package Bio::Phylo::Listable;
use strict;
use warnings;
use Bio::Phylo::ListableRole;
use base 'Bio::Phylo::ListableRole';
use Bio::Phylo::Util::Exceptions 'throw';
use Bio::Phylo::Util::CONSTANT qw':all';

{
    my $logger = __PACKAGE__->get_logger;

    # $fields array necessary for object destruction
    my @fields = \(
        my (
            %entities,    # XXX strong reference
            %index,
            %listeners,
            %sets,
        )
    );


=head1 NAME

Bio::Phylo::Listable - List of things, super class for many objects

=head1 SYNOPSIS

 No direct usage, parent class. Methods documented here 
 are available for all objects that inherit from it.

=head1 DESCRIPTION

A listable object is an object that contains multiple smaller objects of the
same type. For example: a tree contains nodes, so it's a listable object.

This class contains methods that are useful for all listable objects: Matrices
(i.e. sets of matrix objects), individual Matrix objects, Datum objects (i.e.
character state sequences), Taxa, Forest, Tree and Node objects.

=head1 METHODS

=head2 ARRAY METHODS

=over

=item insert()

Pushes an object into its container.

 Type    : Mutator
 Title   : insert
 Usage   : $obj->insert($other_obj);
 Function: Pushes an object into its container.
 Returns : A Bio::Phylo::Listable object.
 Args    : A Bio::Phylo::* object.

=cut

    sub insert {
        my ( $self, @obj ) = @_;
        if ( @obj and $self->can_contain(@obj) ) {
            my $id = $self->get_id;
            push @{ $entities{$id} }, @obj;
            for (@obj) {
                ref $_ && UNIVERSAL::can($_,'_set_container') && $_->_set_container($self);
            }
            $self->notify_listeners( 'insert', @obj )
              if $listeners{$id} and @{ $listeners{$id} };
            return $self;
        }
        else {
            throw 'ObjectMismatch' => "Failed insertion: [@obj] in [$self]";
        }
    }

=item insert_at_index()

Inserts argument object in container at argument index.

 Type    : Mutator
 Title   : insert_at_index
 Usage   : $obj->insert_at_index($other_obj, $i);
 Function: Inserts $other_obj at index $i in container $obj
 Returns : A Bio::Phylo::Listable object.
 Args    : A Bio::Phylo::* object.

=cut    

    sub insert_at_index {
        my ( $self, $obj, $index ) = @_;
        $logger->debug("inserting '$obj' in '$self' at index $index");
        if ( defined $obj and $self->can_contain($obj) ) {
            my $id = $self->get_id;
            $entities{$id}->[$index] = $obj;
            if ( looks_like_implementor( $obj, '_set_container' ) ) {
                $obj->_set_container($self);
            }
            $self->notify_listeners( 'insert_at_index', $obj )
              if $listeners{$id} and @{ $listeners{$id} };
            return $self;
        }
        else {
            throw 'ObjectMismatch' => 'Failed insertion!';
        }
    }

=item delete()

Deletes argument from container.

 Type    : Mutator
 Title   : delete
 Usage   : $obj->delete($other_obj);
 Function: Deletes an object from its container.
 Returns : A Bio::Phylo::Listable object.
 Args    : A Bio::Phylo::* object.
 Note    : Be careful with this method: deleting 
           a node from a tree like this will 
           result in undefined references in its 
           neighbouring nodes. Its children will 
           have their parent reference become 
           undef (instead of pointing to their 
           grandparent, as collapsing a node would 
           do). The same is true for taxon objects 
           that reference datum objects: if the 
           datum object is deleted from a matrix 
           (say), the taxon will now hold undefined 
           references.

