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Stevan Little
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NAME

Class::MOP - A Meta Object Protocol for Perl 5

SYNOPSIS

  # ... This will come later, for now see
  # the other SYNOPSIS for more information

DESCRIPTON

This module is an attempt to create a meta object protocol for the Perl 5 object system. It makes no attempt to change the behavior or characteristics of the Perl 5 object system, only to create a protocol for its manipulation and introspection.

That said, it does attempt to create the tools for building a rich set of extensions to the Perl 5 object system. Every attempt has been made for these tools to keep to the spirit of the Perl 5 object system that we all know and love.

This documentation is admittedly sparse on details, as time permits I will try to improve them. For now, I suggest looking at the items listed in the "SEE ALSO" section for more information. In particular the book "The Art of the Meta Object Protocol" was very influential in the development of this system.

What is a Meta Object Protocol?

A meta object protocol is an API to an object system.

To be more specific, it is a set of abstractions of the components of an object system (typically things like; classes, object, methods, object attributes, etc.). These abstractions can then be used to both inspect and manipulate the object system which they describe.

It can be said that there are two MOPs for any object system; the implicit MOP, and the explicit MOP. The implicit MOP handles things like method dispatch or inheritance, which happen automatically as part of how the object system works. The explicit MOP typically handles the introspection/reflection features of the object system. All object systems have implicit MOPs, without one, they would not work. Explict MOPs however as less common, and depending on the language can vary from restrictive (Reflection in Java or C#) to wide open (CLOS is a perfect example).

Yet Another Class Builder!! Why?

This is not a class builder so much as it is a class builder builder. My intent is that an end user does not use this module directly, but instead this module is used by module authors to build extensions and features onto the Perl 5 object system.

Who is this module for?

This module is specifically for anyone who has ever created or wanted to create a module for the Class:: namespace. The tools which this module will provide will hopefully make it easier to do more complex things with Perl 5 classes by removing such barriers as the need to hack the symbol tables, or understand the fine details of method dispatch.

What changes do I have to make to use this module?

This module was designed to be as unintrusive as possible. Many of its features are accessible without any change to your existsing code at all. It is meant to be a compliment to your existing code and not an intrusion on your code base. Unlike many other Class:: modules, this module does not require you subclass it, or even that you use it in within your module's package.

The only features which requires additions to your code are the attribute handling and instance construction features, and these are both completely optional features. The only reason for this is because Perl 5's object system does not actually have these features built in. More information about this feature can be found below.

A Note about Performance?

It is a common misconception that explict MOPs are performance drains. But this is not a universal truth at all, it is an side-effect of specific implementations. For instance, using Java reflection is much slower because the JVM cannot take advantage of any compiler optimizations, and the JVM has to deal with much more runtime type information as well. Reflection in C# is marginally better as it was designed into the language and runtime (the CLR). In contrast, CLOS (the Common Lisp Object System) was built to support an explicit MOP, and so performance is tuned for it.

This library in particular does it's absolute best to avoid putting any drain at all upon your code's performance. In fact, by itself it does nothing to affect your existing code. So you only pay for what you actually use.

About Metaclass compatibility

This module makes sure that all metaclasses created are both upwards and downwards compatible. The topic of metaclass compatibility is highly esoteric and is something only encountered when doing deep and involved metaclass hacking. There are two basic kinds of metaclass incompatibility; upwards and downwards.

Upwards metaclass compatibility means that the metaclass of a given class is either the same as (or a subclass of) all of the class's ancestors.

Downward metaclass compatibility means that the metaclasses of a given class's anscestors are all either the same as (or a subclass of) that metaclass.

Here is a diagram showing a set of two classes (A and B) and two metaclasses (Meta::A and Meta::B) which have correct metaclass compatibility both upwards and downwards.

    +---------+     +---------+
    | Meta::A |<----| Meta::B |      <....... (instance of  )
    +---------+     +---------+      <------- (inherits from)  
         ^               ^
         :               :
    +---------+     +---------+
    |    A    |<----|    B    |
    +---------+     +---------+

As I said this is a highly esoteric topic and one you will only run into if you do a lot of subclassing of Class::MOP::Class. If you are interested in why this is an issue see the paper Uniform and safe metaclass composition linked to in the "SEE ALSO" section of this document.

Using custom metaclasses

Always use the metaclass pragma when using a custom metaclass, this will ensure the proper initialization order and not accidentely create an incorrect type of metaclass for you. This is a very rare problem, and one which can only occur if you are doing deep metaclass programming. So in other words, don't worry about it.

PROTOCOLS

The protocol is divided into 3 main sub-protocols:

The Class protocol

This provides a means of manipulating and introspecting a Perl 5 class. It handles all of symbol table hacking for you, and provides a rich set of methods that go beyond simple package introspection.

See Class::MOP::Class for more details.

