package CGI;
require 5.008001;
use if $] >= 5.019, 'deprecate';
use Carp 'croak';

my $appease_cpants_kwalitee = q/
use strict;
use warnings;
#/;

$CGI::VERSION='4.44';

use CGI::Util qw(rearrange rearrange_header make_attributes unescape escape expires ebcdic2ascii ascii2ebcdic);

$_XHTML_DTD = ['-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN',
                           'http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd'];

{
  local $^W = 0;
  $TAINTED = substr("$0$^X",0,0);
}

$MOD_PERL            = 0; # no mod_perl by default

#global settings
$POST_MAX            = -1; # no limit to uploaded files
$DISABLE_UPLOADS     = 0;
$UNLINK_TMP_FILES    = 1;
$LIST_CONTEXT_WARN   = 1;
$ENCODE_ENTITIES     = q{&<>"'};
$ALLOW_DELETE_CONTENT = 0;

@SAVED_SYMBOLS = ();

# >>>>> Here are some globals that you might want to adjust <<<<<<
sub initialize_globals {
    # Set this to 1 to generate XTML-compatible output
    $XHTML = 1;

    # Change this to the preferred DTD to print in start_html()
    # or use default_dtd('text of DTD to use');
    $DEFAULT_DTD = [ '-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN',
		     'http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd' ] ;

    # Set this to 1 to enable NOSTICKY scripts
    # or: 
    #    1) use CGI '-nosticky';
    #    2) $CGI::NOSTICKY = 1;
    $NOSTICKY = 0;

    # Set this to 1 to enable NPH scripts
    # or: 
    #    1) use CGI qw(-nph)
    #    2) CGI::nph(1)
    #    3) print header(-nph=>1)
    $NPH = 0;

    # Set this to 1 to enable debugging from @ARGV
    # Set to 2 to enable debugging from STDIN
    $DEBUG = 1;

    # Set this to 1 to generate automatic tab indexes
    $TABINDEX = 0;

    # Set this to 1 to cause files uploaded in multipart documents
    # to be closed, instead of caching the file handle
    # or:
    #    1) use CGI qw(:close_upload_files)
    #    2) $CGI::close_upload_files(1);
    # Uploads with many files run out of file handles.
    # Also, for performance, since the file is already on disk,
    # it can just be renamed, instead of read and written.
    $CLOSE_UPLOAD_FILES = 0;

    # Automatically determined -- don't change
    $EBCDIC = 0;

    # Change this to 1 to suppress redundant HTTP headers
    $HEADERS_ONCE = 0;

    # separate the name=value pairs by semicolons rather than ampersands
    $USE_PARAM_SEMICOLONS = 1;

    # Do not include undefined params parsed from query string
    # use CGI qw(-no_undef_params);
    $NO_UNDEF_PARAMS = 0;

    # return everything as utf-8
    $PARAM_UTF8      = 0;

    # make param('PUTDATA') act like file upload
    $PUTDATA_UPLOAD = 0;

    # Other globals that you shouldn't worry about.
    undef $Q;
    $BEEN_THERE = 0;
    $DTD_PUBLIC_IDENTIFIER = "";
    undef @QUERY_PARAM;
    undef %QUERY_PARAM;
    undef %EXPORT;
    undef $QUERY_CHARSET;
    undef %QUERY_FIELDNAMES;
    undef %QUERY_TMPFILES;

    # prevent complaints by mod_perl
    1;
}

# ------------------ START OF THE LIBRARY ------------

# make mod_perlhappy
initialize_globals();

# FIGURE OUT THE OS WE'RE RUNNING UNDER
# Some systems support the $^O variable.  If not
# available then require() the Config library
unless ($OS) {
    unless ($OS = $^O) {
	require Config;
	$OS = $Config::Config{'osname'};
    }
}
if ($OS =~ /^MSWin/i) {
  $OS = 'WINDOWS';
} elsif ($OS =~ /^VMS/i) {
  $OS = 'VMS';
} elsif ($OS =~ /^dos/i) {
  $OS = 'DOS';
} elsif ($OS =~ /^MacOS/i) {
    $OS = 'MACINTOSH';
} elsif ($OS =~ /^os2/i) {
    $OS = 'OS2';
} elsif ($OS =~ /^epoc/i) {
    $OS = 'EPOC';
} elsif ($OS =~ /^cygwin/i) {
    $OS = 'CYGWIN';
} elsif ($OS =~ /^NetWare/i) {
    $OS = 'NETWARE';
} else {
    $OS = 'UNIX';
}

# Some OS logic.  Binary mode enabled on DOS, NT and VMS
$needs_binmode = $OS=~/^(WINDOWS|DOS|OS2|MSWin|CYGWIN|NETWARE)/;

# This is the default class for the CGI object to use when all else fails.
$DefaultClass = 'CGI' unless defined $CGI::DefaultClass;

# The path separator is a slash, backslash or semicolon, depending
# on the platform.
$SL = {
     UNIX    => '/',  OS2 => '\\', EPOC      => '/', CYGWIN => '/', NETWARE => '/',
     WINDOWS => '\\', DOS => '\\', MACINTOSH => ':', VMS    => '/'
    }->{$OS};

# This no longer seems to be necessary
# Turn on NPH scripts by default when running under IIS server!
# $NPH++ if defined($ENV{'SERVER_SOFTWARE'}) && $ENV{'SERVER_SOFTWARE'}=~/IIS/;
$IIS++ if defined($ENV{'SERVER_SOFTWARE'}) && $ENV{'SERVER_SOFTWARE'}=~/IIS/;

# Turn on special checking for ActiveState's PerlEx
$PERLEX++ if defined($ENV{'GATEWAY_INTERFACE'}) && $ENV{'GATEWAY_INTERFACE'} =~ /^CGI-PerlEx/;

# Turn on special checking for Doug MacEachern's modperl
# PerlEx::DBI tries to fool DBI by setting MOD_PERL
if (exists $ENV{MOD_PERL} && ! $PERLEX) {
  # mod_perl handlers may run system() on scripts using CGI.pm;
  # Make sure so we don't get fooled by inherited $ENV{MOD_PERL}
  if (exists $ENV{MOD_PERL_API_VERSION} && $ENV{MOD_PERL_API_VERSION} == 2) {
    $MOD_PERL = 2;
    require Apache2::Response;
    require Apache2::RequestRec;
    require Apache2::RequestUtil;
    require Apache2::RequestIO;
    require APR::Pool;
  } else {
    $MOD_PERL = 1;
    require Apache;
  }
}

# Define the CRLF sequence.  I can't use a simple "\r\n" because the meaning
# of "\n" is different on different OS's (sometimes it generates CRLF, sometimes LF
# and sometimes CR).  The most popular VMS web server
# doesn't accept CRLF -- instead it wants a LR.  EBCDIC machines don't
# use ASCII, so \015\012 means something different.  I find this all 
# really annoying.
$EBCDIC = "\t" ne "\011";
if ($OS eq 'VMS') {
  $CRLF = "\n";
} elsif ($EBCDIC) {
  $CRLF= "\r\n";
} else {
  $CRLF = "\015\012";
}

_set_binmode() if ($needs_binmode);

sub _set_binmode {

	# rt #57524 - don't set binmode on filehandles if there are
	# already none default layers set on them
	my %default_layers = (
		unix   => 1,
		perlio => 1,
		stdio  => 1,
		crlf   => 1,
	);

	foreach my $fh (
		\*main::STDOUT,
		\*main::STDIN,
		\*main::STDERR,
	) {
		my @modes = grep { ! $default_layers{$_} }
			PerlIO::get_layers( $fh );

		if ( ! @modes ) {
			$CGI::DefaultClass->binmode( $fh );
		}
	}
}

%EXPORT_TAGS = (
	':html2' => [ 'h1' .. 'h6', qw/
		p br hr ol ul li dl dt dd menu code var strong em
		tt u i b blockquote pre img a address cite samp dfn html head
		base body Link nextid title meta kbd start_html end_html
		input Select option comment charset escapeHTML
	/ ],
	':html3' => [ qw/
		div table caption th td TR Tr sup Sub strike applet Param nobr
		embed basefont style span layer ilayer font frameset frame script small big Area Map
	/ ],
	':html4' => [ qw/
		abbr acronym bdo col colgroup del fieldset iframe
		ins label legend noframes noscript object optgroup Q
		thead tbody tfoot
	/ ],
	':form'     => [ qw/
		textfield textarea filefield password_field hidden checkbox checkbox_group
		submit reset defaults radio_group popup_menu button autoEscape
		scrolling_list image_button start_form end_form
		start_multipart_form end_multipart_form isindex tmpFileName uploadInfo URL_ENCODED MULTIPART
	/ ],
	':cgi' => [ qw/
		param multi_param upload path_info path_translated request_uri url self_url script_name
		cookie Dump raw_cookie request_method query_string Accept user_agent remote_host content_type
		remote_addr referer server_name server_software server_port server_protocol virtual_port
		virtual_host remote_ident auth_type http append save_parameters restore_parameters param_fetch
		remote_user user_name header redirect import_names put Delete Delete_all url_param cgi_error env_query_string
	/ ],
	':netscape' => [qw/blink fontsize center/],
	':ssl'      => [qw/https/],
	':cgi-lib'  => [qw/ReadParse PrintHeader HtmlTop HtmlBot SplitParam Vars/],
	':push'     => [qw/multipart_init multipart_start multipart_end multipart_final/],

	# bulk export/import
	':html'     => [qw/:html2 :html3 :html4 :netscape/],
	':standard' => [qw/:html2 :html3 :html4 :form :cgi :ssl/],
	':all'      => [qw/:html2 :html3 :html4 :netscape :form :cgi :ssl :push/]
);

# to import symbols into caller
sub import {
    my $self = shift;

    # This causes modules to clash.
    undef %EXPORT_OK;
    undef %EXPORT;

    $self->_setup_symbols(@_);
    my ($callpack, $callfile, $callline) = caller;

	if ( $callpack eq 'CGI::Fast' ) {
		# fixes GH #11 (and GH #12 in CGI::Fast since
		# sub import was added to CGI::Fast in 9537f90
		# so we need to move up a level to export the
		# routines to the namespace of whatever is using
		# CGI::Fast
		($callpack, $callfile, $callline) = caller(1);
	}

