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Toby Inkster

NAME

Exporter::Tiny - an exporter with the features of Sub::Exporter but only core dependencies

SYNOPSIS

   package MyUtils;
   use base "Exporter::Tiny";
   our @EXPORT = qw(frobnicate);
   sub frobnicate { my $n = shift; ... }
   1;

   package MyScript;
   use MyUtils "frobnicate" => { -as => "frob" };
   print frob(42);
   exit;

DESCRIPTION

Exporter::Tiny supports many of Sub::Exporter's external-facing features including renaming imported functions with the -as, -prefix and -suffix options; explicit destinations with the into option; and alternative installers with the installler option. But it's written in only about 40% as many lines of code and with zero non-core dependencies.

Its internal-facing interface is closer to Exporter.pm, with configuration done through the @EXPORT, @EXPORT_OK and %EXPORT_TAGS package variables.

Exporter::Tiny performs most of its internal duties (including resolution of tag names to sub names, resolution of sub names to coderefs, and installation of coderefs into the target package) as method calls, which means they can be overridden to provide interesting behaviour.

Utility Functions

These are really for internal use, but can be exported if you need them.

mkopt(\@array)

Similar to mkopt from Data::OptList. It doesn't support all the fancy options that Data::OptList does (moniker, require_unique, must_be and name_test) but runs about 50% faster.

mkopt_hash(\@array)

Similar to mkopt_hash from Data::OptList. See also mkopt.

TIPS AND TRICKS IMPORTING FROM EXPORTER::TINY

For the purposes of this discussion we'll assume we have a module called MyUtils which exports one function, frobnicate. MyUtils inherits from Exporter::Tiny.

Many of these tricks may seem familiar from Sub::Exporter. That is intentional. Exporter::Tiny doesn't attempt to provide every feature of Sub::Exporter, but where it does it usually uses a fairly similar API.

Basic importing

   # import "frobnicate" function
   use MyUtils "frobnicate";

   # import all functions that MyUtils offers
   use MyUtils -all;

Renaming imported functions

   # call it "frob"
   use MyUtils "frobnicate" => { -as => "frob" };

   # call it "my_frobnicate"
   use MyUtils "frobnicate" => { -prefix => "my_" };

   # call it "frobnicate_util"
   use MyUtils "frobnicate" => { -suffix => "_util" };

   # import it twice with two different names
   use MyUtils
      "frobnicate" => { -as => "frob" },
      "frobnicate" => { -as => "frbnct" };

Lexical subs

   {
      use Sub::Exporter::Lexical lexical_installer => { -as => "lex" };
      use MyUtils { installer => lex }, "frobnicate";
      
      frobnicate(...);  # ok
   }
   
   frobnicate(...);  # not ok

Import functions into another package

   use MyUtils { into => "OtherPkg" }, "frobnicate";
   
   OtherPkg::frobincate(...);

Import functions into a scalar

   my $func;
   use MyUtils "frobnicate" => { -as => \$func };
   
   $func->(...);

Import functions into a hash

OK, Sub::Exporter doesn't do this...

   my %funcs;
   use MyUtils { into => \%funcs }, "frobnicate";
   
   $funcs{frobnicate}->(...);

TIPS AND TRICKS EXPORTING USING EXPORTER::TINY

Simple configuration works the same as Exporter; inherit from this module, and use the @EXPORT, @EXPORT_OK and %EXPORT_TAGS package variables to list subs to export.

Generators

Exporter::Tiny has always allowed exported subs to be generated (like Sub::Exporter), but until version 0.025 did not have an especially nice API for it.

Now, it's easy. If you want to generate a sub foo to export, list it in @EXPORT or @EXPORT_OK as usual, and then simply give your exporter module a class method called _generate_foo.

   push @EXPORT_OK, 'foo';
   
   sub _generate_foo {
      my $class = shift;
      my ($name, $args, $globals) = @_;
      
      return sub {
         ...;
      }
   }

You can also generate tags:

   my %constants = (FOO => 1, BAR => 2);
   use constant \%constants;
   
   $EXPORT_TAGS{constants} = sub {
      my $class = shift;
      my ($name, $args, $globals) = @_;
      
      return keys(%constants);
   };

Overriding Internals

An important difference between Exporter and Exporter::Tiny is that the latter calls all its internal functions as class methods. This means that you subclass can override them to alter their behaviour.

