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1 non-PAUSE user(s).

William Setzer

NAME

Curses - terminal screen handling and optimization

SYNOPSIS

    use Curses;

    initscr;
    ...
    endwin;

DESCRIPTION

Curses is the interface between Perl and your system's curses(3) library. For descriptions on the usage of a given function, variable, or constant, consult your system's documentation, as such information invariably varies (:-) between different curses(3) libraries and operating systems. This document describes the interface itself, and assumes that you already know how your system's curses(3) library works.

Unified Functions

Many curses(3) functions have variants starting with the prefixes w-, mv-, and/or wmv-. These variants differ only in the explicit addition of a window, or by the addition of two coordinates that are used to move the cursor first. For example, addch() has three other variants: waddch(), mvaddch(), and mvwaddch(). The variants aren't very interesting; in fact, we could roll all of the variants into original function by allowing a variable number of arguments and analyzing the argument list for which variant the user wanted to call.

Unfortunately, curses(3) predates varargs(3), so in C we were stuck with all the variants. However, Curses is a Perl interface, so we are free to "unify" these variants into one function. The section "Supported Functions" below lists all curses(3) function supported by Curses, along with a column listing if it is unified. If so, it takes a varying number of arguments as follows:

    function( [win], [y, x], args );

    win is an optional window argument, defaulting to stdscr if not specified.

    y, x is an optional coordinate pair used to move the cursor, defaulting to no move if not specified.

    args are the required arguments of the function. These are the arguments you would specify if you were just calling the base function and not any of the variants.

This makes the variants obsolete, since their functionality has been merged into a single function, so Curses does not define them by default. You can still get them if you want, by setting the variable $Curses::OldCurses to a non-zero value before using the Curses package. See "Perl 4.X cursperl Compatibility" for an example of this.

Objects

Objects are supported. Example:

    $win = new Curses;
    $win->addstr(10, 10, 'foo');
    $win->refresh;
    ...

Any function that has been marked as unified (see "Supported Functions" below and "Unified Functions" above) can be called as a method for a Curses object.

Do not use initscr() if using objects, as the first call to get a new Curses will do it for you.

COMPATIBILITY

Perl 4.X cursperl Compatibility

Curses has been written to take advantage of the new features of Perl. I felt it better to provide an improved curses programming environment rather than to be 100% compatible. However, many old curseperl applications will probably still work by starting the script with:

    BEGIN { $Curses::OldCurses = 1; }
    use Curses;

Any old application that still does not work should print an understandable error message explaining the problem.

Some functions and variables are not supported by Curses, even with the BEGIN line. They are listed under "curses(3) items not supported by Curses".

The variables $stdscr and $curscr are also available as functions stdscr and curscr. This is because of a Perl bug. See the BUGS section for details.

Incompatibilities with previous versions of Curses

In previous versions of this software, some Perl functions took a different set of parameters than their C counterparts. This is no longer true. You should now use getstr($str) and getyx($y, $x) instead of $str = getstr() and ($y, $x) = getyx().

Incompatibilities with other Perl programs

    menu.pl, v3.0 and v3.1
        There were various interaction problems between these two
        releases and Curses.  Please upgrade to the latest version
        (v3.3 as of 3/16/96).

DIAGNOSTICS

  • '%s' support not enabled for Curses function '%s'

    A necessary optional library (such as panels) was not enabled at compile time.

  • Curses function '%s' called with too %s arguments at ...

    You have called a Curses function with a wrong number of arguments.

  • argument %d to Curses function '%s' is not a Curses window at ... =item * argument is not a Curses window at ...

    The window argument you gave to the function wasn't really a window.

    This probably means that you didn't give the right arguments to a unified function. See the DESCRIPTION section on "Unified Functions" for more information.

  • Curses function '%s' is not defined by your vendor at ...

    You have a Curses function in your code that your system's curses(3) library doesn't define.

  • Curses constant '%s' is not defined by your vendor at ...

    You have a Curses constant in your code that your system's curses(3) library doesn't define.

  • Curses does not support the curses function '%s', used at ...

    You have a curses(3) function in your code that the Curses module doesn't support.

  • Curses does not support the curses variable '%s', used at ...

    You have a curses(3) variable in your code that the Curses module doesn't support.

  • Curses does not support the curses constant '%s', used at ...

    You have a bareword in your code that is trying to be interpreted as a Curses constant, but Curses doesn't know anything about it.

  • Curses::Vars::FETCH called with bad index at ... =item * Curses::Vars::STORE called with bad index at ...

    You've been playing with the tie interface to the Curses variables. Don't do that. :-)

  • Anything else

    Check out the perldiag man page to see if the error is in there.

BUGS

If you use the variables $stdscr and $curscr instead of their functional counterparts (stdscr and curscr), you might run into a bug in Perl where the "magic" isn't called early enough. This is manifested by the Curses package telling you $stdscr isn't a window. One workaround is to put a line like $stdscr = $stdscr near the front of your program.