    # To allow overriding, search through the packages
    # Till we find one in which the correct subroutine is defined.
    my @packages = ($self,@{"$self\:\:ISA"});
    for $sym (keys %EXPORT) {
	my $pck;
	my $def = $DefaultClass;
	for $pck (@packages) {
	    if (defined(&{"$pck\:\:$sym"})) {
		$def = $pck;
		last;
	    }
	}
	*{"${callpack}::$sym"} = \&{"$def\:\:$sym"};
    }
}

sub expand_tags {
    my($tag) = @_;
    return ("start_$1","end_$1") if $tag=~/^(?:\*|start_|end_)(.+)/;
    my(@r);
    return ($tag) unless $EXPORT_TAGS{$tag};
    for (@{$EXPORT_TAGS{$tag}}) {
	push(@r,&expand_tags($_));
    }
    return @r;
}

#### Method: new
# The new routine.  This will check the current environment
# for an existing query string, and initialize itself, if so.
####
sub new {
  my($class,@initializer) = @_;
  my $self = {};

  bless $self,ref $class || $class || $DefaultClass;

  # always use a tempfile
  $self->{'use_tempfile'} = 1;

  if (ref($initializer[0])
      && (UNIVERSAL::isa($initializer[0],'Apache')
	  ||
	  UNIVERSAL::isa($initializer[0],'Apache2::RequestRec')
	 )) {
    $self->r(shift @initializer);
  }
 if (ref($initializer[0]) 
     && (UNIVERSAL::isa($initializer[0],'CODE'))) {
    $self->upload_hook(shift @initializer, shift @initializer);
    $self->{'use_tempfile'} = shift @initializer if (@initializer > 0);
  }
  if ($MOD_PERL) {
    if ($MOD_PERL == 1) {
      $self->r(Apache->request) unless $self->r;
      my $r = $self->r;
      $r->register_cleanup(\&CGI::_reset_globals);
      $self->_setup_symbols(@SAVED_SYMBOLS) if @SAVED_SYMBOLS;
    }
    else {
      # XXX: once we have the new API
      # will do a real PerlOptions -SetupEnv check
      $self->r(Apache2::RequestUtil->request) unless $self->r;
      my $r = $self->r;
      $r->subprocess_env unless exists $ENV{REQUEST_METHOD};
      $r->pool->cleanup_register(\&CGI::_reset_globals);
      $self->_setup_symbols(@SAVED_SYMBOLS) if @SAVED_SYMBOLS;
    }
    undef $NPH;
  }
  $self->_reset_globals if $PERLEX;
  $self->init(@initializer);
  return $self;
}

sub r {
  my $self = shift;
  my $r = $self->{'.r'};
  $self->{'.r'} = shift if @_;
  $r;
}

sub upload_hook {
  my $self;
  if (ref $_[0] eq 'CODE') {
    $CGI::Q = $self = $CGI::DefaultClass->new(@_);
  } else {
    $self = shift;
  }
  my ($hook,$data,$use_tempfile) = @_;
  $self->{'.upload_hook'} = $hook;
  $self->{'.upload_data'} = $data;
  $self->{'use_tempfile'} = $use_tempfile if defined $use_tempfile;
}

#### Method: param / multi_param
# Returns the value(s)of a named parameter.
# If invoked in a list context, returns the
# entire list.  Otherwise returns the first
# member of the list.
# If name is not provided, return a list of all
# the known parameters names available.
# If more than one argument is provided, the
# second and subsequent arguments are used to
# set the value of the parameter.
#
# note that calling param() in list context
# will raise a warning about potential bad
# things, hence the multi_param method
####
sub multi_param {
	# we don't need to set $LIST_CONTEXT_WARN to 0 here
	# because param() will check the caller before warning
	my @list_of_params = param( @_ );
	return @list_of_params;
}

sub param {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);

    return $self->all_parameters unless @p;

	# list context can be dangerous so warn:
	# http://blog.gerv.net/2014.10/new-class-of-vulnerability-in-perl-web-applications
	if ( wantarray && $LIST_CONTEXT_WARN == 1 ) {
		my ( $package, $filename, $line ) = caller;
		if ( $package ne 'CGI' ) {
			$LIST_CONTEXT_WARN++; # only warn once
			warn "CGI::param called in list context from $filename line $line, this can lead to vulnerabilities. "
				. 'See the warning in "Fetching the value or values of a single named parameter"';
		}
	}

    my($name,$value,@other);

    # For compatibility between old calling style and use_named_parameters() style, 
    # we have to special case for a single parameter present.
    if (@p > 1) {
	($name,$value,@other) = rearrange([NAME,[DEFAULT,VALUE,VALUES]],@p);
	my(@values);

	if (substr($p[0],0,1) eq '-') {
	    @values = defined($value) ? (ref($value) && ref($value) eq 'ARRAY' ? @{$value} : $value) : ();
	} else {
	    for ($value,@other) {
		push(@values,$_) if defined($_);
	    }
	}
	# If values is provided, then we set it.
	if (@values or defined $value) {
	    $self->add_parameter($name);
	    $self->{param}{$name}=[@values];
	}
    } else {
	$name = $p[0];
    }

    return unless defined($name) && $self->{param}{$name};

    my @result = @{$self->{param}{$name}};

    if ($PARAM_UTF8 && $name ne 'PUTDATA' && $name ne 'POSTDATA' && $name ne 'PATCHDATA') {
      eval "require Encode; 1;" unless Encode->can('decode'); # bring in these functions
      @result = map {ref $_ ? $_ : $self->_decode_utf8($_) } @result;
    }

    return wantarray ?  @result : $result[0];
}

sub _decode_utf8 {
    my ($self, $val) = @_;

    if (Encode::is_utf8($val)) {
        return $val;
    }
    else {
        return Encode::decode(utf8 => $val);
    }
}

sub self_or_default {
    return @_ if defined($_[0]) && (!ref($_[0])) &&($_[0] eq 'CGI');
    unless (defined($_[0]) && 
	    (ref($_[0]) eq 'CGI' || UNIVERSAL::isa($_[0],'CGI')) # slightly optimized for common case
	    ) {
	$Q = $CGI::DefaultClass->new unless defined($Q);
	unshift(@_,$Q);
    }
    return wantarray ? @_ : $Q;
}

sub self_or_CGI {
    local $^W=0;                # prevent a warning
    if (defined($_[0]) &&
	(substr(ref($_[0]),0,3) eq 'CGI' 
	 || UNIVERSAL::isa($_[0],'CGI'))) {
	return @_;
    } else {
	return ($DefaultClass,@_);
    }
}

########################################
# THESE METHODS ARE MORE OR LESS PRIVATE
# GO TO THE __DATA__ SECTION TO SEE MORE
# PUBLIC METHODS
########################################

# Initialize the query object from the environment.
# If a parameter list is found, this object will be set
# to a hash in which parameter names are keys
# and the values are stored as lists
# If a keyword list is found, this method creates a bogus
# parameter list with the single parameter 'keywords'.

sub init {
  my $self = shift;
  my($query_string,$meth,$content_length,$fh,@lines) = ('','','','');

  my $is_xforms;

  my $initializer = shift;  # for backward compatibility
  local($/) = "\n";

    # set autoescaping on by default
    $self->{'escape'} = 1;

    # if we get called more than once, we want to initialize
    # ourselves from the original query (which may be gone
    # if it was read from STDIN originally.)
    if (@QUERY_PARAM && !defined($initializer)) {
        for my $name (@QUERY_PARAM) {
            my $val = $QUERY_PARAM{$name}; # always an arrayref;
            $self->param('-name'=>$name,'-value'=> $val);
            if (defined $val and ref $val eq 'ARRAY') {
                for my $fh (grep {defined($_) && ref($_) && defined(fileno($_))} @$val) {
                   seek($fh,0,0); # reset the filehandle.  
                }

            }
        }
        $self->charset($QUERY_CHARSET);
        $self->{'.fieldnames'} = {%QUERY_FIELDNAMES};
        $self->{'.tmpfiles'}   = {%QUERY_TMPFILES};
        return;
    }

    $meth=$ENV{'REQUEST_METHOD'} if defined($ENV{'REQUEST_METHOD'});
    $content_length = defined($ENV{'CONTENT_LENGTH'}) ? $ENV{'CONTENT_LENGTH'} : 0;

    $fh = to_filehandle($initializer) if $initializer;

    # set charset to the safe ISO-8859-1
    $self->charset('ISO-8859-1');

  METHOD: {

      # avoid unreasonably large postings
      if (($POST_MAX > 0) && ($content_length > $POST_MAX)) {
	#discard the post, unread
	$self->cgi_error("413 Request entity too large");
	last METHOD;
      }

      # Process multipart postings, but only if the initializer is
      # not defined.
      if ($meth eq 'POST'
	  && defined($ENV{'CONTENT_TYPE'})
	  && $ENV{'CONTENT_TYPE'}=~m|^multipart/form-data|
	  && !defined($initializer)
	  ) {
	  my($boundary) = $ENV{'CONTENT_TYPE'} =~ /boundary=\"?([^\";,]+)\"?/;
	  $self->read_multipart($boundary,$content_length);
	  last METHOD;
      } 

      # Process XForms postings. We know that we have XForms in the
      # following cases:
      # method eq 'POST' && content-type eq 'application/xml'
      # method eq 'POST' && content-type =~ /multipart\/related.+start=/
      # There are more cases, actually, but for now, we don't support other
      # methods for XForm posts.
      # In a XForm POST, the QUERY_STRING is parsed normally.
      # If the content-type is 'application/xml', we just set the param
      # XForms:Model (referring to the xml syntax) param containing the
      # unparsed XML data.
      # In the case of multipart/related we set XForms:Model as above, but
      # the other parts are available as uploads with the Content-ID as the
      # the key.
      # See the URL below for XForms specs on this issue.
      # http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/REC-xforms-20060314/slice11.html#submit-options
      if ($meth eq 'POST' && defined($ENV{'CONTENT_TYPE'})) {
              if ($ENV{'CONTENT_TYPE'} eq 'application/xml') {
                      my($param) = 'XForms:Model';
                      my($value) = '';
                      $self->add_parameter($param);
                      $self->read_from_client(\$value,$content_length,0)
                        if $content_length > 0;
                      push (@{$self->{param}{$param}},$value);
                      $is_xforms = 1;
              } elsif ($ENV{'CONTENT_TYPE'} =~ /multipart\/related.+boundary=\"?([^\";,]+)\"?.+start=\"?\<?([^\"\>]+)\>?\"?/) {
                      my($boundary,$start) = ($1,$2);
                      my($param) = 'XForms:Model';
                      $self->add_parameter($param);
                      my($value) = $self->read_multipart_related($start,$boundary,$content_length,0);
                      push (@{$self->{param}{$param}},$value);
					  $query_string = $self->_get_query_string_from_env;
                      $is_xforms = 1;
              }
      }


