NAME

WiringPi::API - Direct access to Raspberry Pi's wiringPi API, with optional Perl OO access

SYNOPSIS

No matter which import option you choose, before you can start making calls, you must initialize the software by calling one of the setup*() routines.

    # import the API functions directly

    use WiringPi::API qw(:wiringPi)

    # import the Perl wrapped functions

    use WiringPi::API qw(:perl)

    # import both versions

    use WiringPi::API qw(:all)

    # use as a base class with OO functionality

    use parent 'WiringPi::API';

    # use in the traditional Perl OO way

    use WiringPi::API;

    my $api = WiringPi::API->new;

DESCRIPTION

This is an XS-based module, and requires wiringPi to be installed. The wiringPiDev shared library is also required (for the LCD functionality), but it's installed by default with wiringPi.

This module allows you to import the wiringPi's functions directly as-is, use it as a Perl base class, export the Perl wrapped functions, or use it in a traditional Perl OO way.

See the documentation on the wiringPi website for a more in-depth description of most of the functions it provides. Some of the functions we've wrapped are not documented, they were just selectively plucked from the C code itself.

EXPORT_OK

Exported with the :wiringPi tag.

These XS functions map directly to the wiringPi functions with their original names. Note that setInterrupt is not a direct wrapper, it's a custom C wrapper for wiringPiISR() in order to make it functional here.

    wiringPiSetup       wiringPiSetupSys    wiringPiSetupGpio
    wiringPiSetupPhys   pinMode             pullUpDnControl
    digitalRead         digitalWrite        digitalWriteByte
    pwmWrite            getAlt              piBoardDev
    wpiToGpio           physPinToGpio       pwmSetRange
    lcdInit             lcdHome             lcdClear
    lcdDisplay          lcdCursor           lcdCursorBlink
    lcdSendCommand      lcdPosition         lcdCharDef
    lcdPutChar          lcdPuts             setInterrupt
    softPwmCreate       softPwmWrite        softPwmStop

Exported with the :perl tag.

Perl wrapper functions for the XS functions.

    setup           setup_sys       setup_phys          setup_gpio pin_mode
    pull_up_down    read_pin        write_pin           pwm_write
    get_alt         board_rev       wpi_to_gpio         phys_to_gpio
    pwm_set_range   lcd_init        lcd_home            lcd_clear
    lcd_display     lcd_cursor      lcd_cursor_blink    lcd_send_cmd
    lcd_position    lcd_char_def    lcd_put_char        lcd_puts
    set_interrupt   soft_pwm_create soft_pwm_write      soft_pwm_stop

EXPORT_TAGS

:wiringPi

See EXPORT_OK

:perl

See EXPORT_OK

:all

Exports all available exportable functions.

CORE METHODS

new()

NOTE: After an object is created, one of the setup* methods must be called to initialize the Pi board.

Returns a new WiringPi::API object.

setup()

Maps to int wiringPiSetup()

Sets the pin number mapping scheme to wiringPi.

This setup routine requires you to run your script as the root user.

Each setup function has benefits and drawbacks. Please refer to the wiringPi setup functions for details.

See pinout.xyz for a pin number conversion chart, or on the command line, run gpio readall.

Note that only one of the setup*() methods can be called per program run.

setup_sys()

Maps to int wiringPiSetupSys()

Sets the pin numbering scheme to GPIO.

This setup routine does NOT require running as root, but you have to manually export the pins yourself with the gpio command line utility prior to using the pins.

setup_phys()

Maps to int wiringPiSetupPhys()

Sets the pin mapping to use the physical pin position number on the board.

This setup routine requires you to run your script as the root user.

setup_gpio()

Maps to int wiringPiSetupGpio()

Sets the pin numbering scheme to GPIO.

This setup routine requires you to run your script as the root user.

pin_mode($pin, $mode)

Maps to void pinMode(int pin, int mode)

Puts the pin in either INPUT or OUTPUT mode.

Parameters:

    $pin

Mandatory: The pin number, in the pin numbering scheme dictated by whichever setup*() routine you used.

    $mode

Mandatory: 0 for INPUT, 1 OUTPUT, 2 PWM_OUTPUT and 3 GPIO_CLOCK.

read_pin($pin);

Maps to int digitalRead(int pin)

Returns the current state (HIGH/on, LOW/off) of a given pin.