Probably many more.

AUTHOR

William Setzer <William_Setzer@ncsu.edu>

SYNOPSIS OF PERL CURSES SUPPORT

Supported Functions

    Supported         Unified?     Supported via $OldCurses[*]
    ---------         --------     ------------------------
    addch               Yes        waddch mvaddch mvwaddch
    echochar            Yes        wechochar
    addchstr            Yes        waddchstr mvaddchstr mvwaddchstr
    addchnstr           Yes        waddchnstr mvaddchnstr mvwaddchnstr
    addstr              Yes        waddstr mvaddstr mvwaddstr
    addnstr             Yes        waddnstr mvaddnstr mvwaddnstr
    attroff             Yes        wattroff
    attron              Yes        wattron
    attrset             Yes        wattrset
    standend            Yes        wstandend
    standout            Yes        wstandout
    attr_get            Yes        wattr_get
    attr_off            Yes        wattr_off
    attr_on             Yes        wattr_on
    attr_set            Yes        wattr_set
    chgat               Yes        wchgat mvchgat mvwchgat
    COLOR_PAIR          No 
    PAIR_NUMBER         No 
    beep                No 
    flash               No 
    bkgd                Yes        wbkgd
    bkgdset             Yes        wbkgdset
    getbkgd             Yes
    border              Yes        wborder
    box                 Yes
    hline               Yes        whline mvhline mvwhline
    vline               Yes        wvline mvvline mvwvline
    erase               Yes        werase
    clear               Yes        wclear
    clrtobot            Yes        wclrtobot
    clrtoeol            Yes        wclrtoeol
    start_color         No 
    init_pair           No 
    init_color          No 
    has_colors          No 
    can_change_color    No 
    color_content       No 
    pair_content        No 
    delch               Yes        wdelch mvdelch mvwdelch
    deleteln            Yes        wdeleteln
    insdelln            Yes        winsdelln
    insertln            Yes        winsertln
    getch               Yes        wgetch mvgetch mvwgetch
    ungetch             No 
    has_key             No 
    getstr              Yes        wgetstr mvgetstr mvwgetstr
    getnstr             Yes        wgetnstr mvgetnstr mvwgetnstr
    getyx               Yes
    getparyx            Yes
    getbegyx            Yes
    getmaxyx            Yes
    getmaxy             Yes
    getmaxx             Yes
    inch                Yes        winch mvinch mvwinch
    inchstr             Yes        winchstr mvinchstr mvwinchstr
    inchnstr            Yes        winchnstr mvinchnstr mvwinchnstr
    initscr             No 
    endwin              No 
    isendwin            No 
    newterm             No 
    set_term            No 
    delscreen           No 
    cbreak              No 
    nocbreak            No 
    echo                No 
    noecho              No 
    halfdelay           No 
    intrflush           Yes
    keypad              Yes
    meta                Yes
    nodelay             Yes
    notimeout           Yes
    raw                 No 
    noraw               No 
    qiflush             No 
    noqiflush           No 
    timeout             Yes        wtimeout
    typeahead           No 
    insch               Yes        winsch mvinsch mvwinsch
    insstr              Yes        winsstr mvinsstr mvwinsstr
    insnstr             Yes        winsnstr mvinsnstr mvwinsnstr
    instr               Yes        winstr mvinstr mvwinstr
    innstr              Yes        winnstr mvinnstr mvwinnstr
    def_prog_mode       No 
    def_shell_mode      No 
    reset_prog_mode     No 
    reset_shell_mode    No 
    resetty             No 
    savetty             No 
    getsyx              No 
    setsyx              No 
    curs_set            No 
    napms               No 
    move                Yes        wmove
    clearok             Yes
    idlok               Yes
    idcok               Yes
    immedok             Yes
    leaveok             Yes
    setscrreg           Yes        wsetscrreg
    scrollok            Yes
    nl                  No 
    nonl                No 
    overlay             No 
    overwrite           No 
    copywin             No 
    newpad              No 
    subpad              No 
    prefresh            No 
    pnoutrefresh        No 
    pechochar           No 
    refresh             Yes        wrefresh
    noutrefresh         Yes        wnoutrefresh
    doupdate            No 
    redrawwin           Yes
    redrawln            Yes        wredrawln
    scr_dump            No 
    scr_restore         No 
    scr_init            No 
    scr_set             No 
    scroll              Yes
    scrl                Yes        wscrl
    slk_init            No 
    slk_set             No 
    slk_refresh         No 
    slk_noutrefresh     No 
    slk_label           No 
    slk_clear           No 
    slk_restore         No 
    slk_touch           No 
    slk_attron          No 
    slk_attrset         No 
    slk_attr            No 
    slk_attroff         No 
    slk_color           No 
    baudrate            No 
    erasechar           No 
    has_ic              No 
    has_il              No 
    killchar            No 
    longname            No 
    longname            No 
    termattrs           No 
    termname            No 
    touchwin            Yes
    touchline           Yes
    touchline           Yes
    untouchwin          Yes
    touchln             Yes        wtouchln
    is_linetouched      Yes
    is_wintouched       Yes
    unctrl              No 
    keyname             No 
    filter              No 
    use_env             No 
    putwin              No 
    getwin              No 
    delay_output        No 
    flushinp            No 
    newwin              No 
    delwin              Yes
    mvwin               Yes
    subwin              Yes
    derwin              Yes
    mvderwin            Yes
    dupwin              Yes
    syncup              Yes        wsyncup
    syncok              Yes
    cursyncup           Yes        wcursyncup
    syncdown            Yes        wsyncdown
    resize              Yes        wresize
    flusok              Yes
    getcap              No 
    touchoverlap        No 
    new_panel           No 
    bottom_panel        No 
    top_panel           No 
    show_panel          No 
    update_panels       No 
    hide_panel          No 
    panel_window        No 
    replace_panel       No 
    move_panel          No 
    panel_hidden        No 
    panel_above         No 
    panel_below         No 
    set_panel_userptr   No 
    panel_userptr       No 
    del_panel           No 