The following methods are available to be overridden. Despite being named with a leading underscore, they are considered public methods. (The underscore is there to avoid accidentally colliding with any of your own function names.)

_exporter_validate_opts($globals)

This method is called once each time import is called. It is passed a reference to the global options hash. (That is, the optional leading hashref in the use statement, where the into and installer options can be provided.)

You may use this method to munge the global options, or validate them, throwing an exception or printing a warning.

The default implementation does nothing interesting.

_exporter_expand_tag($name, $args, $globals)

This method is called to expand an import tag (e.g. ":constants"). It is passed the tag name (minus the leading ":"), an optional hashref of options (like { -prefix => "foo_" }), and the global options hashref.

It is expected to return a list of ($name, $args) arrayref pairs. These names can be sub names to export, or further tag names (which must have their ":"). If returning tag names, be careful to avoid creating a tag expansion loop!

The default implementation uses %EXPORT_TAGS to expand tags, and provides fallbacks for the :default and :all tags.

_exporter_expand_sub($name, $args, $globals)

This method is called to translate a sub name to a hash of name => coderef pairs for exporting to the caller. In general, this would just be a hash with one key and one value, but, for example, Type::Library overrides this method so that "+Foo" gets expanded to:

   (
      Foo         => sub { $type },
      is_Foo      => sub { $type->check(@_) },
      to_Foo      => sub { $type->assert_coerce(@_) },
      assert_Foo  => sub { $type->assert_return(@_) },
   )

The default implementation checks that the name is allowed to be exported (using the _exporter_permitted_regexp method), gets the coderef using the generator if there is one (or by calling can on your exporter otherwise) and calls _exporter_fail if it's unable to generate or retrieve a coderef.

_exporter_permitted_regexp($globals)

This method is called to retrieve a regexp for validating the names of exportable subs. If a sub doesn't match the regexp, then the default implementation of _exporter_expand_sub will refuse to export it. (Of course, you may override the default _exporter_expand_sub.)

The default implementation of this method assembles the regexp from @EXPORT and @EXPORT_OK.

_exporter_fail($name, $args, $globals)

Called by _exporter_expand_sub if it can't find a coderef to export.

The default implementation just throws an exception. But you could emit a warning instead, or just ignore the failed export.

If you don't throw an exception then you should be aware that this method is called in list context, and any list it returns will be treated as an _exporter_expand_sub-style hash of names and coderefs for export.

_exporter_install_sub($name, $args, $globals, $coderef)

This method actually installs the exported sub into its new destination. Its return value is ignored.

The default implementation handles sub renaming (i.e. the -as, -prefix and -suffix functions. This method does a lot of stuff; if you need to override it, it's probably a good idea to just pre-process the arguments and then call the super method rather than trying to handle all of it yourself.

HISTORY

Exporter::Tiny is a fork of Exporter::TypeTiny. CHOCOLATEBOY convinced me that the Exporter from Type-Tiny was mature enough to live a life of its own.

The two modules should stay fairly synchronized in terms of features, bug fixes and so on.

See "HISTORY" in Exporter::TypeTiny for further history and rationale.

OBLIGATORY EXPORTER COMPARISON

Exporter::Tiny offers almost all Sub::Exporter's features, but runs more than twice as fast; uses less than half the memory and has no non-core dependencies.

See "OBLIGATORY EXPORTER COMPARISON" in Exporter::TypeTiny details.

BUGS

Please report any bugs to http://rt.cpan.org/Dist/Display.html?Queue=Exporter-Tiny.

SEE ALSO

Exporter::TypeTiny, Sub::Exporter, Exporter.

AUTHOR

Toby Inkster <tobyink@cpan.org>.

COPYRIGHT AND LICENCE

This software is copyright (c) 2013 by Toby Inkster.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES

THIS PACKAGE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND WITHOUT ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTIBILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.