=cut

    sub delete {
        my ( $self, $obj ) = @_;
        my $id = $self->get_id;
        if ( $self->can_contain($obj) ) {
            my $object_id         = $obj->get_id;
            my $occurence_counter = 0;
            if ( my $i = $index{$id} ) {
                for my $j ( 0 .. $i ) {
                    if ( $entities{$id}->[$j]->get_id == $object_id ) {
                        $occurence_counter++;
                    }
                }
            }
            my @modified =
              grep { $_->get_id != $object_id } @{ $entities{$id} };
            $entities{$id} = \@modified;
            $index{$id} -= $occurence_counter;
        }
        else {
            throw 'ObjectMismatch' =>
              "Invocant object cannot contain argument object";
        }
        $self->notify_listeners( 'delete', $obj )
          if $listeners{$id} and @{ $listeners{$id} };
        return $self;
    }

=item clear()

Empties container object.

 Type    : Mutator
 Title   : clear
 Usage   : $obj->clear();
 Function: Clears the container.
 Returns : A Bio::Phylo::Listable object.
 Args    : Note.
 Note    : 

=cut

    sub clear {
        my $self = shift;
        my $id   = $self->get_id;
        $entities{$id} = [];
        $self->notify_listeners('clear')
          if $listeners{$id} and @{ $listeners{$id} };
        return $self;
    }

=item keep_entities()

Keeps the container's contents specified by an array reference of indices.

 Type    : Mutator
 Title   : keep_entities
 Usage   : $list->keep_entities([9,7,7,6]);
 Function: Keeps a subset of contents
 Returns : A Bio::Phylo::Listable object.
 Args    : An array reference of indices

=cut

    sub keep_entities {
        my ( $self, $indices_array_ref ) = @_;
        my $id       = $self->get_id;
        my $ent      = $entities{$id} || [];
        my @contents = @{$ent};
        my @pruned   = @contents[ @{$indices_array_ref} ];
        $entities{$id} = \@pruned;
        return $self;
    }

=item get_entities()

Returns a reference to an array of objects contained by the listable object.

 Type    : Accessor
 Title   : get_entities
 Usage   : my @entities = @{ $obj->get_entities };
 Function: Retrieves all entities in the container.
 Returns : A reference to a list of Bio::Phylo::* 
           objects.
 Args    : none.

=cut

    sub get_entities {
        return $entities{ $_[0]->get_id } || [];
    }
    
    sub _get_things { $entities{shift->get_id} }
    sub _set_things : Clonable DeepClonable {
        my ( $self, $things ) = @_;
        $entities{$self->get_id} = $things;
        $self->notify_listeners( '_set_things', $things );
        return $self;
    }

=back

=head2 ITERATOR METHODS

=over

=item first()

Jumps to the first element contained by the listable object.

 Type    : Iterator
 Title   : first
 Usage   : my $first_obj = $obj->first;
 Function: Retrieves the first 
           entity in the container.
 Returns : A Bio::Phylo::* object
 Args    : none.

=cut

    sub first {
        my $self = shift;
        my $id   = $self->get_id;
        $index{$id} = 0;
        return $entities{$id}->[0];
    }

=item last()

Jumps to the last element contained by the listable object.

 Type    : Iterator
 Title   : last
 Usage   : my $last_obj = $obj->last;
 Function: Retrieves the last 
           entity in the container.
 Returns : A Bio::Phylo::* object
 Args    : none.

=cut

    sub last {
        my $self = shift;
        my $id   = $self->get_id;
        $index{$id} = $#{ $entities{$id} };
        return $entities{$id}->[-1];
    }

=item current()

Returns the current focal element of the listable object.

 Type    : Iterator
 Title   : current
 Usage   : my $current_obj = $obj->current;
 Function: Retrieves the current focal 
           entity in the container.
 Returns : A Bio::Phylo::* object
 Args    : none.

=cut

    sub current {
        my $self = shift;
        my $id   = $self->get_id;
        if ( !defined $index{$id} ) {
            $index{$id} = 0;
        }
        return $entities{$id}->[ $index{$id} ];
    }

=item next()

Returns the next focal element of the listable object.

 Type    : Iterator
 Title   : next
 Usage   : my $next_obj = $obj->next;
 Function: Retrieves the next focal 
           entity in the container.
 Returns : A Bio::Phylo::* object
 Args    : none.