[*] To use any functions in this column, the variable $Curses::OldCurses must be set to a non-zero value before using the Curses package. See "Perl 4.X cursperl Compatibility" for an example of this.

Supported Variables

    LINES           COLS            stdscr          curscr
    COLORS          COLOR_PAIRS    

Supported Constants

    ERR             OK              ACS_BLOCK       ACS_BOARD
    ACS_BTEE        ACS_BULLET      ACS_CKBOARD     ACS_DARROW
    ACS_DEGREE      ACS_DIAMOND     ACS_HLINE       ACS_LANTERN
    ACS_LARROW      ACS_LLCORNER    ACS_LRCORNER    ACS_LTEE
    ACS_PLMINUS     ACS_PLUS        ACS_RARROW      ACS_RTEE
    ACS_S1          ACS_S9          ACS_TTEE        ACS_UARROW
    ACS_ULCORNER    ACS_URCORNER    ACS_VLINE       A_ALTCHARSET
    A_ATTRIBUTES    A_BLINK         A_BOLD          A_CHARTEXT
    A_COLOR         A_DIM           A_INVIS         A_NORMAL
    A_PROTECT       A_REVERSE       A_STANDOUT      A_UNDERLINE
    COLOR_BLACK     COLOR_BLUE      COLOR_CYAN      COLOR_GREEN
    COLOR_MAGENTA   COLOR_RED       COLOR_WHITE     COLOR_YELLOW
    KEY_A1          KEY_A3          KEY_B2          KEY_BACKSPACE
    KEY_BEG         KEY_BREAK       KEY_BTAB        KEY_C1
    KEY_C3          KEY_CANCEL      KEY_CATAB       KEY_CLEAR
    KEY_CLOSE       KEY_COMMAND     KEY_COPY        KEY_CREATE
    KEY_CTAB        KEY_DC          KEY_DL          KEY_DOWN
    KEY_EIC         KEY_END         KEY_ENTER       KEY_EOL
    KEY_EOS         KEY_EXIT        KEY_F0          KEY_FIND
    KEY_HELP        KEY_HOME        KEY_IC          KEY_IL
    KEY_LEFT        KEY_LL          KEY_MARK        KEY_MAX
    KEY_MESSAGE     KEY_MIN         KEY_MOVE        KEY_NEXT
    KEY_NPAGE       KEY_OPEN        KEY_OPTIONS     KEY_PPAGE
    KEY_PREVIOUS    KEY_PRINT       KEY_REDO        KEY_REFERENCE
    KEY_REFRESH     KEY_REPLACE     KEY_RESET       KEY_RESTART
    KEY_RESUME      KEY_RIGHT       KEY_SAVE        KEY_SBEG
    KEY_SCANCEL     KEY_SCOMMAND    KEY_SCOPY       KEY_SCREATE
    KEY_SDC         KEY_SDL         KEY_SELECT      KEY_SEND
    KEY_SEOL        KEY_SEXIT       KEY_SF          KEY_SFIND
    KEY_SHELP       KEY_SHOME       KEY_SIC         KEY_SLEFT
    KEY_SMESSAGE    KEY_SMOVE       KEY_SNEXT       KEY_SOPTIONS
    KEY_SPREVIOUS   KEY_SPRINT      KEY_SR          KEY_SREDO
    KEY_SREPLACE    KEY_SRESET      KEY_SRIGHT      KEY_SRSUME
    KEY_SSAVE       KEY_SSUSPEND    KEY_STAB        KEY_SUNDO
    KEY_SUSPEND     KEY_UNDO        KEY_UP         

curses(3) items not supported by Curses

    Functions
    ---------
    tstp scanw wscanw mvscanw mvwscanw _putchar fullname

[*] stdscr and curscr are also available via the Perl functions stdscr and curscr. See "Perl 4.X cursperl Compatibility" for more information.