      # If initializer is defined, then read parameters
      # from it.
      if (!$is_xforms && defined($initializer)) {
	  if (UNIVERSAL::isa($initializer,'CGI')) {
	      $query_string = $initializer->query_string;
	      last METHOD;
	  }
	  if (ref($initializer) && ref($initializer) eq 'HASH') {
	      for (keys %$initializer) {
		  $self->param('-name'=>$_,'-value'=>$initializer->{$_});
	      }
	      last METHOD;
	  }

          if (defined($fh) && ($fh ne '')) {
              while (my $line = <$fh>) {
                  chomp $line;
                  last if $line =~ /^=$/;
                  push(@lines,$line);
              }
              # massage back into standard format
              if ("@lines" =~ /=/) {
                  $query_string=join("&",@lines);
              } else {
                  $query_string=join("+",@lines);
              }
              last METHOD;
          }

	  # last chance -- treat it as a string
	  $initializer = $$initializer if ref($initializer) eq 'SCALAR';
	  $query_string = $initializer;

	  last METHOD;
      }

      # If method is GET, HEAD or DELETE, fetch the query from
      # the environment.
      if ($is_xforms || $meth=~/^(GET|HEAD|DELETE)$/) {
          $query_string = $self->_get_query_string_from_env;
         $self->param($meth . 'DATA', $self->param('XForms:Model'))
             if $is_xforms;
	      last METHOD;
      }

      if ($meth eq 'POST' || $meth eq 'PUT' || $meth eq 'PATCH') {
	  if ( $content_length > 0 ) {
        if ( ( $PUTDATA_UPLOAD || $self->{'.upload_hook'} ) && !$is_xforms && ($meth eq 'POST' || $meth eq 'PUT' || $meth eq 'PATCH')
            && defined($ENV{'CONTENT_TYPE'})
            && $ENV{'CONTENT_TYPE'} !~ m|^application/x-www-form-urlencoded|
        && $ENV{'CONTENT_TYPE'} !~ m|^multipart/form-data| ){
            my $postOrPut = $meth . 'DATA' ; # POSTDATA/PUTDATA
            $self->read_postdata_putdata( $postOrPut, $content_length, $ENV{'CONTENT_TYPE'}  );
            $meth = ''; # to skip xform testing
            undef $query_string ;
        } else {
            $self->read_from_client(\$query_string,$content_length,0);
        }
	  }
	  # Some people want to have their cake and eat it too!
	  # Uncomment this line to have the contents of the query string
	  # APPENDED to the POST data.
	  # $query_string .= (length($query_string) ? '&' : '') . $ENV{'QUERY_STRING'} if defined $ENV{'QUERY_STRING'};
	  last METHOD;
      }

      # If $meth is not of GET, POST, PUT or HEAD, assume we're
      #   being debugged offline.
      # Check the command line and then the standard input for data.
      # We use the shellwords package in order to behave the way that
      # UN*X programmers expect.
      if ($DEBUG)
      {
          my $cmdline_ret = read_from_cmdline();
          $query_string = $cmdline_ret->{'query_string'};
          if (defined($cmdline_ret->{'subpath'}))
          {
              $self->path_info($cmdline_ret->{'subpath'});
          }
      }
  }

# YL: Begin Change for XML handler 10/19/2001
    if (!$is_xforms && ($meth eq 'POST' || $meth eq 'PUT' || $meth eq 'PATCH')
        && defined($ENV{'CONTENT_TYPE'})
        && $ENV{'CONTENT_TYPE'} !~ m|^application/x-www-form-urlencoded|
	&& $ENV{'CONTENT_TYPE'} !~ m|^multipart/form-data| ) {
	    my($param) = $meth . 'DATA' ;
	    $self->add_parameter($param) ;
	    push (@{$self->{param}{$param}},$query_string);
	    undef $query_string ;
    }
# YL: End Change for XML handler 10/19/2001

    # We now have the query string in hand.  We do slightly
    # different things for keyword lists and parameter lists.
    if (defined $query_string && length $query_string) {
	if ($query_string =~ /[&=;]/) {
	    $self->parse_params($query_string);
	} else {
	    $self->add_parameter('keywords');
	    $self->{param}{'keywords'} = [$self->parse_keywordlist($query_string)];
	}
    }

    # Special case.  Erase everything if there is a field named
    # .defaults.
    if ($self->param('.defaults')) {
      $self->delete_all();
    }

    # hash containing our defined fieldnames
    $self->{'.fieldnames'} = {};
    for ($self->param('.cgifields')) {
	$self->{'.fieldnames'}->{$_}++;
    }
    
    # Clear out our default submission button flag if present
    $self->delete('.submit');
    $self->delete('.cgifields');

    $self->save_request unless defined $initializer;
}

sub _get_query_string_from_env {
    my $self = shift;
    my $query_string = '';

    if ( $MOD_PERL ) {
        $query_string = $self->r->args;
        if ( ! $query_string && $MOD_PERL == 2 ) {
            # possibly a redirect, inspect prev request
            # (->prev only supported under mod_perl2)
            if ( my $prev = $self->r->prev ) {
                $query_string = $prev->args;
            }
        }
    }

    $query_string ||= $ENV{'QUERY_STRING'}
        if defined $ENV{'QUERY_STRING'};

    if ( ! $query_string ) {
        # try to get from REDIRECT_ env variables, support
        # 5 levels of redirect and no more (RT #36312)
        REDIRECT: foreach my $r ( 1 .. 5 ) {
            my $key = join( '',( 'REDIRECT_' x $r ) );
            $query_string ||= $ENV{"${key}QUERY_STRING"}
                if defined $ENV{"${key}QUERY_STRING"};
            last REDIRECT if $query_string;
        }
    }

    return $query_string;
}

# FUNCTIONS TO OVERRIDE:
# Turn a string into a filehandle
sub to_filehandle {
    my $thingy = shift;
    return undef unless $thingy;
    return $thingy if UNIVERSAL::isa($thingy,'GLOB');
    return $thingy if UNIVERSAL::isa($thingy,'FileHandle');
    if (!ref($thingy)) {
	my $caller = 1;
	while (my $package = caller($caller++)) {
	    my($tmp) = $thingy=~/[\':]/ ? $thingy : "$package\:\:$thingy"; 
	    return $tmp if defined(fileno($tmp));
	}
    }
    return undef;
}

# send output to the browser
sub put {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    $self->print(@p);
}

# print to standard output (for overriding in mod_perl)
sub print {
    shift;
    CORE::print(@_);
}

# get/set last cgi_error
sub cgi_error {
    my ($self,$err) = self_or_default(@_);
    $self->{'.cgi_error'} = $err if defined $err;
    return $self->{'.cgi_error'};
}

sub save_request {
    my($self) = @_;
    # We're going to play with the package globals now so that if we get called
    # again, we initialize ourselves in exactly the same way.  This allows
    # us to have several of these objects.
    @QUERY_PARAM = $self->param; # save list of parameters
    for (@QUERY_PARAM) {
      next unless defined $_;
      $QUERY_PARAM{$_}=$self->{param}{$_};
    }
    $QUERY_CHARSET = $self->charset;
    %QUERY_FIELDNAMES = %{$self->{'.fieldnames'}};
    %QUERY_TMPFILES   = %{ $self->{'.tmpfiles'} || {} };
}

sub parse_params {
    my($self,$tosplit) = @_;
    my(@pairs) = split(/[&;]/,$tosplit);
    my($param,$value);
    for (@pairs) {
	($param,$value) = split('=',$_,2);
	next unless defined $param;
	next if $NO_UNDEF_PARAMS and not defined $value;
	$value = '' unless defined $value;
	$param = unescape($param);
	$value = unescape($value);
	$self->add_parameter($param);
	push (@{$self->{param}{$param}},$value);
    }
}

sub add_parameter {
    my($self,$param)=@_;
    return unless defined $param;
    push (@{$self->{'.parameters'}},$param) 
	unless defined($self->{param}{$param});
}

sub all_parameters {
    my $self = shift;
    return () unless defined($self) && $self->{'.parameters'};
    return () unless @{$self->{'.parameters'}};
    return @{$self->{'.parameters'}};
}

# put a filehandle into binary mode (DOS)
sub binmode {
    return unless defined($_[1]) && ref ($_[1]) && defined fileno($_[1]);
    CORE::binmode($_[1]);
}

# back compatibility html tag generation functions - noop
# since this is now the default having removed AUTOLOAD
sub compile { 1; }

sub _all_html_tags {
	return qw/
		a abbr acronym address applet Area
		b base basefont bdo big blink blockquote body br
		caption center cite code col colgroup
		dd del dfn div dl dt
		em embed
		fieldset font fontsize frame frameset
		h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 h6 head hr html
		i iframe ilayer img input ins
		kbd
		label layer legend li Link
		Map menu meta
		nextid nobr noframes noscript
		object ol option
		p Param pre
		Q
		samp script Select small span
		strike strong style Sub sup
		table tbody td tfoot th thead title Tr TR tt
		u ul
		var
	/
}

foreach my $tag ( _all_html_tags() ) {
	*$tag = sub { return _tag_func($tag,@_); };

	# start_html and end_html already exist as custom functions
	next if ($tag eq 'html');

	foreach my $start_end ( qw/ start end / ) {
		my $start_end_function = "${start_end}_${tag}";
		*$start_end_function = sub { return _tag_func($start_end_function,@_); };
	}
}

sub _tag_func {
    my $tagname = shift;
	my ($q,$a,@rest) = self_or_default(@_);

	my($attr) = '';

	if (ref($a) && ref($a) eq 'HASH') {
		my(@attr) = make_attributes($a,$q->{'escape'});
		$attr = " @attr" if @attr;
	} else {
		unshift @rest,$a if defined $a;
	}

	$tagname = lc( $tagname );

    if ($tagname=~/start_(\w+)/i) {
		return "<$1$attr>";
    } elsif ($tagname=~/end_(\w+)/i) {
		return "</$1>";
    } else {
	    return $XHTML ? "<$tagname$attr />" : "<$tagname$attr>" unless @rest;
	    my($tag,$untag) = ("<$tagname$attr>","</$tagname>");
	    my @result = map { "$tag$_$untag" } 
                              (ref($rest[0]) eq 'ARRAY') ? @{$rest[0]} : "@rest";
	    return "@result";
    }
}

sub _selected {
  my $self = shift;
  my $value = shift;
  return '' unless $value;
  return $XHTML ? qq(selected="selected" ) : qq(selected );
}

sub _checked {
  my $self = shift;
  my $value = shift;
  return '' unless $value;
  return $XHTML ? qq(checked="checked" ) : qq(checked );
}

sub _reset_globals { initialize_globals(); }

sub _setup_symbols {
    my $self = shift;