=cut

    sub next {
        my $self = shift;
        my $id   = $self->get_id;
        if ( !defined $index{$id} ) {
            $index{$id} = 0;
            return $entities{$id}->[ $index{$id} ];
        }
        elsif ( ( $index{$id} + 1 ) <= $#{ $entities{$id} } ) {
            $index{$id}++;
            return $entities{$id}->[ $index{$id} ];
        }
        else {
            return;
        }
    }

=item previous()

Returns the previous element of the listable object.

 Type    : Iterator
 Title   : previous
 Usage   : my $previous_obj = $obj->previous;
 Function: Retrieves the previous 
           focal entity in the container.
 Returns : A Bio::Phylo::* object
 Args    : none.

=cut

    sub previous {
        my $self = shift;
        my $id   = $self->get_id;

        # either undef or 0
        if ( !$index{$id} ) {
            return;
        }
        elsif ( 1 <= $index{$id} ) {
            $index{$id}--;
            return $entities{$id}->[ $index{$id} ];
        }
        else {
            return;
        }
    }

=item current_index()

Returns the current internal index of the container.

 Type    : Accessor
 Title   : current_index
 Usage   : my $last_index = $obj->current_index;
 Function: Returns the current internal 
           index of the container or 0
 Returns : An integer
 Args    : none.

=cut

    sub current_index { $index{ ${ $_[0] } } || 0 }

    sub _get_index { $index{shift->get_id} }  

    sub _set_index : Clonable {
        my ( $self, $idx ) = @_;
        $index{ $self->get_id } = $idx;
        return $self;
    }

=item last_index()

Returns the highest valid index of the container.

 Type    : Generic query
 Title   : last_index
 Usage   : my $last_index = $obj->last_index;
 Function: Returns the highest valid 
           index of the container.
 Returns : An integer
 Args    : none.

=cut

    sub last_index { $#{ $entities{ ${ $_[0] } } } }

=back

=head2 UTILITY METHODS

=over

=item set_listener()

Attaches a listener (code ref) which is executed when contents change.

 Type    : Utility method
 Title   : set_listener
 Usage   : $object->set_listener( sub { my $object = shift; } );
 Function: Attaches a listener (code ref) which is executed when contents change.
 Returns : Invocant.
 Args    : A code reference.
 Comments: When executed, the code reference will receive $object
           (the container) as its first argument.

=cut

    sub set_listener {
        my ( $self, $listener ) = @_;
        my $id = $self->get_id;
        if ( not $listeners{$id} ) {
            $listeners{$id} = [];
        }
        if ( looks_like_instance( $listener, 'CODE' ) ) {
            push @{ $listeners{$id} }, $listener;
        }
        else {
            throw 'BadArgs' => "$listener not a CODE reference";
        }
    }
    sub _set_listeners : Clonable {
        my ( $self, $l ) = @_;
        $listeners{$self->get_id} = $l;
        return $self;
    }
    sub _get_listeners { $listeners{shift->get_id} }

=item notify_listeners()

Notifies listeners of changed contents.

 Type    : Utility method
 Title   : notify_listeners
 Usage   : $object->notify_listeners;
 Function: Notifies listeners of changed contents.
 Returns : Invocant.
 Args    : NONE.
 Comments:

=cut

    sub notify_listeners {
        my ( $self, @args ) = @_;
        my $id = $self->get_id;
        if ( $listeners{$id} ) {
            for my $l ( @{ $listeners{$id} } ) {
                $l->( $self, @args );
            }
        }
        return $self;
    }

=back

=head2 SETS MANAGEMENT

Many Bio::Phylo objects are segmented, i.e. they contain one or more subparts 
of the same type. For example, a matrix contains multiple rows; each row 
contains multiple cells; a tree contains nodes, and so on. (Segmented objects
all inherit from Bio::Phylo::Listable, i.e. the class whose documentation you're
reading here.) In many cases it is useful to be able to define subsets of the 
contents of segmented objects, for example sets of taxon objects inside a taxa 
block. The Bio::Phylo::Listable object allows this through a number of methods 
(add_set, remove_set, add_to_set, remove_from_set etc.). Those methods delegate 
the actual management of the set contents to the L<Bio::Phylo::Set> object. 
Consult the documentation for L<Bio::Phylo::Set> for a code sample.

