com, 2004, Perl License    
 #______________________________________________________________________
 
 use Math::Zap::Vector2 vector2=>v, units=>u;
 use Test::Simple tests=>7;
 
 my ($x, $y) = u();
 
 ok(!$x                    == 1);
 ok(2*$x+3*$y              == v( 2,  3));
 ok(-$x-$y                 == v(-1, -1));
 ok((2*$x+3*$y) + (-$x-$y) == v( 1,  2));
 ok((2*$x+3*$y) * (-$x-$y) == -5);  
 ok($x*2                   == v( 2,  0));
 ok($y/2                   == v( 0,  0.5));
 

Description

Manipulate 2D vectors

 package Math::Zap::Vector2; 
 $VERSION=1.07;
 use Math::Trig;
 use Carp;
 use constant debug => 0; # Debugging level
 
 

Constructors

new

Create a vector from numbers

 sub new($$)
  {return bless {x=>$_[0], y=>$_[1]} unless debug;
   my ($x, $y) = @_; 
   round(bless({x=>$x, y=>$y})); 
  }
 
 

vector2

Create a vector from numbers - synonym for "new"

 sub vector2($$) {new($_[0],$_[1])}
 
 

units

Unit vectors

 $x = new(1,0);
 $y = new(0,1);
 
 sub units() {($x, $y)}
 
 

Methods

check

Check its a vector

 sub check(@)
  {if (debug)
    {for my $v(@_)
      {confess "$v is not a vector2" unless ref($v) eq __PACKAGE__;
      }
    }
   return (@_)
  }
 
 

is

Test its a vector

 sub is(@)
  {for my $v(@_)
    {return 0 unless ref($v) eq __PACKAGE__;
    }
   1;
  }
 
 

accuracy

Get/Set accuracy for comparisons

 my $accuracy = 1e-10;
 
 sub accuracy
  {return $accuracy unless scalar(@_);
   $accuracy = shift();
  }
 
 

round

Round: round to nearest integer if within accuracy of that integer

 sub round($)
  {unless (debug)
    {return $_[0];
    }
   else
    {my ($a) = @_;
     for my $k(keys(%$a))
      {my $n = $a->{$k};
       my $N = int($n);
       $a->{$k} = $N if abs($n-$N) < $accuracy;
      }
     return $a;
    }
  }
 
 

components

x,y components of vector

 sub x($) {check(@_) if debug; $_[0]->{x}}
 sub y($) {check(@_) if debug; $_[0]->{y}}
 
 

clone

Create a vector from another vector

 sub clone($)
  {my ($v) = check(@_); # Vectors
   round bless {x=>$v->x, y=>$v->y}; 
  }
 
 

length

Length of a vector

 sub length($)
  {check(@_[0..0]) if debug; # Vectors
   sqrt($_[0]->{x}**2+$_[0]->{y}**2);
  } 
 
 

print

Print vector

 sub print($)
  {my ($v) = check(@_); # Vectors
   my ($x, $y) = ($v->x, $v->y);
 
   "vector2($x, $y)";
  } 
 
 

normalize

Normalize vector

 sub norm($)
  {my ($v) = check(@_); # Vectors
   my $l = $v->length;
 
   $l > 0 or confess "Cannot normalize zero length vector $v";
 
   new($v->x / $l, $v->y / $l);
  }
 
 

rightAngle

At right angles

 sub rightAngle($)
  {my ($v) = check(@_); # Vectors
   new(-$v->y, $v->x);
  } 
 
 

dot

Dot product

 sub dot($$)
  {my ($a, $b) = check(@_); # Vectors
   $a->x*$b->x+$a->y*$b->y;
  } 
 
 

angle

Angle between two vectors

 sub angle($$)
  {my ($a, $b) = check(@_); # Vectors
   acos($a->norm->dot($b->norm));
  } 
 
 

add

Add vectors

 sub add($$)
  {my ($a, $b) = check(@_); # Vectors
   new($a->x+$b->x, $a->y+$b->y);
  }
 
 

subtract

Subtract vectors

 sub subtract($$)
  {check(@_) if debug; # Vectors
   new($_[0]->{x}-$_[1]->{x}, $_[0]->{y}-$_[1]->{y});
  }
 
 

multiply

Vector times a scalar

 sub multiply($$)
  {my ($a) = check(@_[0..0]); # Vector 
   my ($b) =       @_[1..1];  # Scalar
   
   confess "$b is not a scalar" if ref($b);
   new($a->x*$b, $a->y*$b);
  }
 
 

divide

Vector divided by a non zero scalar

 sub divide($$)
  {my ($a) = check(@_[0..0]); # Vector 
   my ($b) =       @_[1..1];  # Scalar
 
   confess "$b is not a scalar" if ref($b);
   confess "$b is zero"         if $b == 0;
   new($a->x/$b, $a->y/$b);
  }
 
 

equals

Equals to within accuracy

 sub equals($$)
  {my ($a, $b) = check(@_); # Vectors
   abs($a->x-$b->x) < $accuracy and
   abs($a->y-$b->y) < $accuracy;
  }
 
 

Operators

# Operator overloads

 use overload
  '+'        => \&add3,      # Add two vectors
  '-'        => \&subtract3, # Subtract one vector from another
  '*'        => \&multiply3, # Times by a scalar, or vector dot product 
  '/'        => \&divide3,   # Divide by a scalar
  '<'        => \&angle3,    # Angle in radians between two vectors
  '>'        => \&angle3,    # Angle in radians between two vectors
  '=='       => \&equals3,   # Equals
  '""'       => \&print3,    # Print
  '!'        => \&length,    # Length
  'fallback' => FALSE;
 
 

add

Add operator.

 sub add3
  {my ($a, $b) = @_;
   $a->add($b);
  }
 
 

subtract

Subtract operator.

 sub subtract3
  {#my ($a, $b, $c) = @_;
   #return $a->subtract($b) if ref($b);
   return new($_[0]->{x}-$_[1]->{x}, $_[0]->{y}-$_[1]->{y}) if ref($_[1]);
   new(-$_[0]->{x}, -$_[0]->{y});
  }
 
 

multiply

Multiply operator.

 sub multiply3
  {my ($a, $b) = @_;
   return $a->dot     ($b) if ref($b);
   return $a->multiply($b);
  }
 
 

divide

Divide operator.

 sub divide3
  {my ($a, $b, $c) = @_;
   return $a->divide($b);
  }
 
 

angle

Angle between two vectors.

 sub angle3
  {my ($a, $b, $c) = @_;
   return $a->angle($b);
  }
 
 

equals

Equals operator.

 sub equals3
  {my ($a, $b, $c) = @_;
   return $a->equals($b);
  }
 
 

print

Print a vector.

 sub print3
  {my ($a) = @_;
   return $a->print;
  }
 
 

Exports

Export "vector2", "units", "check", "is"

 use Math::Zap::Exports qw(                               
   vector2 ($$)  
   units   ()
   check   (@)
   is      (@)
  );
 
 #_ Vector2 ____________________________________________________________
 # Package loaded successfully
 #______________________________________________________________________
 
 1;
 
 

Credits

Author

philiprbrenan@yahoo.com

philiprbrenan@yahoo.com, 2004

License

Perl License.