- Creating an SSH Key Pair
- Notifying the Repository Keeper
- Connecting to the Repository
- Using the Perforce Client
- Ending a Repository Session
- Overview of the Repository
- Contact Information
repository - Using the Perl repository
First, we assume here that you have already decided that you will need write access to the repository. If all you need is read access, there are much better ways to access the most current state of the perl repository, or explore individual files and patches therein. See perlhack for details.
This document describes what a Perl Porter needs to do to start using the Perl repository.
You'll need to get hold of the following software.
Download a perforce client from:
You'll probably also want to look at:
where you can look at or download its documentation.
If you don't already have access to an ssh client, then look at its home site
http://www.cs.hut.fi/sshwhich mentions ftp sites from which it's available. You only need to build the client parts (ssh and ssh-keygen should suffice).
If you're on Windows then you might like to obtain Cygwin from:
which contains an ssh client. (MSYS also contains an ssh client but it seems to time-out and disconnect from the server and doesn't understand the ServerAliveInterval setting described later that can be used to stop Cygwin's ssh client from doing this.)
Alternatively, the "plink" program, part of PuTTY:
should also work fine for Windows users.
Creating an SSH Key Pair
If you already use ssh and want to use the same key pair for perl repository access then you can skip the rest of this section. Otherwise, generate an ssh key pair for use with the repository by typing the command
After generating a key pair and testing it, ssh-keygen will ask you to enter a filename in which to save the key. The default it offers will be the file ~/.ssh/identity which is suitable unless you particularly want to keep separate ssh identities for some reason. If so, you could save the perl repository private key in the file ~/.ssh/perl, for example, but I will use the standard filename in the remainder of the examples of this document.
After typing in the filename, it will prompt you to type in a passphrase. The private key will itself be encrypted so that it is usable only when that passphrase is typed. (When using ssh, you will be prompted when it requires a pass phrase to unlock a private key.) If you provide a blank passphrase then no passphrase will be needed to unlock the key and, as a consequence, anyone who gains access to the key file gains access to accounts protected with that key (barring additional configuration to restrict access by IP address).
When you have typed the passphrase in twice, ssh-keygen will confirm where it has saved the private key (in the filename you gave and with permissions set to be only readable by you), what your public key is (don't worry: you don't need to memorise it) and where it has saved the corresponding public key. The public key is saved in a filename corresponding to your private key's filename but with ".pub" appended, usually ~/.ssh/identity.pub. That public key can be (but need not be) world readable. It is not used by your own system at all.
Note that the above process creates a key pair for ssh protocol 1. You can request ssh protocol 2 (RSA) instead if you prefer (if your particular ssh client supports it), via the command
ssh-keygen -t rsa
This will create private/public identity files called ~/.ssh/id_rsa and ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub respectively. Protocol 2 offers a higher level of security than protocol 1. This is not required for access to the Perl repository -- ssh is used for authentication rather than encryption (the Perl sources are open anyway) -- but either protocol is supported by the server.
IMPORTANT NOTE FOR CYGWIN USERS: In order to make the private key files only readable by you you must include the string "ntea" in the "CYGWIN" environment variable in the shell used to run
chmod(1), and in the shell used to run the ssh client itself later. If "CYGWIN" doesn't contain "ntea" then it will appear to the ssh client that the file permissions are not set correctly, in which case the files will be ignored and you won't be able to connect.
Notifying the Repository Keeper
Mail the contents of that public key file to the keeper of the perl repository (see "Contact Information" below). When the key is added to the repository host's configuration file, you will be able to connect to it with ssh by using the corresponding private key file (after unlocking it with your chosen passphrase).
There is no harm in creating both protocol 1 and protocol 2 keys and mailing them both in. That way you'll be able to connect using either protocol, which may be useful if you later find yourself using a client that only supports one or the other protocol.
Connecting to the Repository
Connections to the repository are made by using ssh to provide a TCP "tunnel" rather than by using ssh to login to or invoke any ordinary commands on the repository.
