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Text::MultiMarkdown - Convert MultiMarkdown syntax to (X)HTML


    use Text::MultiMarkdown 'markdown';
    my $html = markdown($text);

    use Text::MultiMarkdown 'markdown';
    my $html = markdown( $text, {
        empty_element_suffix => '>',
        tab_width => 2,
        use_wikilinks => 1,
    } );

    use Text::MultiMarkdown;
    my $m = Text::MultiMarkdown->new;
    my $html = $m->markdown($text);

    use Text::MultiMarkdown;
    my $m = Text::MultiMarkdown->new(
        empty_element_suffix => '>',
        tab_width => 2,
        use_wikilinks => 1,
    my $html = $m->markdown( $text );


Markdown is a text-to-HTML filter; it translates an easy-to-read / easy-to-write structured text format into HTML. Markdown's text format is most similar to that of plain text email, and supports features such as headers, *emphasis*, code blocks, blockquotes, and links.

Markdown's syntax is designed not as a generic markup language, but specifically to serve as a front-end to (X)HTML. You can use span-level HTML tags anywhere in a Markdown document, and you can use block level HTML tags (<div>, <table> etc.). Note that by default Markdown isn't interpreted in HTML block-level elements, unless you add a markdown=1" attribute to the element. See Text::Markdown for details.

This module implements the MultiMarkdown markdown syntax extensions from:


For more information about (original) Markdown's syntax, see:

This module implements MultiMarkdown, which is an extension to Markdown..

The extension is documented at:

and borrows from php-markdown, which lives at:

This documentation is going to be moved/copied into this module for clearer reading in a future release..


MultiMarkdown supports a number of options to it's processor which control the behaviour of the output document.

These options can be supplied to the constructor, on in a hash with the individual calls to the markdown method. See the synopsis for examples of both of the above styles.

The options for the processor are:


Controls the metadata options below.


If true, any metadata in the input document is removed from the output document (note - does not take effect in complete document format).

empty element suffix

This option can be used to generate normal HTML output. By default, it is ' />', which is xHTML, change to '>' for normal HTML.


Controls if <img> tags generated have an id attribute. Defaults to true. Turn off for compatibility with the original markdown.


Controls if <hX> tags generated have an id attribute. Defaults to true. Turn off for compatibility with the original markdown.


The title of the generated bibliography, defaults to 'Bibliography'.


Controls indent width in the generated markup, defaults to 4


If true, this disables the MultiMarkdown table handling.


If true, this disables the MultiMarkdown footnotes handling.


If true, this disables the MultiMarkdown bibliography/citation handling.

A number of possible items of metadata can also be supplied as options. Note that if the use_metadata is true then the metadata in the document will overwrite the settings on command line.

Metadata options supported are:



MultiMarkdown supports the concept of 'metadata', which allows you to specify a number of formatting options within the document itself. Metadata should be placed in the top few lines of a file, on value per line as colon separated key/value pairs. The metadata should be separated from the document with a blank line.

Most metadata keys are also supported as options to the constructor, or options to the markdown method itself. (Note, as metadata, keys contain space, whereas options the keys are underscore separated.)

You can attach arbitrary metadata to a document, which is output in HTML <META> tags if unknown, see t/11document_format.t for more info.

A list of 'known' metadata keys, and their effects are listed below:

document format

If set to 'complete', MultiMarkdown will render an entire xHTML page, otherwise it will render a document fragment


Sets a CSS file for the file, if in 'complete' document format.


Sets the page title, if in 'complete' document format.

If set to '1' or 'on', causes links that are WikiWords to automatically be processed into links.

base url

This is the base URL for referencing wiki pages. In this is not supplied, all wiki links are relative.



A simple constructor, see the SYNTAX and OPTIONS sections for more information.


The main function as far as the outside world is concerned. See the SYNOPSIS for details on use.


To file bug reports or feature requests please send email to:

Please include with your report: (1) the example input; (2) the output you expected; (3) the output Markdown actually produced.


See the Changes file for detailed release notes for this version.


    John Gruber

    PHP port and other contributions by Michel Fortin

    MultiMarkdown changes by Fletcher Penney

    CPAN Module Text::MultiMarkdown (based on Text::Markdown by Sebastian
    Riedel) originally by Darren Kulp (

    This module is maintained by: Tomas Doran


Please note that this distribution is a fork of Fletcher Penny's MultiMarkdown project, and it *is not* in any way blessed by him.

Whilst this code aims to be compatible with the original MultiMarkdown (and incorporates and passes the MultiMarkdown test suite) whilst fixing a number of bugs in the original - there may be differences between the behaviour of this module and MultiMarkdown. If you find any differences where you believe Text::MultiMarkdown behaves contrary to the MultiMarkdown spec, please report them as bugs.


You can find the source code repository for Text::Markdown and Text::MultiMarkdown on GitHub at <>.


Original Code Copyright (c) 2003-2004 John Gruber <> All rights reserved.

MultiMarkdown changes Copyright (c) 2005-2006 Fletcher T. Penney <> All rights reserved.

Text::MultiMarkdown changes Copyright (c) 2006-2009 Darren Kulp <> and Tomas Doran <>

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

* Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

* Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

* Neither the name "Markdown" nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.

This software is provided by the copyright holders and contributors "as is" and any express or implied warranties, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose are disclaimed. In no event shall the copyright owner or contributors be liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special, exemplary, or consequential damages (including, but not limited to, procurement of substitute goods or services; loss of use, data, or profits; or business interruption) however caused and on any theory of liability, whether in contract, strict liability, or tort (including negligence or otherwise) arising in any way out of the use of this software, even if advised of the possibility of such damage.