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Rob Kinyon


DBIx::Class::Sims - The addition of simulating data to DBIx::Class


      $schema, 'source_name',
      address => { type => 'us_address' },
      zip_code => { type => 'us_zipcode' },
      # ...

  my $rows = DBIx::Class::Sims->load_sims($schema, {
    Table1 => [
      {}, # Take sims or default values for everything
      { # Override some values, take sim values for others
        column1 => 20,
        column2 => 'something',


Within your schema class:


Within your resultsources, specify the sims generation rules for columns that need specified.

    address => {
      data_type => 'varchar',
      is_nullable => 1,
      data_length => 10,
      sim => { type => 'us_address' },
    zipcode => {
      data_type => 'varchar',
      is_nullable => 1,
      data_length => 10,
      sim => { type => 'us_zipcode' },
    column1 => {
      data_type => 'int',
      is_nullable => 0,
      sim => {
        min => 10,
        max => 20,
    column2 => {
      data_type => 'varchar',
      is_nullable => 1,
      data_length => 10,
      default_value => 'foobar',


    add_drop_table => 1,

  my $rows = $schema->load_sims({
    Table1 => [
      {}, # Take sims or default values for everything
      { # Override some values, take sim values for others
        column1 => 20,
        column2 => 'something',


Generating test data for non-simplistic databases is extremely hard, especially as the schema grows and changes. Designing scenarios should be doable by only specifying the minimal elements actually used in the test with the test being resilient to any changes in the schema that don't affect the elements specified. This includes changes like adding a new parent table, new required child tables, and new non-NULL columns to the table being tested.

With Sims, you specify only what you care about. Any required parent rows are automatically generated. If a row requires a certain number of child rows (all artists must have one or more albums), that can be set as well. If a column must have specific data in it (a US zipcode or a range of numbers), you can specify that in the table definition.

And, in all cases, you can override anything.


This is a DBIx::Class component that adds a few methods to your DBIx::Class::Schema object. These methods make it much easier to create data for testing purposes (though, obviously, it's not limited to just test data).

Alternately, it can be used as a class method vs. a component, if that fits your needs better.



$rv, $addl? = $schema->load_sims( $spec, ?$opts ) $rv, $addl? = DBIx::Class::Sims->load_sims( $schema, $spec, ?$opts )

This method will load the rows requested in $spec, plus any additional rows necessary to make those rows work. This includes any parent rows (as defined by belongs_to) and per any constraints defined in $opts-{constraints}>. If need-be, you can pass in hooks (as described below) to manipulate the data.

load_sims does all of its work within a call to "txn_do" in DBIx::Class::Schema. If anything goes wrong, load_sims will rethrow the error after the transaction is rolled back.

This, of course, assumes that the tables you are working with support transactions. (I'm looking at you, MyISAM!) If they do not, that is on you.

Return value

This returns one or two values, depending on if you call load_sims in a scalar or array context.

The first value is a hash of arrays of hashes. This will match the $spec, except that where the $spec has a requested set of things to make, the return will have the DBIx::Class::Row objects that were created.

Note that you do not get back the objects for anything other than the objects specified at the top level.

This second value is a hashref with additional items that may be useful. It may contain:

  • error

    This will contain any error that happened while trying to create the rows.

    This is most useful when die_on_failure is set to 0.

  • seed

    This is the random seed that was used in this run. If you set the seed in the opts parameter in the load_sims call, it will be that value. Otherwise, it will be set to a usefully random value for you. It will be different every time even if you call load_sims multiple times within the same process in the same second.

  • created

    This is a hashref containing a count of each source that was created. This is different from the first return value in that this lists everything created, not just what was requested. It also only has counts, not the actual rows.

  • duplicates

    This is a hashref containing a list for each source of all the duplicates that were found when creating rows for that source. For each duplicate found, there will be an entry that specifies the criteria used to find that duplicate and the row in the database that was found.

    The list will be ordered by when the duplicate was found, but that ordering will NOT be stable across different runs unless the same seed is used.


$class_or_obj->set_sim_type({ $name => $handler, ... }); $class_or_obj->set_sim_type([ [ $name, $regex, $handler ], ... ]);

This method will set the handler for the $name sim type. The $handler must be a reference to a subroutine. You may pass in as many name/handler pairs as you like.