The ssh (secure shell) protocol runs over port number 22, so if you have a firewall installed at the client end then you must ensure that it is configured to allow you to make an outgoing connection to port 22 on sickle.activestate.com.
When you want to start a session using the repository, use the command:
ssh -l perlrep -f -q -x -L 1666:127.0.0.1:1666 sickle.activestate.com foo
If you are not using the default filename of ~/.ssh/identity or ~/.ssh/id_rsa to hold your perl repository private key then you'll need to add the option -i filename to tell ssh where it is. Unless you chose a blank passphrase for that private key, ssh will prompt you for the passphrase to unlock that key. Then ssh will fork and put itself in the background, returning you (silently) to your shell prompt.
Note that the first time you connect you may see a message like "The authenticity of host 'sickle.activestate.com' can't be established," and asking you if you want to continue. Just answer yes and sickle's details will be cached in a known_hosts or known_hosts2 file. You will not see that message again unless you delete the cache file.
The tunnel for repository access is now ready for use.
For the sake of completeness (and for the case where the chosen port of 1666 is already in use on your machine), I'll briefly describe what all those ssh arguments are for.
- -l perlrep
Use a remote username of perlrep. (The account on the repository which provides the end-point of the ssh tunnel is named "perlrep".)
Tells ssh to fork and remain running in the background. Since ssh is only being used for its tunnelling capabilities, the command that ssh runs never does any I/O and can sit silently in the background.
Tells ssh to be quiet. Without this option, ssh will output a message each time you use a p4 command (since each p4 command tunnels over the ssh connection to reach the repository).
Tells ssh not to bother to set up a tunnel for X11 connections. The repository doesn't allow this anyway.
- -L 1666:127.0.0.1:1666
This is the important option. It tells ssh to listen out for connections made to port 1666 on your local machine. When such a connection is made, the ssh client tells the remote side (the corresponding ssh daemon on the repository) to make a connection to IP address 127.0.0.1, port 1666. Data flowing along that connection is tunnelled over the ssh connection (encrypted). The perforce daemon running on the repository only accepts connections from localhost and that is exactly where ssh-tunnelled connections appear to come from.
If port 1666 is already in use on your machine then you can choose any non-privileged port (a number between 1024 and 65535) which happens to be free on your machine. It's the first of the three colon separated values that you should change. Picking port 2345 would mean changing the option to -L 2345:127.0.0.1:1666. Whatever port number you choose should be used for the value of the P4PORT environment variable (q.v.).
This is the canonical name of the host on which the perl repository resides.
This is a dummy place holder argument. Without an argument here, ssh will try to perform an interactive login to the repository which is not allowed. Ordinarily, this argument is for the one-off command which is to be executed on the remote host. However, the repository's ssh configuration file uses the "command=" option to force a particular command to run so the actual value of the argument is ignored. The command that's actually run merely pauses and waits for the ssh connection to drop, then exits.
You should normally get a prompt that asks for the passphrase for your RSA key when you connect with the ssh command shown above. If you see a prompt that looks like:
Then you either don't have a ~/.ssh/identity or ~/.ssh/id_rsa file corresponding to your public key, or that file is not readable. Fix the problem and try again.
If you only had the public key file for one protocol installed at the server end then make sure your client is using the corresponding protocol. An ssh client that supports protocol 2 will probably choose that by default, which will fail if the server end only has your public key file for protocol 1. Some ssh clients have "-1" and "-2" arguments to force which protocol to use.
The "-v" (verbose) flag can be useful for seeing what protocol your client is actually trying to connect with, and for spotting any other problems. The flag can be specified multiple times to increase verbosity. Note that specifying the "-q" flag as well might override your request for verbose output, so drop the "-q" flag when trying this.