=over

=item add_set()

 Type    : Mutator
 Title   : add_set
 Usage   : $obj->add_set($set)
 Function: Associates a Bio::Phylo::Set object with the container
 Returns : Invocant
 Args    : A Bio::Phylo::Set object

=cut

    # here we create a listener that updates the set
    # object when the associated container changes
    my $create_set_listeners = sub {
        my ( $self, $set ) = @_;
        my $listener = sub {
            my ( $listable, $method, $obj ) = @_;
            if ( $method eq 'delete' ) {
                $listable->remove_from_set( $obj, $set );
            }
            elsif ( $method eq 'clear' ) {
                $set->clear;
            }
        };
        return $listener;
    };

    sub add_set {
        my ( $self, $set ) = @_;
        my $listener = $create_set_listeners->( $self, $set );
        $self->set_listener($listener);
        my $id = $self->get_id;
        $sets{$id} = {} if not $sets{$id};
        my $setid = $set->get_id;
        $sets{$id}->{$setid} = $set;
        return $self;
    }
    
=item set_sets()

 Type    : Mutator
 Title   : set_sets
 Usage   : $obj->set_sets([ $s1, $s2, $s3 ])
 Function: Assigns all Bio::Phylo::Set objects to the container
 Returns : Invocant
 Args    : An array ref of Bio::Phylo::Set objects

=cut    
    
    sub set_sets : Clonable {
        my ( $self, $sets ) = @_;
        my $id = $self->get_id;
        $sets{$id} = {};
        if ( $sets ) {
            for my $set ( @{ $sets } ) {
                $sets{$id}->{$set->get_id} = $set;
            }
        }
        return $self;
    }

=item remove_set()

 Type    : Mutator
 Title   : remove_set
 Usage   : $obj->remove_set($set)
 Function: Removes association between a Bio::Phylo::Set object and the container
 Returns : Invocant
 Args    : A Bio::Phylo::Set object

=cut    

    sub remove_set {
        my ( $self, $set ) = @_;
        my $id = $self->get_id;
        $sets{$id} = {} if not $sets{$id};
        my $setid = $set->get_id;
        delete $sets{$id}->{$setid};
        return $self;
    }

=item get_sets()

 Type    : Accessor
 Title   : get_sets
 Usage   : my @sets = @{ $obj->get_sets() };
 Function: Retrieves all associated Bio::Phylo::Set objects
 Returns : Invocant
 Args    : None

=cut 

    sub get_sets {
        my $self = shift;
        my $id   = $self->get_id;
        $sets{$id} = {} if not $sets{$id};
        return [ values %{ $sets{$id} } ];
    }

=item is_in_set()

 Type    : Test
 Title   : is_in_set
 Usage   : @do_something if $listable->is_in_set($obj,$set);
 Function: Returns whether or not the first argument is listed in the second argument
 Returns : Boolean
 Args    : $obj - an object that may, or may not be in $set
           $set - the Bio::Phylo::Set object to query
 Notes   : This method makes two assumptions:
           i) the $set object is associated with the container,
              i.e. add_set($set) has been called previously
           ii) the $obj object is part of the container
           If either assumption is violated a warning message
           is printed.

=cut 

    sub is_in_set {
        my ( $self, $obj, $set ) = @_;        
        if ( looks_like_object($set,_SET_) and $sets{ $self->get_id }->{ $set->get_id } ) {
            my $i = $self->get_index_of($obj);
            if ( defined $i ) {
                return $set->get_by_index($i) ? 1 : 0;
            }
            else {
                $logger->warn("Container doesn't contain that object.");
            }
        }
        else {
            $logger->warn("That set is not associated with this container.");
        }
    }

=item add_to_set()

 Type    : Mutator
 Title   : add_to_set
 Usage   : $listable->add_to_set($obj,$set);
 Function: Adds first argument to the second argument
 Returns : Invocant
 Args    : $obj - an object to add to $set
           $set - the Bio::Phylo::Set object to add to
 Notes   : this method assumes that $obj is already 
           part of the container. If that assumption is
           violated a warning message is printed.

