- VERSIONS AND CONVENTIONS USED IN THIS TUTORIAL
- CATALYST INSTALLATION
- WHERE TO GET WORKING CODE
Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Intro - Catalyst Tutorial - Part 1: Introduction
This is Part 1 of 10 for the Catalyst tutorial.
This tutorial provides a multipart introduction to the Catalyst web framework. It seeks to provide a rapid overview of many of its most commonly used features. The focus is on the real-world best practices required in the construction of nearly all Catalyst applications.
Although the primary target of the tutorial is users new to the Catalyst framework, experienced users may wish to review specific sections (for example, how to use DBIC for their model classes, how to add authentication and authorization to an existing application, or form management).
You can obtain the code for all the tutorial examples from the catalyst subversion repository by issuing the command:
svn co http://dev.catalyst.perl.org/repos/Catalyst/tags/examples/Tutorial/MyApp/5.7/ CatalystTutorial
This will download the current code for each tutorial chapter in the CatalystTutorial directory. Each example application directory has the same name as the tutorial chapter.
These reference implementations are provided so that when you follow the tutorial, you can use the code from the subversion repository to ensure that your system is set up correctly, and that you have not inadvertently made any typographic errors, or accidentally skipped part of the tutorial.
NOTE: You can use any perl-supported OS and environment to run Catalyst. It should make little or no difference to Catalyst's operation, but this tutorial has been written using Ubuntu 8.04 because that represents a quick and easy for most people to try out Catalyst with virtually zero setup time and hassles. See the Catalyst installation section below for more information.
If you're reading this manual online, you can download the example program and all the necessary dependencies to your local machine by installing the
Task::Catalyst::Tutorial distribution from CPAN:
This will also test to make sure the dependencies are working. If you have trouble installing these, please ask for help on the #catalyst IRC channel, or the Catalyst mailing list.
Subjects covered by the tutorial include:
A simple application that lists and adds books.
The use of DBIx::Class (DBIC) for the model.
How to write CRUD (Create, Read, Update, and Delete) operations in Catalyst.
Role-based authorization ("authz").
Attempts to provide an example showing current (5.7XXX) Catalyst practices. For example, the use of Catalyst::Action::RenderView, DBIC, Catalyst::Plugin::ConfigLoader with
myapp.conf, the use of
The use of Template Toolkit (TT) and the Catalyst::Helper::View::TTSite view helper.
Useful techniques for troubleshooting and debugging Catalyst applications.
The use of SQLite as a database (with code also provided for MySQL and PostgreSQL).
The use of HTML::FormFu for automated form processing and validation.
This tutorial makes the learning process its main priority. For example, the level of comments in the code found here would likely be considered excessive in a "normal project." Because of their contextual value, this tutorial will generally favor inline comments over a separate discussion in the text. It also deliberately tries to demonstrate multiple approaches to various features (in general, you should try to be as consistent as possible with your own production code).
Furthermore, this tutorial tries to minimize the number of controllers, models, TT templates, and database tables. Although this does result in things being a bit contrived at times, the concepts should be applicable to more complex environments. More complete and complicated example applications can be found in the
examples area of the Catalyst Subversion repository at http://dev.catalyst.perl.org/repos/Catalyst/trunk/examples/.
Note: There are a variety of other introductory materials available through the Catalyst web site and at http://dev.catalyst.perl.org/wiki/UserIntroductions and http://dev.catalyst.perl.org/.
This tutorial was built using the following resources. Please note that you may need to make adjustments for different environments and versions:
Ubuntu 8.04 Hardy Heron
The plugins used in this tutorial all have sufficiently stable APIs that you shouldn't need to worry about versions. However, there could be cases where the tutorial is affected by what version of plugins you use. This tutorial has been tested against the following set of plugins:
Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication -- v0.10002
Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication::Store::DBIC -- v0.09
Catalyst::Plugin::Authorization::ACL -- v0.08
Catalyst::Plugin::Authorization::Roles -- v0.05
Catalyst::Plugin::ConfigLoader -- v0.17
Catalyst::Plugin::Session -- v0.18
Catalyst::Plugin::Session::State::Cookie -- v0.08
Catalyst::Plugin::Session::Store::FastMmap -- v0.03
Catalyst::Plugin::StackTrace -- v0.06
Catalyst::Plugin::Static::Simple -- v0.20
Since the web browser is being used on the same box where Perl and the Catalyst development server is running, the URL of
http://localhost:3000will be used (the Catalyst development server defaults to port 3000). If you are running Perl on a different box than where your web browser is located (or using a different port number via the
-pport_number option to the development server), then you will need to update the URL you use accordingly.