If you're using the Cygwin ssh client on Windows then you will probably find that the connection times out after a short period of inactivity. You will have to keep re-entering your passphrase to reconnect, which gets annoying after a while. In order to prevent these time-outs from happening place the following two lines in the file ~/.ssh/config:
Host sickle.activestate.com ServerAliveInterval 120
This causes the ssh client to send a message to the server every 120 seconds to check that the server is still alive. The client will not disconnect unless "ServerAliveCountMax" many of these messages go unanswered. Run
man ssh_config for more details. Note also that this option applies to protocol version 2 only.
Using the Perforce Client
Remember to read the documentation for Perforce. You need to make sure that three environment variable are set correctly before using the p4 client with the perl repository.
Set this to localhost:1666 (the port for your ssh client to listen on) unless that port is already in use on your host. If it is, see the section above on the -L 1666:127.0.0.1:1666 option to ssh.
The value of this is the name by which Perforce knows your host's workspace. You need to pick a name (normally, your Perforce username, a dash, and your host's short name) when you first start using the perl repository and then stick with it.
Perforce keeps track of the files you have on your machine. It does this through your client. When you first sync a version of a file, the file comes from the server to your machine. If you sync the same file again the server does nothing because it knows you already have the file.
You should NOT use the same client on different machines. If you do you probably won't get the files you expect, and may end up with nasty corruption. Perforce allows you to have as many clients as you want. For example, sally-home, sally-openbsd, sally-laptop.
Also, never change the client's root and view at the same time. See
If you have multiple hosts sharing the same directory structure via NFS then you may be able to get away with only one client name, but be careful.
p4 clientscommand lists all currently known clients.
This is the username by which perforce knows you. Use your username if you have a well known or obvious one or else pick a new one which other perl5-porters will recognise. There is a licence limit on the number of these usernames, so be sure not to use more than one.
It is very important to set a password for your Perforce username, or else anyone can impersonate you. Use the
p4 passwdcommand to do this. Once a password is set for your account, you'll need to tell Perforce what it is. You can do this by setting the environment variable P4PASSWD, or you can use the
-Pflag with the
There are a few techniques you can use to avoid having to either set an environment variable or type the password on every command. One is to create a shell alias, for example, in bash, add something like alias p4='p4 -P secret' to your .bash_profile file. Another way is to create a small shell script, for example #!/bin/bash p4 -P secret $@ And use this instead of running
With either of these, be sure the file containing your password (the .bash_profile or shell script file) is only readable by you.
p4 userscommand lists all currently known users.
Note that on Windows P4PORT and P4USER are requested when installing Perforce. They are stored in the registry, so they do not need to be set in the environment.
Once these three environment variables are set, you can use the perforce p4 client exactly as described in its documentation.
After setting these variables and connecting to the repository for the first time, you should use the
p4 user command to set a valid email address for yourself. Messages to the commit list are sent (faked) from whatever email address you set here.
Also use the
p4 client command to specify your workspace specifications for each individual client from which you will interact with the repository. The P4CLIENT environment variable, of course, needs to be set to one of these client workspace names.
Ending a Repository Session
When you have finished a session using the repository, you should kill off the ssh client process to break the tunnel. Since ssh forked itself into the background, you'll need to use something like ps with the appropriate options to find the ssh process and then kill it manually. The default signal of SIGTERM is fine.
Overview of the Repository
Please read at least the introductory sections of the Perforce User Guide (and perhaps the Quick Start Guide as well) before reading this section.
Every repository user typically "owns" a "branch" of the mainline code in the repository. They hold the "pumpkin" for things in this area, and are usually the only user who will modify files there. This is not strictly enforced in order to allow the flexibility of other users stealing the pumpkin for short periods with the owner's permission.