You may alternately pass in an arrayref of triplets. This allows you to use a regex to match the provided type. $name will be returned when the user introspects the list of loaded sim types. $regex will be used when finding the type to handle this column. $handler must be a reference to a subroutine.

You cannot set pairs and triplets in the same invocation.

This method may be called as a class or object method.

This method returns nothing.

set_sim_types() is an alias to this method.



This method will return a sorted list of all registered sim types.

This method may be called as a class or object method.


The specification can be passed along as a filename that contains YAML or JSON, a string that contains YAML or JSON, or as a hash of arrays of hashes. The structure should look like:

    ResultSourceName => [
        column => $value,
        column => $value,
        relationship => $parent_object,
        relationship => {
          column => $value,
        'relationship.column' => $value,
        'rel1.rel2.rel3.column' => $value,

If a column is a belongs_to relationship name, then the row associated with that relationship specifier will be used. This is how you would specify a specific parent-child relationship. (Otherwise, a random choice will be made as to which parent to use, creating one as necessary if possible.) The dots will be followed as far as necessary.

If a column's value is a hashref, then that will be treated as a sim entry. Example:

    Artist => [
        name => { type => 'us_name' },

That will use the provided sim type 'us_name'. This will override any sim entry specified on the column. See "SIM ENTRY" for more information.

Note: Before 0.300800, this behavior was triggered by a reference to a hashref. That will still work, but is deprecated, throws a warning, and will be removed in a future release.

Columns that have not been specified will be populated in one of two ways. The first is if the database has a default value for it. Otherwise, you can specify the sim key in the column_info for that column. This is a new key that is not used by any other component. See "SIM ENTRY" for more information.

(Please see "add_columns" in DBIx::Class::ResultSource for details on column_info)

NOTE: The keys of the outermost hash are resultsource names. The keys within the row-specific hashes are either columns or relationships. Not resultsources.

Reuse wherever possible

The Sims's normal behavior is to attempt to reuse whenever possible. The theory is that if you didn't say you cared about something, you do NOT care about that thing.

Unique constraints

If a source has unique constraints defined, the Sims will use them to determine if a new row with these values can be created or not. If a row already exists with these values for the unique constraints, then that row will be used instead of creating a new one.

This is REGARDLESS of the values for the non-unique-constraint rows.

Forcing creation of a parent

If you do not specify values for a parent (i.e., belongs_to), then the first row for that parent will be be used. If you don't care what values the parent has, but you care that a different parent is used, then you can set the __META__ key as follows:

    Album => {
      artist => { __META__ => { create => 1 } },
      name => 'Some name',

This will force the creation of a parent instead of reusing the parent.

NOTE: If the simmed values within the parent's class would result in values that are the same across a unique constraint with an existing row, then that row will be used. This just bypasses the "attempt to use the first parent".


Hard-coded number of things

If you only want N of a thing, not really caring just what the column values end up being, you can take a shortcut:

    ResultSourceName => 3,

That will create 3 of that thing, taking all the defaults and sim'ed options as exist.

This will also work if you want 3 of a child via a has_many relationship. For example, you can do:

      Artist => {
          name => 'Someone Famous',
          albums => 240,

That will create 240 different albums for that artist, all with the defaults.

Just one thing

If you are creating one of a thing and setting some of the values, you can skip the arrayref and pass the hashref directly.

    ResultSourceName => {
      column => $value,
      column => $value,
      relationship => {
        column => $value,
      'relationship.column' => $value,
      'rel1.rel2.rel3.column' => $value,

And that will work exactly as expected.


Let's say you have a table that's a child of two other tables. You can specify that relationship as follows:

      Parent1 => 1,
      Parent2 => {
          Child => {
              parent1 => \"Parent1[0]",

That's a reference to a string with the tablename as a pseudo-array, then the index into that array. This only works for rows that you are going to return back from the load_sims() call.

This also only works for belongs_to relationships. Since all parents are created before all children, the Sims cannot back-reference into children.


  • Multiply-specified children

    Sometimes, you will have a table with more than one parent (q.v. t/t5.t for an example of this). If you specify a row for each parent and, in each parent, specify a child with the same characteristics, only one child will be created. The assumption is that you meant the same row.

    This does not apply to creating multiple rows with the same characteristics as children of the same parent. The assumption is that you meant to do that.


There are several possible options.