    # to avoid reexporting unwanted variables
    undef %EXPORT;

    for (@_) {

	if ( /^[:-]any$/ ) {
		warn "CGI -any pragma has been REMOVED. You should audit your code for any use "
			. "of none supported / incorrectly spelled tags and remove them"
		;
		next;
	}
	$HEADERS_ONCE++,         next if /^[:-]unique_headers$/;
	$NPH++,                  next if /^[:-]nph$/;
	$NOSTICKY++,             next if /^[:-]nosticky$/;
	$DEBUG=0,                next if /^[:-]no_?[Dd]ebug$/;
	$DEBUG=2,                next if /^[:-][Dd]ebug$/;
	$USE_PARAM_SEMICOLONS++, next if /^[:-]newstyle_urls$/;
	$PUTDATA_UPLOAD++,       next if /^[:-](?:putdata_upload|postdata_upload|patchdata_upload)$/;
	$PARAM_UTF8++,           next if /^[:-]utf8$/;
	$XHTML++,                next if /^[:-]xhtml$/;
	$XHTML=0,                next if /^[:-]no_?xhtml$/;
	$USE_PARAM_SEMICOLONS=0, next if /^[:-]oldstyle_urls$/;
	$TABINDEX++,             next if /^[:-]tabindex$/;
	$CLOSE_UPLOAD_FILES++,   next if /^[:-]close_upload_files$/;
	$NO_UNDEF_PARAMS++,      next if /^[:-]no_undef_params$/;
	
	for (&expand_tags($_)) {
	    tr/a-zA-Z0-9_//cd;  # don't allow weird function names
	    $EXPORT{$_}++;
	}
    }
    @SAVED_SYMBOLS = @_;
}

sub charset {
  my ($self,$charset) = self_or_default(@_);
  $self->{'.charset'} = $charset if defined $charset;
  $self->{'.charset'};
}

sub element_id {
  my ($self,$new_value) = self_or_default(@_);
  $self->{'.elid'} = $new_value if defined $new_value;
  sprintf('%010d',$self->{'.elid'}++);
}

sub element_tab {
  my ($self,$new_value) = self_or_default(@_);
  $self->{'.etab'} ||= 1;
  $self->{'.etab'} = $new_value if defined $new_value;
  my $tab = $self->{'.etab'}++;
  return '' unless $TABINDEX or defined $new_value;
  return qq(tabindex="$tab" );
}

#####
# subroutine: read_postdata_putdata
# 
# Unless file uploads are disabled
# Reads BODY of POST/PUT request and stuffs it into tempfile
# accessible as param POSTDATA/PUTDATA
# 
# Also respects      upload_hook
# 
# based on subroutine read_multipart_related
#####
sub read_postdata_putdata {
    my ( $self, $postOrPut, $content_length, $content_type ) = @_;
    my %header = (
        "Content-Type" =>  $content_type,
    );
    my $param = $postOrPut;
    # add this parameter to our list
    $self->add_parameter($param);
    
    
  UPLOADS: {

        # If we get here, then we are dealing with a potentially large
        # uploaded form.  Save the data to a temporary file, then open
        # the file for reading.

        # skip the file if uploads disabled
        if ($DISABLE_UPLOADS) {
            
            #	      while (defined($data = $buffer->read)) { }
            my $buff;
            my $unit = $CGI::MultipartBuffer::INITIAL_FILLUNIT;
            my $len  = $content_length;
            while ( $len > 0 ) {
                my $read = $self->read_from_client( \$buf, $unit, 0 );
                $len -= $read;
            }
            last UPLOADS;
        }

        # SHOULD PROBABLY SKIP THIS IF NOT $self->{'use_tempfile'}
        # BUT THE REST OF CGI.PM DOESN'T, SO WHATEVER
		my $tmp_dir    = $CGI::OS eq 'WINDOWS'
			? ( $ENV{TEMP} || $ENV{TMP} || ( $ENV{WINDIR} ? ( $ENV{WINDIR} . $SL . 'TEMP' ) : undef ) )
			: undef; # File::Temp defaults to TMPDIR

		require CGI::File::Temp;
        my $filehandle = CGI::File::Temp->new(
			UNLINK => $UNLINK_TMP_FILES,
			DIR    => $tmp_dir,
		);
		$filehandle->_mp_filename( $postOrPut );

        $CGI::DefaultClass->binmode($filehandle)
          if $CGI::needs_binmode
              && defined fileno($filehandle);

        my ($data);
        local ($\) = '';
        my $totalbytes;
        my $unit = $CGI::MultipartBuffer::INITIAL_FILLUNIT;
        my $len  = $content_length;
        $unit = $len;
        my $ZERO_LOOP_COUNTER =0;

        while( $len > 0 )
        {
            
            my $bytesRead = $self->read_from_client( \$data, $unit, 0 );
            $len -= $bytesRead ;

            # An apparent bug in the Apache server causes the read()
            # to return zero bytes repeatedly without blocking if the
            # remote user aborts during a file transfer.  I don't know how
            # they manage this, but the workaround is to abort if we get
            # more than SPIN_LOOP_MAX consecutive zero reads.
            if ($bytesRead <= 0) {
                die  "CGI.pm: Server closed socket during read_postdata_putdata (client aborted?).\n" if $ZERO_LOOP_COUNTER++ >= $SPIN_LOOP_MAX;
            } else {
                $ZERO_LOOP_COUNTER = 0;
            }
            
            if ( defined $self->{'.upload_hook'} ) {
                $totalbytes += length($data);
                &{ $self->{'.upload_hook'} }( $param, $data, $totalbytes,
                    $self->{'.upload_data'} );
            }
            print $filehandle $data if ( $self->{'use_tempfile'} );
            undef $data;
        }

        # back up to beginning of file
        seek( $filehandle, 0, 0 );

        ## Close the filehandle if requested this allows a multipart MIME
        ## upload to contain many files, and we won't die due to too many
        ## open file handles. The user can access the files using the hash
        ## below.
        close $filehandle if $CLOSE_UPLOAD_FILES;
        $CGI::DefaultClass->binmode($filehandle) if $CGI::needs_binmode;

        # Save some information about the uploaded file where we can get
        # at it later.
        # Use the typeglob + filename as the key, as this is guaranteed to be
        # unique for each filehandle.  Don't use the file descriptor as
        # this will be re-used for each filehandle if the
        # close_upload_files feature is used.
        $self->{'.tmpfiles'}->{$$filehandle . $filehandle} = {
            hndl => $filehandle,
			name => $filehandle->filename,
            info => {%header},
        };
        push( @{ $self->{param}{$param} }, $filehandle );
    }
    return;
}

sub URL_ENCODED { 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded'; }

sub MULTIPART {  'multipart/form-data'; }

sub SERVER_PUSH { 'multipart/x-mixed-replace;boundary="' . shift() . '"'; }

# Create a new multipart buffer
sub new_MultipartBuffer {
    my($self,$boundary,$length) = @_;
    return CGI::MultipartBuffer->new($self,$boundary,$length);
}

# Read data from a file handle
sub read_from_client {
    my($self, $buff, $len, $offset) = @_;
    local $^W=0;                # prevent a warning
    return $MOD_PERL
        ? $self->r->read($$buff, $len, $offset)
        : read(\*STDIN, $$buff, $len, $offset);
}

#### Method: delete
# Deletes the named parameter entirely.
####
sub delete {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    my(@names) = rearrange([NAME],@p);
    my @to_delete = ref($names[0]) eq 'ARRAY' ? @$names[0] : @names;
    my %to_delete;
    for my $name (@to_delete)
    {
        CORE::delete $self->{param}{$name};
        CORE::delete $self->{'.fieldnames'}->{$name};
        $to_delete{$name}++;
    }
    @{$self->{'.parameters'}}=grep { !exists($to_delete{$_}) } $self->param();
    return;
}

#### Method: import_names
# Import all parameters into the given namespace.
# Assumes namespace 'Q' if not specified
####
sub import_names {
    my($self,$namespace,$delete) = self_or_default(@_);
    $namespace = 'Q' unless defined($namespace);
    die "Can't import names into \"main\"\n" if \%{"${namespace}::"} == \%::;
    if ($delete || $MOD_PERL || exists $ENV{'FCGI_ROLE'}) {
	# can anyone find an easier way to do this?
	for (keys %{"${namespace}::"}) {
	    local *symbol = "${namespace}::${_}";
	    undef $symbol;
	    undef @symbol;
	    undef %symbol;
	}
    }
    my($param,@value,$var);
    for $param ($self->param) {
	# protect against silly names
	($var = $param)=~tr/a-zA-Z0-9_/_/c;
	$var =~ s/^(?=\d)/_/;
	local *symbol = "${namespace}::$var";
	@value = $self->param($param);
	@symbol = @value;
	$symbol = $value[0];
    }
}

#### Method: keywords
# Keywords acts a bit differently.  Calling it in a list context
# returns the list of keywords.  
# Calling it in a scalar context gives you the size of the list.
####
sub keywords {
    my($self,@values) = self_or_default(@_);
    # If values is provided, then we set it.
    $self->{param}{'keywords'}=[@values] if @values;
    my(@result) = defined($self->{param}{'keywords'}) ? @{$self->{param}{'keywords'}} : ();
    @result;
}

# These are some tie() interfaces for compatibility
# with Steve Brenner's cgi-lib.pl routines
sub Vars {
    my $q = shift;
    my %in;
    tie(%in,CGI,$q);
    return %in if wantarray;
    return \%in;
}