Parameters:

    $pin

Mandatory: The pin number, in the pin numbering scheme dictated by whichever setup*() routine you used.

write_pin($pin, $state)

Maps to void digitalWrite(int pin)

Sets the state (HIGH/on, LOW/off) of a given pin.

Parameters:

    $pin

Mandatory: The pin number, in the pin numbering scheme dictated by whichever setup*() routine you used.

    $state

Mandatory: 1 to turn the pin on (HIGH), and 0 to turn it LOW (off).

pull_up_down($pin, $direction)

Maps to void pullUpDnControl(int pin, int pud)

Enable/disable the built-in pull up/down resistors for a specified pin.

Parameters:

    $pin

Mandatory: The pin number, in the pin numbering scheme dictated by whichever setup*() routine you used.

    $direction

Mandatory: 2 for UP, 1 for DOWN and 0 to disable the resistor.

pwm_write($pin, $value)

Maps to void pwmWrite(int pin, int value)

Sets the Pulse Width Modulation duty cycle (on-time) of the pin.

Parameters:

    $pin

Mandatory: The pin number, in the pin numbering scheme dictated by whichever setup*() routine you used.

    $value

Mandatory: 0 to 1023. 0 is 0% (off) and 1023 is 100% (fully on).

get_alt($pin)

Maps to int getAlt(int pin)

This returns the current mode of the pin (using getAlt() C call). Modes are INPUT 0, OUTPUT 1, PWM 2 and CLOCK 3.

Parameters:

    $pin

Mandatory: The pin number, in the pin numbering scheme dictated by whichever setup*() routine you used.

BOARD METHODS

board_rev()

Maps to int piBoardRev()

Returns the Raspberry Pi board's revision.

wpi_to_gpio($pin_num)

Maps to int wpiPinToGpio(int pin)

Converts a wiringPi pin number to the Broadcom (BCM) representation, and returns it.

Parameters:

    $pin_num

Mandatory: The pin number, in the pin numbering scheme dictated by whichever setup*() routine you used.

phys_to_gpio($pin_num)

Maps to int physPinToGpio(int pin)

Converts the pin number on the physical board to the GPIO representation, and returns it.

Parameters:

    $pin_num

Mandatory: The pin number on the physical Raspberry Pi board.

phys_to_wpi($pin_num)

Maps to int physPinToWpi(int pin)

Converts the pin number on the physical board to the wiringPi numbering representation, and returns it.

Parameters:

    $pin_num

Mandatory: The pin number on the physical Raspberry Pi board.

pwm_set_range($range);

Maps to void pwmSetRange(int range)

Sets the range register of the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) functionality. It defaults to 1024 (0-1023).

Parameters:

    $range

Mandatory: An integer between 0 and 1023.

LCD METHODS

There are several methods to drive standard Liquid Crystal Displays. See wiringPiDev LCD page for full details.

lcd_init(%args)

Maps to:

    int lcdInit(
        rows, cols, bits, rs, strb,
        d0, d1, d2, d3, d4, d5, d6, d7
    );

Initializes the LCD library, and returns an integer representing the handle handle (file descriptor) of the device. The return is supposed to be constant, so DON'T change it.

Parameters:

    %args = (
        rows => $num,       # number of rows. eg: 2 or 4
        cols => $num,       # number of columns. eg: 16 or 20
        bits => 4|8,        # width of the interface (4 or 8)
        rs => $pin_num,     # pin number of the LCD's RS pin
        strb => $pin_num,   # pin number of the LCD's strobe (E) pin
        d0 => $pin_num,     # pin number for LCD data pin 1
        ...
        d7 => $pin_num,     # pin number for LCD data pin 8
    );

Mandatory: All entries must have a value. If you're only using four (4) bit width, d4 through d7 must be set to 0.

Note: When in 4-bit mode, the d0 through 3 parameters actually map to pins d4 through d7 on the LCD board, so you need to connect those pins to their respective selected GPIO pins.

lcd_home($fd)

Maps to void lcdHome(int fd)

Moves the LCD cursor to the home position (top row, leftmost column).

Parameters:

    $fd

Mandatory: The file descriptor integer returned by lcd_init().

lcd_clear($fd)

Maps to void lcdClear(int fd)

Clears the LCD display.

Parameters:

    $fd

Mandatory: The file descriptor integer returned by lcd_init().

lcd_display($fd, $state)

Maps to void lcdDisplay(int fd, int state)

Turns the LCD display on and off.