=cut 

    sub add_to_set {
        my ( $self, $obj, $set ) = @_;
        my $id = $self->get_id;
        $sets{$id} = {} if not $sets{$id};
        my $i = $self->get_index_of($obj);
        if ( defined $i ) {
            $set->insert_at_index( 1 => $i );
            my $set_id = $set->get_id;
            if ( not exists $sets{$id}->{$set_id} ) {
                my $listener = $create_set_listeners->( $self, $set );
                $self->set_listener($listener);
            }
            $sets{$id}->{$set_id} = $set;
        }
        else {
            $logger->warn(
                "Container doesn't contain the object you're adding to the set."
            );
        }
        return $self;
    }

=item remove_from_set()

 Type    : Mutator
 Title   : remove_from_set
 Usage   : $listable->remove_from_set($obj,$set);
 Function: Removes first argument from the second argument
 Returns : Invocant
 Args    : $obj - an object to remove from $set
           $set - the Bio::Phylo::Set object to remove from
 Notes   : this method assumes that $obj is already 
           part of the container. If that assumption is
           violated a warning message is printed.

=cut

    sub remove_from_set {
        my ( $self, $obj, $set ) = @_;
        my $id = $self->get_id;
        $sets{$id} = {} if not $sets{$id};
        my $i = $self->get_index_of($obj);
        if ( defined $i ) {
            $set->insert_at_index( $i => 0 );
            $sets{$id}->{ $set->get_id } = $set;
        }
        else {
            $logger->warn(
                "Container doesn't contain the object you're adding to the set."
            );
        }
        return $self;
    }

=begin comment

 Type    : Internal method
 Title   : _cleanup
 Usage   : $listable->_cleanup;
 Function: Called during object destruction, for cleanup of instance data
 Returns : 
 Args    :

=end comment

=cut

    sub _cleanup : Destructor {
        my $self = shift;
        my $id   = $self->get_id;
        for my $field (@fields) {
            delete $field->{$id};
        }
    }

=back

=cut

    # podinherit_insert_token

=head1 SEE ALSO

There is a mailing list at L<https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/bio-phylo> 
for any user or developer questions and discussions.

Also see the manual: L<Bio::Phylo::Manual> and L<http://rutgervos.blogspot.com>.

=head2 Objects inheriting from Bio::Phylo::Listable

=over

=item L<Bio::Phylo::Forest>

Iterate over a set of trees.

=item L<Bio::Phylo::Forest::Tree>

Iterate over nodes in a tree.

=item L<Bio::Phylo::Forest::Node>

Iterate of children of a node.

=item L<Bio::Phylo::Matrices>

Iterate over a set of matrices.

=item L<Bio::Phylo::Matrices::Matrix>

Iterate over the datum objects in a matrix.

=item L<Bio::Phylo::Matrices::Datum>

Iterate over the characters in a datum.

=item L<Bio::Phylo::Taxa>

Iterate over a set of taxa.

=back

=head2 Superclasses

=over

=item L<Bio::Phylo::NeXML::Writable>

This object inherits from L<Bio::Phylo::NeXML::Writable>, so methods
defined there are also applicable here.

=back

=head1 CITATION

If you use Bio::Phylo in published research, please cite it:

B<Rutger A Vos>, B<Jason Caravas>, B<Klaas Hartmann>, B<Mark A Jensen>
and B<Chase Miller>, 2011. Bio::Phylo - phyloinformatic analysis using Perl.
I<BMC Bioinformatics> B<12>:63.
L<http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-12-63>

=cut

}
1;