The constraints can be passed along as a filename that contains YAML or JSON, a string that contains YAML or JSON, or as a hash of arrays of hashes. The structure should look like:

    Person => {
      addresses => 2,

All the belongs_to relationships are automatically added to the constraints. You can add additional constraints, as needed. The most common use for this will be to add required child rows. For example, Person->has_many('addresses') would normally mean that if you create a Person, no Address rows would be created. But, we could specify a constraint that says "Every person must have at least 2 addresses." Now, whenever a Person is created, two Addresses will be added along as well, if they weren't already created through some other specification.


If set to 0, this will prevent a die when creating a row. Instead, you will be responsible for checking $additional->{error} yourself.

This defaults to 1.


If set, this will be the srand() seed used for this invocation.


This is passed directly to the call to DBIx::Class::TopoSort->toposort.


Most people will never need to use this. But, some schema definitions may have reasons that prevent a clean simulating with this module. For example, there may be application-managed sequences. To that end, you may specify the following hooks:

  • preprocess

    This receives $name, $source, $spec and expects nothing in return. $spec is the hashref that will be passed to <$schema-resultset($name)->create()>>. This hook is expected to modify $spec as needed.

  • postprocess

    This receives $name, $source, $row and expects nothing in return. This hook is expected to modify the newly-created row object as needed.


To control how a column's values are simulated, add a "sim" entry in the column_info for that column. The sim entry is a hash that can have the followingkeys:

  • value / values

    This behaves just like default_value would behave, but doesn't require setting a default value on the column.

      sim => {
          value => 'The value to always use',

    This can be either a string, number, or an arrayref of strings or numbers. If it is an arrayref, then a random choice from that array will be selected.

  • type

    This labels the column as having a certain type. A type is registered using "set_sim_type". The type acts as a name for a function that's used to generate the value. See "Types" for more information.

  • min / max

    If the column is numeric, then the min and max bound the random value generated. If the column is a string, then the min and max are the length of the random value generated.

  • func

    This is a function that is provided the column info. Its return value is used to populate the column.

  • null_chance

    If the column is nullable and this is set and it is a number between 0 and 1, then if rand() is less than that number, the column will be set to null. Otherwise, the standard behaviors will apply.

    If the column is not nullable, this setting is ignored.

(Please see "add_columns" in DBIx::Class::ResultSource for details on column_info)


The handler for a sim type will receive the column info (as defined in "add_columns" in DBIx::Class::ResultSource). From that, the handler returns the value that will be used for this column.

Please see DBIx::Class::Sims::Types for the list of included sim types.


When an item is created, the following actions are taken (in this order):

1 The columns are fixed up.

This is where generated values are generated. After this is done, all the values that will be inserted into the database are now available.

q.v. "SIM ENTRY" for more information.

1 The preprocess hook fires.

You can modify the hashref as necessary. This includes potentially changing what parent and/or child rows to associate with this row.

1 All foreign keys are resolved.

If it's a parent relationship, the parent row will be found or created. All parent rows will go through the same sequence of events as described here.

If it's a child relationship, creation of the child rows will be deferred until later.

1 The row is found or created.

It might be found by unique constraint or created.

1 All child relationships are handled

Because they're a child relationship, they are deferred until the time that model is handled in the toposorted graph. They are not created now because they might associate with a different parent that has not been created yet.

1 The postprocess hook fires.

Note that any child rows are not guaranteed to exist yet.


Multi-column types

In some applications, columns like "state" and "zipcode" are correlated. Values for one must be legal for the value in the other. The Sims currently has no way of generating correlated columns like this.

This is most useful for saying "These 6 columns should be a coherent address".

Allow a column to reference other columns

Sometimes, a column should alter its behavior based on other columns. A fullname column may have the firstname and lastname columns concatenated, with other things thrown in. Or, a zipcode column should only generate a zipcode that're legal for the state.


This module is hosted on Github at https://github.com/robkinyon/dbix-class-sims. Pull requests are strongly encouraged.


DBIx::Class::Fixtures is another way to load data into a database. Unlike this module, DBIx::Class::Fixtures approaches the problem by loading the same data every time. This is complementary because some tables (such as lookup tables of countries) want to be seeded with the same data every time. The ideal solution would be to have a set of tables loaded with fixtures and another set of tables loaded with sims.


DBIx::Class, DBIx::Class::Fixtures


Rob Kinyon <rob.kinyon@gmail.com>


Copyright (c) 2013 Rob Kinyon. All Rights Reserved. This is free software, you may use it and distribute it under the same terms as Perl itself.