Here is (part of) the current structure of the repository:
/----+-----perl - Mainline development (bleadperl) +-----perlio - PerlIO Pumpkin's Perl +-----vmsperl - VMS Pumpkin's Perl +-----maint-5.004------perl - Maintenance branches +-----maint-5.005------perl +-----maint-5.6--------perl +-----maint-5.8--------perl +-----pureperl---------pureperl
Perforce uses a branching model that simply tracks relationships between files. It does not care about directories at all, so any file can be a branch of any other file--the fully qualified depot path name (of the form //depot/foo/bar.c) uniquely determines a file for the purpose of establishing branching relationships. Since a branch usually involves hundreds of files, such relationships are typically specified en masse using a branch map (try `p4 help branch`). `p4 branches` lists the existing branches that have been set up. `p4 branch -o branchname` can be used to view the map for a particular branch, if you want to determine the ancestor for a particular set of files.
The mainline (aka "trunk") code in the Perl repository is under "//depot/perl/...". Most branches typically map its entire contents under a directory that goes by the same name as the branch name. Thus the contents of the perlio branch are to be found in //depot/perlio.
Run `p4 client` to specify how the repository contents should map to your local disk. Most users will typically have a client map that includes at least their entire branch and the contents of the mainline.
Run `p4 changes -l -m10` to check on the activity in the repository. //depot/perl/Porting/genlog is useful to get an annotated changelog that shows files and branches. You can use this listing to determine if there are any changes in the mainline that you need to merge into your own branch. A typical merging session looks like this:
% cd ~/p4view/perlio % p4 integrate -b perlio # to bring parent changes into perlio % p4 resolve -am ./... # auto merge the changes % p4 resolve ./... # manual merge conflicting changes % p4 submit ./... # check in
If the owner of the mainline wants to bring the changes in perlio back into the mainline, they do:
% p4 integrate -r -b perlio ...
Generating a patch for change#42 is done as follows:
% p4genpatch 42 > change-42.patch
p4genpatch is to be found in //depot/perl/Porting/.
The usual routine to apply a patch is
% p4 edit file.c file.h % patch < patch.txt
(any necessary, re-Configure, make regen_headers, make clean, etc, here)
% make all test
(preferably make all test in several platforms and under several different Configurations)
% while unhappy do $EDITOR make all test done % p4 submit
Other useful Perforce commands
% p4 describe -du 12345 # show change 12345
Note: the output of "p4 describe" is not in proper diff format, use the Porting/p4genpatch to get a diff-compatible format. (Note that it may be easier to get one already prepared: grep perlhack for APC, and append eg "/diffs/12345.gz" to one of the URLs to get a usable patch.)
% p4 diff -se ./... # have I modified something but forgotten # to "p4 edit", easy faux pas with autogenerated # files like proto.h, or if one forgets to # look carefully which files a patch modifies % p4 sync file.h # if someone else has modified file.h % p4 opened # which files are opened (p4 edit) by me % p4 opened -a # which files are opened by anybody % p4 diff -du file.c # what changes have I done % p4 revert file.h # never mind my changes % p4 sync -f argh.c # forcibly synchronize your file # from the repository % p4 diff -sr | p4 -x - revert # throw away (opened but) unchanged files # (in Perforce it's a little bit too easy # to checkin unchanged files)
Integrate patch 12345 from the mainline to the maint-5.6 branch: (you have to in the directory that has both the mainline and the maint-5.6/perl as subdirectories)
% p4 integrate -d perl/...@12345,12345 maint-5.6/perl/...
Integrate patches 12347-12350 from the perlio branch to the mainline:
% p4 integrate -d perlio/...@12347,12350 perl/...
The mail alias <email@example.com> can be used to reach all current users of the repository.
The repository keeper is currently Gurusamy Sarathy <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
Malcolm Beattie, <email@example.com>, 24 June 1997.
Gurusamy Sarathy, <firstname.lastname@example.org>, 8 May 1999.
Slightly updated by Simon Cozens, <email@example.com>, 3 July 2000.
More updates by Jarkko Hietaniemi, <firstname.lastname@example.org>, 28 June 2001.
Perforce clarifications by Randall Gellens, <email@example.com>, 12 July 2001.
Windows-related updates by Steve Hay <firstname.lastname@example.org>, 23 July 2004 and 08 Aug 2005.