# These are some tie() interfaces for compatibility
# with Steve Brenner's cgi-lib.pl routines
sub ReadParse {
    local(*in);
    if (@_) {
	*in = $_[0];
    } else {
	my $pkg = caller();
	*in=*{"${pkg}::in"};
    }
    tie(%in,CGI);
    return scalar(keys %in);
}

sub PrintHeader {
    my($self) = self_or_default(@_);
    return $self->header();
}

sub HtmlTop {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    return $self->start_html(@p);
}

sub HtmlBot {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    return $self->end_html(@p);
}

sub SplitParam {
    my ($param) = @_;
    my (@params) = split ("\0", $param);
    return (wantarray ? @params : $params[0]);
}

sub MethGet {
    return request_method() eq 'GET';
}

sub MethPatch {
    return request_method() eq 'PATCH';
}

sub MethPost {
    return request_method() eq 'POST';
}

sub MethPut {
    return request_method() eq 'PUT';
}

sub TIEHASH {
    my $class = shift;
    my $arg   = $_[0];
    if (ref($arg) && UNIVERSAL::isa($arg,'CGI')) {
       return $arg;
    }
    return $Q ||= $class->new(@_);
}

sub STORE {
    my $self = shift;
    my $tag  = shift;
    my $vals = shift;
    my @vals = defined($vals) && index($vals,"\0")!=-1 ? split("\0",$vals) : $vals;
    $self->param(-name=>$tag,-value=>\@vals);
}

sub FETCH {
    return $_[0] if $_[1] eq 'CGI';
    return undef unless defined $_[0]->param($_[1]);
    return join("\0",$_[0]->param($_[1]));
}

sub FIRSTKEY {
    $_[0]->{'.iterator'}=0;
    $_[0]->{'.parameters'}->[$_[0]->{'.iterator'}++];
}

sub NEXTKEY {
    $_[0]->{'.parameters'}->[$_[0]->{'.iterator'}++];
}

sub EXISTS {
    exists $_[0]->{param}{$_[1]};
}

sub DELETE {
    my ($self, $param) = @_;
    my $value = $self->FETCH($param);
    $self->delete($param);
    return $value;
}

sub CLEAR {
    %{$_[0]}=();
}
####

####
# Append a new value to an existing query
####
sub append {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    my($name,$value) = rearrange([NAME,[VALUE,VALUES]],@p);
    my(@values) = defined($value) ? (ref($value) ? @{$value} : $value) : ();
    if (@values) {
	$self->add_parameter($name);
	push(@{$self->{param}{$name}},@values);
    }
    return $self->param($name);
}

#### Method: delete_all
# Delete all parameters
####
sub delete_all {
    my($self) = self_or_default(@_);
    my @param = $self->param();
    $self->delete(@param);
}

sub Delete {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    $self->delete(@p);
}

sub Delete_all {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    $self->delete_all(@p);
}

#### Method: autoescape
# If you want to turn off the autoescaping features,
# call this method with undef as the argument
sub autoEscape {
    my($self,$escape) = self_or_default(@_);
    my $d = $self->{'escape'};
    $self->{'escape'} = $escape;
    $d;
}

#### Method: version
# Return the current version
####
sub version {
    return $VERSION;
}

#### Method: url_param
# Return a parameter in the QUERY_STRING, regardless of
# whether this was a POST or a GET
####
sub url_param {
    my ($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    my $name = shift(@p);
    return undef unless exists($ENV{QUERY_STRING});
    unless (exists($self->{'.url_param'})) {
	$self->{'.url_param'}={}; # empty hash
	if ($ENV{QUERY_STRING} =~ /=/) {
	    my(@pairs) = split(/[&;]/,$ENV{QUERY_STRING});
	    my($param,$value);
	    for (@pairs) {
		($param,$value) = split('=',$_,2);
		next if ! defined($param);
		$param = unescape($param);
		$value = unescape($value);
		push(@{$self->{'.url_param'}->{$param}},$value);
	    }
	} else {
        my @keywords = $self->parse_keywordlist($ENV{QUERY_STRING});
	    $self->{'.url_param'}{'keywords'} = \@keywords if @keywords;
	}
    }
    return keys %{$self->{'.url_param'}} unless defined($name);
    return () unless $self->{'.url_param'}->{$name};
    return wantarray ? @{$self->{'.url_param'}->{$name}}
                     : $self->{'.url_param'}->{$name}->[0];
}

#### Method: Dump
# Returns a string in which all the known parameter/value 
# pairs are represented as nested lists, mainly for the purposes 
# of debugging.
####
sub Dump {
    my($self) = self_or_default(@_);
    my($param,$value,@result);
    return '<ul></ul>' unless $self->param;
    push(@result,"<ul>");
    for $param ($self->param) {
	my($name)=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($param);
	push(@result,"<li><strong>$name</strong></li>");
	push(@result,"<ul>");
	for $value ($self->param($param)) {
	    $value = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($value);
            $value =~ s/\n/<br \/>\n/g;
	    push(@result,"<li>$value</li>");
	}
	push(@result,"</ul>");
    }
    push(@result,"</ul>");
    return join("\n",@result);
}

#### Method as_string
#
# synonym for "dump"
####
sub as_string {
    &Dump(@_);
}

#### Method: save
# Write values out to a filehandle in such a way that they can
# be reinitialized by the filehandle form of the new() method
####
sub save {
    my($self,$filehandle) = self_or_default(@_);
    $filehandle = to_filehandle($filehandle);
    my($param);
    local($,) = '';  # set print field separator back to a sane value
    local($\) = '';  # set output line separator to a sane value
    for $param ($self->param) {
	my($escaped_param) = escape($param);
	my($value);
	for $value ($self->param($param)) {
	    print $filehandle "$escaped_param=",escape("$value"),"\n"
	        if length($escaped_param) or length($value);
	}
    }
    for (keys %{$self->{'.fieldnames'}}) {
          print $filehandle ".cgifields=",escape("$_"),"\n";
    }
    print $filehandle "=\n";    # end of record
}

#### Method: save_parameters
# An alias for save() that is a better name for exportation.
# Only intended to be used with the function (non-OO) interface.
####
sub save_parameters {
    my $fh = shift;
    return save(to_filehandle($fh));
}

#### Method: restore_parameters
# A way to restore CGI parameters from an initializer.
# Only intended to be used with the function (non-OO) interface.
####
sub restore_parameters {
    $Q = $CGI::DefaultClass->new(@_);
}

#### Method: multipart_init
# Return a Content-Type: style header for server-push
# This has to be NPH on most web servers, and it is advisable to set $| = 1
#
# Many thanks to Ed Jordan <ed@fidalgo.net> for this
# contribution, updated by Andrew Benham (adsb@bigfoot.com)
####
sub multipart_init {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    my($boundary,$charset,@other) = rearrange_header([BOUNDARY,CHARSET],@p);
    if (!$boundary) {
        $boundary = '------- =_';
        my @chrs = ('0'..'9', 'A'..'Z', 'a'..'z');
        for (1..17) {
            $boundary .= $chrs[rand(scalar @chrs)];
        }
    }

    $self->{'separator'} = "$CRLF--$boundary$CRLF";
    $self->{'final_separator'} = "$CRLF--$boundary--$CRLF";
    $type = SERVER_PUSH($boundary);
    return $self->header(
	-nph => 0,
	-type => $type,
    -charset => $charset,
	(map { split "=", $_, 2 } @other),
    ) . "WARNING: YOUR BROWSER DOESN'T SUPPORT THIS SERVER-PUSH TECHNOLOGY." . $self->multipart_end;
}

#### Method: multipart_start
# Return a Content-Type: style header for server-push, start of section
#
# Many thanks to Ed Jordan <ed@fidalgo.net> for this
# contribution, updated by Andrew Benham (adsb@bigfoot.com)
####
sub multipart_start {
    my(@header);
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    my($type,$charset,@other) = rearrange([TYPE,CHARSET],@p);
    $type = $type || 'text/html';
    if ($charset) {
        push(@header,"Content-Type: $type; charset=$charset");
    } else {
        push(@header,"Content-Type: $type");
    }

    # rearrange() was designed for the HTML portion, so we
    # need to fix it up a little.
    for (@other) {
        # Don't use \s because of perl bug 21951
        next unless my($header,$value) = /([^ \r\n\t=]+)=\"?(.+?)\"?$/;
        ($_ = $header) =~ s/^(\w)(.*)/$1 . lc ($2) . ': '.$self->unescapeHTML($value)/e;
    }
    push(@header,@other);
    my $header = join($CRLF,@header)."${CRLF}${CRLF}";
    return $header;
}

#### Method: multipart_end
# Return a MIME boundary separator for server-push, end of section
#
# Many thanks to Ed Jordan <ed@fidalgo.net> for this
# contribution
####
sub multipart_end {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    return $self->{'separator'};
}

#### Method: multipart_final
# Return a MIME boundary separator for server-push, end of all sections
#
# Contributed by Andrew Benham (adsb@bigfoot.com)
####
sub multipart_final {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    return $self->{'final_separator'} . "WARNING: YOUR BROWSER DOESN'T SUPPORT THIS SERVER-PUSH TECHNOLOGY." . $CRLF;
}

#### Method: header
# Return a Content-Type: style header
#
####
sub header {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    my(@header);

    return "" if $self->{'.header_printed'}++ and $HEADERS_ONCE;

    my($type,$status,$cookie,$target,$expires,$nph,$charset,$attachment,$p3p,@other) = 
	rearrange([['TYPE','CONTENT_TYPE','CONTENT-TYPE'],
			    'STATUS',['COOKIE','COOKIES','SET-COOKIE'],'TARGET',
                            'EXPIRES','NPH','CHARSET',
                            'ATTACHMENT','P3P'],@p);

    # Since $cookie and $p3p may be array references,
    # we must stringify them before CR escaping is done.
    my @cookie;
    for (ref($cookie) eq 'ARRAY' ? @{$cookie} : $cookie) {
        my $cs = UNIVERSAL::isa($_,'CGI::Cookie') ? $_->as_string : $_;
        push(@cookie,$cs) if defined $cs and $cs ne '';
    }
    $p3p = join ' ',@$p3p if ref($p3p) eq 'ARRAY';

    # CR escaping for values, per RFC 822
    for my $header ($type,$status,@cookie,$target,$expires,$nph,$charset,$attachment,$p3p,@other) {
        if (defined $header) {
            # From RFC 822:
            # Unfolding  is  accomplished  by regarding   CRLF   immediately
            # followed  by  a  LWSP-char  as equivalent to the LWSP-char.
            $header =~ s/$CRLF(\s)/$1/g;

            # All other uses of newlines are invalid input. 
            if ($header =~ m/$CRLF|\015|\012/) {
                # shorten very long values in the diagnostic
                $header = substr($header,0,72).'...' if (length $header > 72);
                die "Invalid header value contains a newline not followed by whitespace: $header";
            }
        } 
   }

    $nph     ||= $NPH;

    $type ||= 'text/html' unless defined($type);