Depending on the web browser you are using, you might need to hit
Shift+Reloadto pull a fresh page when testing your application at various points. Also, the
-kkeepalive option to the development server can be necessary with some browsers (especially Internet Explorer).
While the rough edges of Catalyst installation have been a problem in the past, this is now mostly solved. Nonetheless, installing Catalyst can be a little time consuming. Although a compelling strength of Catalyst is that it makes use of many of the modules in the vast repository that is CPAN, this can complicate the installation process. However, there are a growing number of methods that can dramatically ease this undertaking. Of these, the following are likely to be applicable to the largest number of potential new users:
Given the popularity of Ubuntu and its ease of use, Ubuntu can be a great way for newcomers to experiment with Catalyst. Because it is a "live CD," you can simply boot from the CD, run a few commands, and you should have a fully functional environment in which to do this tutorial in a matter of minutes.
Download Ubuntu 8.04 (aka, Hardy Heron) Desktop edition and boot from the CD and/or image file, select your language, and then "Try Ubuntu without any changes to your computer."
Open a terminal session (click "Applications" in the upper-left corner, then "Accessories," then "Terminal").
Add the 'universe' repositories:
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
And remove the comments from the lines under the comments about the 'universe' repositories.
sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install libdbd-sqlite3-perl libcatalyst-perl libcatalyst-modules-perl libconfig-general-perl
Accept all of the dependencies. Done.
NOTE: If you are low on disk space after the above commands (use
df /to tell), you can free up some space with
sudo rm /var/cache/apt/archives/*.deb(the Live CD uses memory for disk space, so having a decent amount of memory will help). And, while the instructions above mention the Live CD because that makes it easy for people new to Linux, you can obviously also use one of the options to install Ubuntu on your drive.
Available at http://www.shadowcatsystems.co.uk/static/cat-install,
cat-installcan be a quick and painless way to get Catalyst up and running. Just download the script from the link above and type
Chris Laco's CatInABox
Download the tarball from http://handelframework.com/downloads/CatInABox.tar.gz and unpack it on your machine. Depending on your OS platform, either run
Pre-Built VMWare Images
Under the VMWare community program, work is ongoing to develop a number of VMWare images where an entire Catalyst development environment has already been installed, complete with database engines and a full complement of Catalyst plugins.
Frank Speiser's Amazon EC2 Catalyst SDK
There are currently two flavors of publicly available Amazon Machine Images (AMI) that include all the elements you'd need to begin developing in a fully functional Catalyst environment within minutes. See Catalyst::Manual::Installation for more details.
For additional information and recommendations on Catalyst installation, please refer to Catalyst::Manual::Installation.
NOTE: Step-by-step instructions to replicate the environment on which this tutorial was developed can be found at Catalyst::Manual::Installation::CentOS4. Using these instructions, you should be able to build a complete CentOS 4.X server with Catalyst and all the plugins required to run this tutorial.
This tutorial will primarily focus on SQLite because of its simplicity of installation and use; however, modifications in the script required to support MySQL and PostgreSQL will be presented in Appendix 2.
Note: One of the advantages of the MVC design patterns is that applications become much more database independent. As such, you will notice that only the
.sql files used to initialize the database change between database systems: the Catalyst code generally remains the same.
Each part of the tutorial has complete code available in the main Catalyst Subversion repository (see the note at the beginning of each part for the appropriate svn command to use). Additionally, the final code is available as a ready-to-run tarball at http://dev.catalyst.perl.org/repos/Catalyst/trunk/examples/Tutorial/Final_Tarball/MyApp.tgz.
NOTE: You can run the test cases for the final code with the following commands:
wget http://dev.catalyst.perl.org/repos/Catalyst/trunk/examples/Tutorial/Final_Tarball/MyApp.tgz tar zxvf MyApp.tgz cd MyApp CATALYST_DEBUG=0 prove --lib lib t
Please report any errors, issues or suggestions to the author. The most recent version of the Catalyst Tutorial can be found at http://dev.catalyst.perl.org/repos/Catalyst/trunk/Catalyst-Manual/lib/Catalyst/Manual/Tutorial/.
Copyright 2006-2008, Kennedy Clark, under Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/).