The Attribute protocol

This provides a consistent represenation for an attribute of a Perl 5 class. Since there are so many ways to create and handle atttributes in Perl 5 OO, this attempts to provide as much of a unified approach as possible, while giving the freedom and flexibility to subclass for specialization.

See Class::MOP::Attribute for more details.

The Method protocol

This provides a means of manipulating and introspecting methods in the Perl 5 object system. As with attributes, there are many ways to approach this topic, so we try to keep it pretty basic, while still making it possible to extend the system in many ways.

See Class::MOP::Method for more details.

FUNCTIONS

Class::MOP holds a cache of metaclasses, the following are functions (not methods) which can be used to access that cache. It is not recommended that you mess with this, bad things could happen. But if you are brave and willing to risk it, go for it.

get_all_metaclasses

This will return an hash of all the metaclass instances that have been cached by Class::MOP::Class keyed by the package name.

get_all_metaclass_instances

This will return an array of all the metaclass instances that have been cached by Class::MOP::Class.

get_all_metaclass_names

This will return an array of all the metaclass names that have been cached by Class::MOP::Class.

get_metaclass_by_name ($name)
store_metaclass_by_name ($name, $meta)
weaken_metaclass ($name)
does_metaclass_exist ($name)
remove_metaclass_by_name ($name)

SEE ALSO

Books

There are very few books out on Meta Object Protocols and Metaclasses because it is such an esoteric topic. The following books are really the only ones I have found. If you know of any more, please email me and let me know, I would love to hear about them.

"The Art of the Meta Object Protocol"
"Advances in Object-Oriented Metalevel Architecture and Reflection"
"Putting MetaClasses to Work"
"Smalltalk: The Language"

Papers

Uniform and safe metaclass composition

An excellent paper by the people who brought us the original Traits paper. This paper is on how Traits can be used to do safe metaclass composition, and offers an excellent introduction section which delves into the topic of metaclass compatibility.

http://www.iam.unibe.ch/~scg/Archive/Papers/Duca05ySafeMetaclassTrait.pdf

Safe Metaclass Programming

This paper seems to precede the above paper, and propose a mix-in based approach as opposed to the Traits based approach. Both papers have similar information on the metaclass compatibility problem space.

http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/37617.html

Prior Art

The Perl 6 MetaModel work in the Pugs project
http://svn.openfoundry.org/pugs/perl5/Perl6-MetaModel
http://svn.openfoundry.org/pugs/perl5/Perl6-ObjectSpace

Article

CPAN Module Review of Class::MOP

http://www.oreillynet.com/onlamp/blog/2006/06/cpan_module_review_classmop.html

SIMILAR MODULES

As I have said above, this module is a class-builder-builder, so it is not the same thing as modules like Class::Accessor and Class::MethodMaker. That being said there are very few modules on CPAN with similar goals to this module. The one I have found which is most like this module is Class::Meta, although it's philosophy and the MOP it creates are very different from this modules.

BUGS

All complex software has bugs lurking in it, and this module is no exception. If you find a bug please either email me, or add the bug to cpan-RT.

CODE COVERAGE

I use Devel::Cover to test the code coverage of my tests, below is the Devel::Cover report on this module's test suite.

 ---------------------------- ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------
 File                           stmt   bran   cond    sub    pod   time  total
 ---------------------------- ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------
 Class/MOP.pm                   97.7  100.0   88.9   94.7  100.0    3.2   96.6
 Class/MOP/Attribute.pm         75.5   77.9   82.4   88.3  100.0    4.0   81.5
 Class/MOP/Class.pm             96.9   88.8   72.1   98.2  100.0   35.8   91.4
 Class/MOP/Class/Immutable.pm   88.2   60.0    n/a   95.5  100.0    0.5   84.6
 Class/MOP/Instance.pm          86.4   75.0   33.3   86.2  100.0    1.2   87.5
 Class/MOP/Method.pm            97.5   75.0   61.5   80.6  100.0   12.7   89.7
 Class/MOP/Module.pm           100.0    n/a   55.6  100.0  100.0    0.1   90.7
 Class/MOP/Object.pm            73.3    n/a   20.0   80.0  100.0    0.1   66.7
 Class/MOP/Package.pm           94.6   71.7   33.3  100.0  100.0   42.2   87.0
 metaclass.pm                  100.0  100.0   83.3  100.0    n/a    0.2   97.7
 ---------------------------- ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------
 Total                          91.3   80.4   69.8   91.9  100.0  100.0   88.1
 ---------------------------- ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Rob Kinyon

Thanks to Rob for actually getting the development of this module kick-started.

AUTHORS

Stevan Little <stevan@iinteractive.com>

Yuval Kogman <nothingmuch@woobling.com>

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

Copyright 2006 by Infinity Interactive, Inc.

http://www.iinteractive.com

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.