    # sets if $charset is given, gets if not
    $charset = $self->charset( $charset );

    # rearrange() was designed for the HTML portion, so we
    # need to fix it up a little.
    for (@other) {
        # Don't use \s because of perl bug 21951
        next unless my($header,$value) = /([^ \r\n\t=]+)=\"?(.+?)\"?$/s;
        ($_ = $header) =~ s/^(\w)(.*)/"\u$1\L$2" . ': '.$self->unescapeHTML($value)/e;
    }

    $type .= "; charset=$charset"
      if     $type ne ''
         and $type !~ /\bcharset\b/
         and defined $charset
         and $charset ne '';

    # Maybe future compatibility.  Maybe not.
    my $protocol = $ENV{SERVER_PROTOCOL} || 'HTTP/1.0';
    push(@header,$protocol . ' ' . ($status || '200 OK')) if $nph;
    push(@header,"Server: " . &server_software()) if $nph;

    push(@header,"Status: $status") if $status;
    push(@header,"Window-Target: $target") if $target;
    push(@header,"P3P: policyref=\"/w3c/p3p.xml\", CP=\"$p3p\"") if $p3p;
    # push all the cookies -- there may be several
    push(@header,map {"Set-Cookie: $_"} @cookie);
    # if the user indicates an expiration time, then we need
    # both an Expires and a Date header (so that the browser is
    # uses OUR clock)
    push(@header,"Expires: " . expires($expires,'http'))
	if $expires;
    push(@header,"Date: " . expires(0,'http')) if $expires || $cookie || $nph;
    push(@header,"Pragma: no-cache") if $self->cache();
    push(@header,"Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=\"$attachment\"") if $attachment;
    push(@header,map {ucfirst $_} @other);
    push(@header,"Content-Type: $type") if $type ne '';
    my $header = join($CRLF,@header)."${CRLF}${CRLF}";
    if (($MOD_PERL >= 1) && !$nph) {
        $self->r->send_cgi_header($header);
        return '';
    }
    return $header;
}

#### Method: cache
# Control whether header() will produce the no-cache
# Pragma directive.
####
sub cache {
    my($self,$new_value) = self_or_default(@_);
    $new_value = '' unless $new_value;
    if ($new_value ne '') {
	$self->{'cache'} = $new_value;
    }
    return $self->{'cache'};
}

#### Method: redirect
# Return a Location: style header
#
####
sub redirect {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    my($url,$target,$status,$cookie,$nph,@other) = 
         rearrange([[LOCATION,URI,URL],TARGET,STATUS,['COOKIE','COOKIES','SET-COOKIE'],NPH],@p);
    $status = '302 Found' unless defined $status;
    $url ||= $self->self_url;
    my(@o);
    for (@other) { tr/\"//d; push(@o,split("=",$_,2)); }
    unshift(@o,
	 '-Status'  => $status,
	 '-Location'=> $url,
	 '-nph'     => $nph);
    unshift(@o,'-Target'=>$target) if $target;
    unshift(@o,'-Type'=>'');
    my @unescaped;
    unshift(@unescaped,'-Cookie'=>$cookie) if $cookie;
    return $self->header((map {$self->unescapeHTML($_)} @o),@unescaped);
}

#### Method: start_html
# Canned HTML header
#
# Parameters:
# $title -> (optional) The title for this HTML document (-title)
# $author -> (optional) e-mail address of the author (-author)
# $base -> (optional) if set to true, will enter the BASE address of this document
#          for resolving relative references (-base) 
# $xbase -> (optional) alternative base at some remote location (-xbase)
# $target -> (optional) target window to load all links into (-target)
# $script -> (option) Javascript code (-script)
# $no_script -> (option) Javascript <noscript> tag (-noscript)
# $meta -> (optional) Meta information tags
# $head -> (optional) any other elements you'd like to incorporate into the <head> tag
#           (a scalar or array ref)
# $style -> (optional) reference to an external style sheet
# @other -> (optional) any other named parameters you'd like to incorporate into
#           the <body> tag.
####
sub start_html {
    my($self,@p) = &self_or_default(@_);
    my($title,$author,$base,$xbase,$script,$noscript,
        $target,$meta,$head,$style,$dtd,$lang,$encoding,$declare_xml,@other) = 
	rearrange([TITLE,AUTHOR,BASE,XBASE,SCRIPT,NOSCRIPT,TARGET,
                   META,HEAD,STYLE,DTD,LANG,ENCODING,DECLARE_XML],@p);

    $self->element_id(0);
    $self->element_tab(0);

    $encoding = lc($self->charset) unless defined $encoding;

    # Need to sort out the DTD before it's okay to call escapeHTML().
    my(@result,$xml_dtd);
    if ($dtd) {
        if (defined(ref($dtd)) and (ref($dtd) eq 'ARRAY')) {
            $dtd = $DEFAULT_DTD unless $dtd->[0] =~ m|^-//|;
        } else {
            $dtd = $DEFAULT_DTD unless $dtd =~ m|^-//|;
        }
    } else {
        $dtd = $XHTML ? $_XHTML_DTD : $DEFAULT_DTD;
    }

    $xml_dtd++ if ref($dtd) eq 'ARRAY' && $dtd->[0] =~ /\bXHTML\b/i;
    $xml_dtd++ if ref($dtd) eq '' && $dtd =~ /\bXHTML\b/i;
    push @result,qq(<?xml version="1.0" encoding="$encoding"?>) if $xml_dtd && $declare_xml;

    if (ref($dtd) && ref($dtd) eq 'ARRAY') {
        push(@result,qq(<!DOCTYPE html\n\tPUBLIC "$dtd->[0]"\n\t "$dtd->[1]">));
	$DTD_PUBLIC_IDENTIFIER = $dtd->[0];
    } else {
        push(@result,qq(<!DOCTYPE html\n\tPUBLIC "$dtd">));
	$DTD_PUBLIC_IDENTIFIER = $dtd;
    }

    # Now that we know whether we're using the HTML 3.2 DTD or not, it's okay to
    # call escapeHTML().  Strangely enough, the title needs to be escaped as
    # HTML while the author needs to be escaped as a URL.
    $title = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($title || 'Untitled Document');
    $author = $self->escape($author);

    if ($DTD_PUBLIC_IDENTIFIER =~ /[^X]HTML (2\.0|3\.2|4\.01?)/i) {
	$lang = "" unless defined $lang;
	$XHTML = 0;
    }
    else {
	$lang = 'en-US' unless defined $lang;
    }

    my $lang_bits = $lang ne '' ? qq( lang="$lang" xml:lang="$lang") : '';
    my $meta_bits = qq(<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=$encoding" />) 
                    if $XHTML && $encoding && !$declare_xml;

    push(@result,$XHTML ? qq(<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"$lang_bits>\n<head>\n<title>$title</title>)
                        : ($lang ? qq(<html lang="$lang">) : "<html>")
	                  . "<head><title>$title</title>");
	if (defined $author) {
    push(@result,$XHTML ? "<link rev=\"made\" href=\"mailto:$author\" />"
			: "<link rev=\"made\" href=\"mailto:$author\">");
	}

    if ($base || $xbase || $target) {
	my $href = $xbase || $self->url('-path'=>1);
	my $t = $target ? qq/ target="$target"/ : '';
	push(@result,$XHTML ? qq(<base href="$href"$t />) : qq(<base href="$href"$t>));
    }

    if ($meta && ref($meta) && (ref($meta) eq 'HASH')) {
	for (sort keys %$meta) { push(@result,$XHTML ? qq(<meta name="$_" content="$meta->{$_}" />) 
			: qq(<meta name="$_" content="$meta->{$_}">)); }
    }

    my $meta_bits_set = 0;
    if( $head ) {
        if( ref $head ) {
            push @result, @$head;
            $meta_bits_set = 1 if grep { /http-equiv=["']Content-Type/i }@$head;
        }
        else {
            push @result, $head;
            $meta_bits_set = 1 if $head =~ /http-equiv=["']Content-Type/i;
        }
    }

    # handle the infrequently-used -style and -script parameters
    push(@result,$self->_style($style))   if defined $style;
    push(@result,$self->_script($script)) if defined $script;
    push(@result,$meta_bits)              if defined $meta_bits and !$meta_bits_set;

    # handle -noscript parameter
    push(@result,<<END) if $noscript;
<noscript>
$noscript
</noscript>
END
    ;
    my($other) = @other ? " @other" : '';
    push(@result,"</head>\n<body$other>\n");
    return join("\n",@result);
}

### Method: _style
# internal method for generating a CSS style section
####
sub _style {
    my ($self,$style) = @_;
    my (@result);

    my $type = 'text/css';
    my $rel  = 'stylesheet';


    my $cdata_start = $XHTML ? "\n<!--/* <![CDATA[ */" : "\n<!-- ";
    my $cdata_end   = $XHTML ? "\n/* ]]> */-->\n" : " -->\n";

    my @s = ref($style) eq 'ARRAY' ? @$style : $style;
    my $other = '';

    for my $s (@s) {
      if (ref($s)) {
       my($src,$code,$verbatim,$stype,$alternate,$foo,@other) =
           rearrange([qw(SRC CODE VERBATIM TYPE ALTERNATE FOO)],
                      ('-foo'=>'bar',
                       ref($s) eq 'ARRAY' ? @$s : %$s));
       my $type = defined $stype ? $stype : 'text/css';
       my $rel  = $alternate ? 'alternate stylesheet' : 'stylesheet';
       $other = "@other" if @other;

       if (ref($src) eq "ARRAY") # Check to see if the $src variable is an array reference
       { # If it is, push a LINK tag for each one
           for $src (@$src)
         {
           push(@result,$XHTML ? qq(<link rel="$rel" type="$type" href="$src" $other/>)
                             : qq(<link rel="$rel" type="$type" href="$src"$other>)) if $src;
         }
       }
       else
       { # Otherwise, push the single -src, if it exists.
         push(@result,$XHTML ? qq(<link rel="$rel" type="$type" href="$src" $other/>)
                             : qq(<link rel="$rel" type="$type" href="$src"$other>)
              ) if $src;
        }
     if ($verbatim) {
           my @v = ref($verbatim) eq 'ARRAY' ? @$verbatim : $verbatim;
           push(@result, "<style type=\"text/css\">\n$_\n</style>") for @v;
      }
       if ($code) {
         my @c = ref($code) eq 'ARRAY' ? @$code : $code;
         push(@result,style({'type'=>$type},"$cdata_start\n$_\n$cdata_end")) for @c;
       }