Parameters:

    $fd

Mandatory: The file descriptor integer returned by lcd_init().

    $state

Mandatory: 0 to turn the display off, and 1 for on.

lcd_cursor($fd, $state)

Maps to void lcdCursor(int fd, int state)

Turns the LCD cursor on and off.

Parameters:

    $fd

Mandatory: The file descriptor integer returned by lcd_init().

    $state

Mandatory: 0 to turn the cursor off, 1 for on.

lcd_cursor_blink($fd, $state)

Maps to void lcdCursorBlink(int fd, int state)

Allows you to enable/disable a blinking cursor.

Parameters:

    $fd

Mandatory: The file descriptor integer returned by lcd_init().

lcd_send_cmd($fd, $command)

Maps to void lcdSendCommand(int fd, char command)

Sends any arbitrary command to the LCD.

Parameters:

    $fd

Mandatory: The file descriptor integer returned by lcd_init().

    $command

Mandatory: A command to submit to the LCD.

lcd_position($fd, $x, $y)

Maps to void lcdPosition(int fd, int x, int y)

Moves the cursor to the specified position on the LCD display.

Parameters:

    $fd

Mandatory: The file descriptor integer returned by lcd_init().

    $x

Mandatory: Column position. 0 is the left-most edge.

    $y

Mandatory: Row position. 0 is the top row.

lcd_char_def($fd, $index, $data)

Maps to void lcdCharDef(int fd, unsigned char data [8])

This allows you to re-define one of the 8 user-definable characters in the display. The data array is 8 bytes which represent the character from the top-line to the bottom line. Note that the characters are actually 5×8, so only the lower 5 bits are used. The index is from 0 to 7 and you can subsequently print the character defined using the lcdPutchar() call.

Parameters:

    $fd

Mandatory: The file descriptor integer returned by lcd_init().

    $index

Mandatory: Index of the display character. Values are 0-7.

    $data

Mandatory: See above description.

lcd_put_char($fd, $char)

Maps to void lcdPutChar(int fd, unsigned char data)

Writes a single ASCII character to the LCD display, at the current cursor position.

Parameters:

    $fd

Mandatory: The file descriptor integer returned by lcd_init().

    $char

Mandatory: A single ASCII character.

lcd_puts($fd, $string)

Maps to void lcdPuts(int fd, char *string)

Writes a string to the LCD display, at the current cursor position.

Parameters:

    $fd

Mandatory: The file descriptor integer returned by lcd_init().

    $string

Mandatory: A string to display.

SOFT PWM METHODS

Software Pulse Width Modulation is not the same as hardware PWM. It should not be used for critical things as it's frequency isn't 100% stable.

This software PWM allows you to use PWM on ANY GPIO pin, not just the single hardware pin available.

soft_pwm_create($pin, $initial_value, $range)

Creates a new software PWM thread that runs outside of your main application.

Parameters:

    $pin

Mandatory: The pin number, in the pin numbering scheme dictated by whichever setup*() routine you used.

    $initial_value

Optional: A value between 0 and $range.

    $range

Optional: Look at this like a dial. We start at 0 and the dial has turned completely when we hit the $range integer. If not sent in, defaults to 1023.

soft_pwm_write($pin, $value)

Sets the HIGH frequency on pin to whatever is in $value. The value must be lower than what was set in the $range parameter to soft_pwm_create().

soft_pwm_stop($pin)

Turns off software PWM on the $pin.

INTERRUPT METHODS

set_interrupt($pin, $edge, $callback)

IMPORTANT: The interrupt functionality requires that your Perl can be used in pthreads. If you do not have a threaded Perl, the program will cause a segmentation fault.

Wrapper around wiringPi's wiringPiISR() that allows you to send in the name of a Perl sub in your own code that will be called if an interrupt is triggered.

Parameters:

    $pin

Mandatory: The pin number, in the pin numbering scheme dictated by whichever setup*() routine you used.

    $edge

Mandatory: 1 (lowering), 2 (raising) or 3 (both).

    $callback

Mandatory: The string name of a subroutine previously written in your user code that will be called when the interrupt is triggered. This is your interrupt handler.

head1 AUTHOR

Steve Bertrand, <steveb@cpan.org>

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

Copyright (C) 2016 by Steve Bertrand

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself, either Perl version 5.18.2 or, at your option, any later version of Perl 5 you may have available.

1 POD Error

The following errors were encountered while parsing the POD:

Around line 668:

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