package ARGV::Struct;
  use Moo;
  use Types::Standard qw/ArrayRef/;

  our $VERSION = '0.06';

  has argv => (
    is => 'ro', 
    isa => ArrayRef, 
    default => sub { [ @ARGV ] }, 

  sub argcount {
    my $self = shift;
    return scalar(@{ $self->argv });

  sub arg {
    my ($self, $i) = @_;
    return $self->argv->[ $i ];

  sub args {
    my $self = shift;
    return @{ $self->argv };

  sub parse {
    my ($self) = @_;
    my $substruct = $self->_parse_argv($self->args);
    die "Trailing values after structure" if (scalar(@{ $substruct->{ leftover } }));
    return $substruct->{ struct };

  sub _parse_list {
    my ($self, @args) = @_;
    my $list = [];
    while (my $token = shift @args) {
      if ($token eq '[') {
        my $substruct = $self->_parse_list(@args);
        push @$list, $substruct->{ struct };
        @args = @{ $substruct->{ leftover } };
      } elsif($token eq '{') {
        my $substruct = $self->_parse_hash(@args);
        push @$list, $substruct->{ struct };
        @args = @{ $substruct->{ leftover } };
      } elsif ($token eq ']') {
        return { struct => $list, leftover => [ @args ] };
      } else {
        push @$list, $token;
    die "Unclosed list";

  sub _parse_hash {
    my ($self, @args) = @_;
    my $hash = {};
    while (my $token = shift @args) {
      if ($token eq '}') {
        return { struct => $hash, leftover => [ @args ] };

      my ($k, $v) = ($token, shift @args);

      substr($k,-1,1) = '' if (substr($k,-1,1) eq ':');
      die "Repeated $k in hash" if (exists $hash->{ $k });

      die "Key $k doesn't have a value" if (not defined $v);
      if ($v eq '{'){
        my $substruct = $self->_parse_hash(@args);
        $hash->{ $k } = $substruct->{ struct };
        @args = @{ $substruct->{ leftover } };
      } elsif ($v eq '[') {
        my $substruct = $self->_parse_list(@args);
        $hash->{ $k } = $substruct->{ struct };
        @args = @{ $substruct->{ leftover } };
      } else {
        $hash->{ $k } = $v;
    die "Unclosed hash";

  sub _parse_argv {
    my ($self, @args) = @_;

    my $token = shift @args;

    if ($token eq '[') {
      return $self->_parse_list(@args);
    } elsif($token eq '{') {
      return $self->_parse_hash(@args);
    } else {
      die "Expecting { or [";

#################### main pod documentation begin ###################

=head1 NAME

ARGV::Struct - Parse complex data structures passed in ARGV


  use ARGV::Struct;
  my $struct = ARGV::Struct->new->parse;


Have you ever felt that you need something different than Getopt?

Are you tired of shoehorning Getopt style arguments into your commandline scripts?

Are you trying to express complex datastructures via command line?

then ARGV::Struct is for you!

It's designed so the users of your command line utilities won't hate you when things
get complex.

=head1 THE PAIN

I've had to use some command-line utilities that had to do creative stuff to transmit
deeply nested arguments, or datastructure-like information. Here are some strategies that
I've found over time: 

=head2 Complex arguments codified as JSON

JSON is horrible for the command line because you have to escape the quotes. It's a nightmare.

  command --complex_arg "{\"key1\":\"value1\",\"key2\":\"value2\"}"

=head2 Arguments encoded via some custom scheme

These schemes fail when you have to make values complex (lists, or other key/values)

  command --complex_arg key1,value1:key2,value2

=head2 Repeating Getopt arguments

Getopt friendly, but too verbose

  command --key key1 --value value1 --key key1 --value value 2


The design of this module is aimed at "playing well with the shell". The main purpose is
to let the user transmit complex data structures, while staying compact enough for command line

=head2 Key/Value sets (objects)

On the command line, the user can transmit sets of key/value pairs within curly brackets

  command { K_V_PAIR1 K_V_PAIR2 }

The shell is expected to do some work for us, so key/value pairs are separated by spaces

Each key/value pair is expressed as

  Key: Value

The colon between Keys and values is optional, so

  Key Value

is the same as above

If the value contains spaces, the user can surround the pair with the shell metacharacters

  command { Key: " Value " }

Values can also be objects:

  command { Key: { Nested Key } }

or lists

  command { Key: [ 1 2 3 ] }

If you want a key with a colon at the end, just repeat the colon:

  Key:: Value

=head2 Lists

  command [ VALUE1 VALUE2 ]

Each value can be a simple scalar value, or an object or list

  command [ { Name X } { Name Y } ]
  command [ [ 1 2 3 ] [ 4 5 6 ] [ 7 8 9 ] ]
  command [ "First Value" "Second Value" ]

Values are never separated by commas to keep the syntax compact. 
The shell is expected to split the different elements into tokens, so
the user is expected to use shell quotes to keep values together

=head1 METHODS

=head2 new([argv => ArrayRef])

Return an instance of the parser. If argv is not specified, @ARGV will be

=head2 parse

return the parsed data structure

=head1 STATUS

This module is quite experimental. I developed it while developing Paws (a 
Perl AWS SDK). It has a commandline utility that needs to recollect all the
Attributes and Values for method calls, and lots of times, they get complex. 
Since trying to pass params with Getopt was getting ugly as hell, I decided 
that it would be better to do things in a different way, and eventually
thought it could be an independent module.

I'm publishing this module to get the idea out to the public so it can be worked

Please bash the guts out of it. Break it and shake it till it falls apart. 

Contribute bugs and patches. All input is welcome.

To help with the bashing, when you install this dist, you get a command line util
called argvstruct. It will basically print a Data::Dumper of the structure generated
by it's arguments

  user@host:~$ argvstruct { Hello Guys How [ Are You { Doing Today } ] }
  $VAR1 = {
          'Hello' => 'Guys',
          'How' => [
                       'Doing' => 'Today'


=head1 TODO

Try to combine with Getopt/MooseX::Getopt, so some parameters could be an ARGV::Struct. The
rest would be parsed Getopt style.


The source code and issues are on

=head1 THANKS

Matt S. Trout for suggesting that ARGV::Struct syntax be JSONY compatible

=head1 AUTHOR

    Jose Luis Martinez


Copyright (c) 2015 by Jose Luis Martinez Torres

This program is free software; you can redistribute
it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

The full text of the license can be found in the
LICENSE file included with this module.