      } else {
           my $src = $s;
           push(@result,$XHTML ? qq(<link rel="$rel" type="$type" href="$src" $other/>)
                               : qq(<link rel="$rel" type="$type" href="$src"$other>));
      }
    }
    @result;
}

sub _script {
    my ($self,$script) = @_;
    my (@result);

    my (@scripts) = ref($script) eq 'ARRAY' ? @$script : ($script);
    for $script (@scripts) {
    my($src,$code,$language,$charset);
    if (ref($script)) { # script is a hash
        ($src,$code,$type,$charset) =
        rearrange(['SRC','CODE',['LANGUAGE','TYPE'],'CHARSET'],
                 '-foo'=>'bar', # a trick to allow the '-' to be omitted
                 ref($script) eq 'ARRAY' ? @$script : %$script);
            $type ||= 'text/javascript';
            unless ($type =~ m!\w+/\w+!) {
                $type =~ s/[\d.]+$//;
                $type = "text/$type";
            }
    } else {
        ($src,$code,$type,$charset) = ('',$script, 'text/javascript', '');
    }

    my $comment = '//';  # javascript by default
    $comment = '#' if $type=~/perl|tcl/i;
    $comment = "'" if $type=~/vbscript/i;

    my ($cdata_start,$cdata_end);
    if ($XHTML) {
       $cdata_start    = "$comment<![CDATA[\n";
       $cdata_end     .= "\n$comment]]>";
    } else {
       $cdata_start  =  "\n<!-- Hide script\n";
       $cdata_end    = $comment;
       $cdata_end   .= " End script hiding -->\n";
   }
     my(@satts);
     push(@satts,'src'=>$src) if $src;
     push(@satts,'type'=>$type);
     push(@satts,'charset'=>$charset) if ($src && $charset);
     $code = $cdata_start . $code . $cdata_end if defined $code;
     push(@result,$self->script({@satts},$code || ''));
    }
    @result;
}

#### Method: end_html
# End an HTML document.
# Trivial method for completeness.  Just returns "</body>"
####
sub end_html {
    return "\n</body>\n</html>";
}

################################
# METHODS USED IN BUILDING FORMS
################################

#### Method: isindex
# Just prints out the isindex tag.
# Parameters:
#  $action -> optional URL of script to run
# Returns:
#   A string containing a <isindex> tag
sub isindex {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    my($action,@other) = rearrange([ACTION],@p);
    $action = qq/ action="$action"/ if $action;
    my($other) = @other ? " @other" : '';
    return $XHTML ? "<isindex$action$other />" : "<isindex$action$other>";
}

#### Method: start_form
# Start a form
# Parameters:
#   $method -> optional submission method to use (GET or POST)
#   $action -> optional URL of script to run
#   $enctype ->encoding to use (URL_ENCODED or MULTIPART)
sub start_form {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);

    my($method,$action,$enctype,@other) = 
	rearrange([METHOD,ACTION,ENCTYPE],@p);

    $method  = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML(lc($method || 'post'));

    if( $XHTML ){
        $enctype = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($enctype || &MULTIPART);
    }else{
        $enctype = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($enctype || &URL_ENCODED);
    }

    if (defined $action) {
       $action = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($action);
    }
    else {
       $action = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($self->request_uri || $self->self_url);
    }
    $action = qq(action="$action");
    my($other) = @other ? " @other" : '';
    $self->{'.parametersToAdd'}={};
    return qq/<form method="$method" $action enctype="$enctype"$other>/;
}

#### Method: start_multipart_form
sub start_multipart_form {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    if (defined($p[0]) && substr($p[0],0,1) eq '-') {
      return $self->start_form(-enctype=>&MULTIPART,@p);
    } else {
	my($method,$action,@other) = 
	    rearrange([METHOD,ACTION],@p);
	return $self->start_form($method,$action,&MULTIPART,@other);
    }
}

#### Method: end_form
# End a form
# Note: This repeated below under the older name.
sub end_form {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    if ( $NOSTICKY ) {
        return wantarray ? ("</form>") : "\n</form>";
    } else {
        if (my @fields = $self->get_fields) {
            return wantarray ? ("<div>",@fields,"</div>","</form>")
                             : "<div>".(join '',@fields)."</div>\n</form>";
        } else {
            return "</form>";
        }
    }
}

#### Method: end_multipart_form
# end a multipart form
sub end_multipart_form {
    &end_form;
}

sub _textfield {
    my($self,$tag,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    my($name,$default,$size,$maxlength,$override,$tabindex,@other) = 
	rearrange([NAME,[DEFAULT,VALUE,VALUES],SIZE,MAXLENGTH,[OVERRIDE,FORCE],TABINDEX],@p);

    my $current = $override ? $default : 
	(defined($self->param($name)) ? $self->param($name) : $default);

    $current = defined($current) ? $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($current,1) : '';
    $name = defined($name) ? $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($name) : '';
    my($s) = defined($size) ? qq/ size="$size"/ : '';
    my($m) = defined($maxlength) ? qq/ maxlength="$maxlength"/ : '';
    my($other) = @other ? " @other" : '';
    # this entered at cristy's request to fix problems with file upload fields
    # and WebTV -- not sure it won't break stuff
    my($value) = $current ne '' ? qq(value="$current") : '';
    $tabindex = $self->element_tab($tabindex);
    return $XHTML ? qq(<input type="$tag" name="$name" $tabindex$value$s$m$other />) 
                  : qq(<input type="$tag" name="$name" $value$s$m$other>);
}

#### Method: textfield
# Parameters:
#   $name -> Name of the text field
#   $default -> Optional default value of the field if not
#                already defined.
#   $size ->  Optional width of field in characaters.
#   $maxlength -> Optional maximum number of characters.
# Returns:
#   A string containing a <input type="text"> field
#
sub textfield {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    $self->_textfield('text',@p);
}

#### Method: filefield
# Parameters:
#   $name -> Name of the file upload field
#   $size ->  Optional width of field in characaters.
#   $maxlength -> Optional maximum number of characters.
# Returns:
#   A string containing a <input type="file"> field
#
sub filefield {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    $self->_textfield('file',@p);
}

#### Method: password
# Create a "secret password" entry field
# Parameters:
#   $name -> Name of the field
#   $default -> Optional default value of the field if not
#                already defined.
#   $size ->  Optional width of field in characters.
#   $maxlength -> Optional maximum characters that can be entered.
# Returns:
#   A string containing a <input type="password"> field
#
sub password_field {
    my ($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    $self->_textfield('password',@p);
}

#### Method: textarea
# Parameters:
#   $name -> Name of the text field
#   $default -> Optional default value of the field if not
#                already defined.
#   $rows ->  Optional number of rows in text area
#   $columns -> Optional number of columns in text area
# Returns:
#   A string containing a <textarea></textarea> tag
#
sub textarea {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    my($name,$default,$rows,$cols,$override,$tabindex,@other) =
	rearrange([NAME,[DEFAULT,VALUE],ROWS,[COLS,COLUMNS],[OVERRIDE,FORCE],TABINDEX],@p);

    my($current)= $override ? $default :
	(defined($self->param($name)) ? $self->param($name) : $default);

    $name = defined($name) ? $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($name) : '';
    $current = defined($current) ? $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($current) : '';
    my($r) = $rows ? qq/ rows="$rows"/ : '';
    my($c) = $cols ? qq/ cols="$cols"/ : '';
    my($other) = @other ? " @other" : '';
    $tabindex = $self->element_tab($tabindex);
    return qq{<textarea name="$name" $tabindex$r$c$other>$current</textarea>};
}

#### Method: button
# Create a javascript button.
# Parameters:
#   $name ->  (optional) Name for the button. (-name)
#   $value -> (optional) Value of the button when selected (and visible name) (-value)
#   $onclick -> (optional) Text of the JavaScript to run when the button is
#                clicked.
# Returns:
#   A string containing a <input type="button"> tag
####
sub button {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);

    my($label,$value,$script,$tabindex,@other) = rearrange([NAME,[VALUE,LABEL],
						            [ONCLICK,SCRIPT],TABINDEX],@p);

    $label=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($label);
    $value=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($value,1);
    $script=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($script);

    $script ||= '';

    my($name) = '';
    $name = qq/ name="$label"/ if $label;
    $value = $value || $label;
    my($val) = '';
    $val = qq/ value="$value"/ if $value;
    $script = qq/ onclick="$script"/ if $script;
    my($other) = @other ? " @other" : '';
    $tabindex = $self->element_tab($tabindex);
    return $XHTML ? qq(<input type="button" $tabindex$name$val$script$other />)
                  : qq(<input type="button"$name$val$script$other>);
}

#### Method: submit
# Create a "submit query" button.
# Parameters:
#   $name ->  (optional) Name for the button.
#   $value -> (optional) Value of the button when selected (also doubles as label).
#   $label -> (optional) Label printed on the button(also doubles as the value).
# Returns:
#   A string containing a <input type="submit"> tag
####
sub submit {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);

    my($label,$value,$tabindex,@other) = rearrange([NAME,[VALUE,LABEL],TABINDEX],@p);

    $label=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($label);
    $value=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($value,1);

    my $name = $NOSTICKY ? '' : 'name=".submit" ';
    $name = qq/name="$label" / if defined($label);
    $value = defined($value) ? $value : $label;
    my $val = '';
    $val = qq/value="$value" / if defined($value);
    $tabindex = $self->element_tab($tabindex);
    my($other) = @other ? "@other " : '';
    return $XHTML ? qq(<input type="submit" $tabindex$name$val$other/>)
                  : qq(<input type="submit" $name$val$other>);
}

#### Method: reset
# Create a "reset" button.
# Parameters:
#   $name -> (optional) Name for the button.
# Returns:
#   A string containing a <input type="reset"> tag
####
sub reset {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    my($label,$value,$tabindex,@other) = rearrange(['NAME',['VALUE','LABEL'],TABINDEX],@p);
    $label=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($label);
    $value=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($value,1);
    my ($name) = ' name=".reset"';
    $name = qq/ name="$label"/ if defined($label);
    $value = defined($value) ? $value : $label;
    my($val) = '';
    $val = qq/ value="$value"/ if defined($value);
    my($other) = @other ? " @other" : '';
    $tabindex = $self->element_tab($tabindex);
    return $XHTML ? qq(<input type="reset" $tabindex$name$val$other />)
                  : qq(<input type="reset"$name$val$other>);
}

#### Method: defaults
# Create a "defaults" button.
# Parameters:
#   $name -> (optional) Name for the button.
# Returns:
#   A string containing a <input type="submit" name=".defaults"> tag
#
# Note: this button has a special meaning to the initialization script,
# and tells it to ERASE the current query string so that your defaults
# are used again!
####
sub defaults {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);

    my($label,$tabindex,@other) = rearrange([[NAME,VALUE],TABINDEX],@p);

    $label=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($label,1);
    $label = $label || "Defaults";
    my($value) = qq/ value="$label"/;
    my($other) = @other ? " @other" : '';
    $tabindex = $self->element_tab($tabindex);
    return $XHTML ? qq(<input type="submit" name=".defaults" $tabindex$value$other />)
                  : qq/<input type="submit" NAME=".defaults"$value$other>/;
}

#### Method: comment
# Create an HTML <!-- comment -->
# Parameters: a string
sub comment {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_CGI(@_);
    return "<!-- @p -->";
}

#### Method: checkbox
# Create a checkbox that is not logically linked to any others.
# The field value is "on" when the button is checked.
# Parameters:
#   $name -> Name of the checkbox
#   $checked -> (optional) turned on by default if true
#   $value -> (optional) value of the checkbox, 'on' by default
#   $label -> (optional) a user-readable label printed next to the box.
#             Otherwise the checkbox name is used.
# Returns:
#   A string containing a <input type="checkbox"> field
####
sub checkbox {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);

    my($name,$checked,$value,$label,$labelattributes,$override,$tabindex,@other) =
       rearrange([NAME,[CHECKED,SELECTED,ON],VALUE,LABEL,LABELATTRIBUTES,
                   [OVERRIDE,FORCE],TABINDEX],@p);

    $value = defined $value ? $value : 'on';

    if (!$override && ($self->{'.fieldnames'}->{$name} || 
		       defined $self->param($name))) {
	$checked = grep($_ eq $value,$self->param($name)) ? $self->_checked(1) : '';
    } else {
	$checked = $self->_checked($checked);
    }
    my($the_label) = defined $label ? $label : $name;
    $name = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($name);
    $value = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($value,1);
    $the_label = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($the_label);
    my($other) = @other ? "@other " : '';
    $tabindex = $self->element_tab($tabindex);
    $self->register_parameter($name);
    return $XHTML ? CGI::label($labelattributes,
                    qq{<input type="checkbox" name="$name" value="$value" $tabindex$checked$other/>$the_label})
                  : qq{<input type="checkbox" name="$name" value="$value"$checked$other>$the_label};
}

# Escape HTML
sub escapeHTML {
     require HTML::Entities;
     # hack to work around  earlier hacks
     push @_,$_[0] if @_==1 && $_[0] eq 'CGI';
     my ($self,$toencode,$newlinestoo) = CGI::self_or_default(@_);
     return undef unless defined($toencode);
	 my $encode_entities = $ENCODE_ENTITIES;
	 $encode_entities .= "\012\015" if ( $encode_entities && $newlinestoo );
	 return HTML::Entities::encode_entities($toencode,$encode_entities);
}

# unescape HTML -- used internally
sub unescapeHTML {
    require HTML::Entities;
    # hack to work around  earlier hacks
    push @_,$_[0] if @_==1 && $_[0] eq 'CGI';
    my ($self,$string) = CGI::self_or_default(@_);
    return undef unless defined($string);
	return HTML::Entities::decode_entities($string);
}

# Internal procedure - don't use
sub _tableize {
    my($rows,$columns,$rowheaders,$colheaders,@elements) = @_;
    my @rowheaders = $rowheaders ? @$rowheaders : ();
    my @colheaders = $colheaders ? @$colheaders : ();
    my($result);

    if (defined($columns)) {
	$rows = int(0.99 + @elements/$columns) unless defined($rows);
    }
    if (defined($rows)) {
	$columns = int(0.99 + @elements/$rows) unless defined($columns);
    }

    # rearrange into a pretty table
    $result = "<table>";
    my($row,$column);
    unshift(@colheaders,'') if @colheaders && @rowheaders;
    $result .= "<tr>" if @colheaders;
    for (@colheaders) {
	$result .= "<th>$_</th>";
    }
    for ($row=0;$row<$rows;$row++) {
	$result .= "<tr>";
	$result .= "<th>$rowheaders[$row]</th>" if @rowheaders;
	for ($column=0;$column<$columns;$column++) {
	    $result .= "<td>" . $elements[$column*$rows + $row] . "</td>"
		if defined($elements[$column*$rows + $row]);
	}
	$result .= "</tr>";
    }
    $result .= "</table>";
    return $result;
}

#### Method: radio_group
# Create a list of logically-linked radio buttons.
# Parameters:
#   $name -> Common name for all the buttons.
#   $values -> A pointer to a regular array containing the
#             values for each button in the group.
#   $default -> (optional) Value of the button to turn on by default.  Pass '-'
#               to turn _nothing_ on.
#   $linebreak -> (optional) Set to true to place linebreaks
#             between the buttons.
#   $labels -> (optional)
#             A pointer to a hash of labels to print next to each checkbox
#             in the form $label{'value'}="Long explanatory label".
#             Otherwise the provided values are used as the labels.
# Returns:
#   An ARRAY containing a series of <input type="radio"> fields
####
sub radio_group {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
   $self->_box_group('radio',@p);
}

#### Method: checkbox_group
# Create a list of logically-linked checkboxes.
# Parameters:
#   $name -> Common name for all the check boxes
#   $values -> A pointer to a regular array containing the
#             values for each checkbox in the group.
#   $defaults -> (optional)
#             1. If a pointer to a regular array of checkbox values,
#             then this will be used to decide which
#             checkboxes to turn on by default.
#             2. If a scalar, will be assumed to hold the
#             value of a single checkbox in the group to turn on. 
#   $linebreak -> (optional) Set to true to place linebreaks
#             between the buttons.
#   $labels -> (optional)
#             A pointer to a hash of labels to print next to each checkbox
#             in the form $label{'value'}="Long explanatory label".
#             Otherwise the provided values are used as the labels.
# Returns:
#   An ARRAY containing a series of <input type="checkbox"> fields
####

sub checkbox_group {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
   $self->_box_group('checkbox',@p);
}

sub _box_group {
    my $self     = shift;
    my $box_type = shift;

    my($name,$values,$defaults,$linebreak,$labels,$labelattributes,
       $attributes,$rows,$columns,$rowheaders,$colheaders,
       $override,$nolabels,$tabindex,$disabled,@other) =
        rearrange([NAME,[VALUES,VALUE],[DEFAULT,DEFAULTS],LINEBREAK,LABELS,LABELATTRIBUTES,
                       ATTRIBUTES,ROWS,[COLUMNS,COLS],[ROWHEADERS,ROWHEADER],[COLHEADERS,COLHEADER],
                       [OVERRIDE,FORCE],NOLABELS,TABINDEX,DISABLED
                  ],@_);


    my($result,$checked,@elements,@values);

    @values = $self->_set_values_and_labels($values,\$labels,$name);
    my %checked = $self->previous_or_default($name,$defaults,$override);

    # If no check array is specified, check the first by default
    $checked{$values[0]}++ if $box_type eq 'radio' && !%checked;

    $name=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($name);

    my %tabs = ();
    if ($TABINDEX && $tabindex) {
      if (!ref $tabindex) {
          $self->element_tab($tabindex);
      } elsif (ref $tabindex eq 'ARRAY') {
          %tabs = map {$_=>$self->element_tab} @$tabindex;
      } elsif (ref $tabindex eq 'HASH') {
          %tabs = %$tabindex;
      }
    }
    %tabs = map {$_=>$self->element_tab} @values unless %tabs;
    my $other = @other ? "@other " : '';
    my $radio_checked;

    # for disabling groups of radio/checkbox buttons
    my %disabled;
    for (@{$disabled}) {
   	$disabled{$_}=1;
    }

    for (@values) {
    	 my $disable="";
	 if ($disabled{$_}) {
		$disable="disabled='1'";
	 }

        my $checkit = $self->_checked($box_type eq 'radio' ? ($checked{$_} && !$radio_checked++)
                                                           : $checked{$_});
	my($break);
	if ($linebreak) {
          $break = $XHTML ? "<br />" : "<br>";
	}
	else {
	  $break = '';
	}
	my($label)='';
	unless (defined($nolabels) && $nolabels) {
	    $label = $_;
	    $label = $labels->{$_} if defined($labels) && defined($labels->{$_});
	    $label = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($label,1);
            $label = "<span style=\"color:gray\">$label</span>" if $disabled{$_};
	}
        my $attribs = $self->_set_attributes($_, $attributes);
        my $tab     = $tabs{$_};
	$_=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($_);

        if ($XHTML) {
           push @elements,
              CGI::label($labelattributes,
                   qq(<input type="$box_type" name="$name" value="$_" $checkit$other$tab$attribs$disable/>$label)).${break};
        } else {
            push(@elements,qq/<input type="$box_type" name="$name" value="$_" $checkit$other$tab$attribs$disable>${label}${break}/);
        }
    }
    $self->register_parameter($name);
    return wantarray ? @elements : "@elements"
           unless defined($columns) || defined($rows);
    return _tableize($rows,$columns,$rowheaders,$colheaders,@elements);
}

#### Method: popup_menu
# Create a popup menu.
# Parameters:
#   $name -> Name for all the menu
#   $values -> A pointer to a regular array containing the
#             text of each menu item.
#   $default -> (optional) Default item to display
#   $labels -> (optional)
#             A pointer to a hash of labels to print next to each checkbox
#             in the form $label{'value'}="Long explanatory label".
#             Otherwise the provided values are used as the labels.
# Returns:
#   A string containing the definition of a popup menu.
####
sub popup_menu {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);

    my($name,$values,$default,$labels,$attributes,$override,$tabindex,@other) =
       rearrange([NAME,[VALUES,VALUE],[DEFAULT,DEFAULTS],LABELS,
       ATTRIBUTES,[OVERRIDE,FORCE],TABINDEX],@p);
    my($result,%selected);

    if (!$override && defined($self->param($name))) {
	$selected{$self->param($name)}++;
    } elsif (defined $default) {
	%selected = map {$_=>1} ref($default) eq 'ARRAY' 
                                ? @$default 
                                : $default;
    }
    $name=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($name);
    # RT #30057 - ignore -multiple, if you need this
    # then use scrolling_list
    @other = grep { $_ !~ /^multiple=/i } @other;
    my($other) = @other ? " @other" : '';

    my(@values);
    @values = $self->_set_values_and_labels($values,\$labels,$name);
    $tabindex = $self->element_tab($tabindex);
    $name = q{} if ! defined $name;
    $result = qq/<select name="$name" $tabindex$other>\n/;
    for (@values) {
        if (/<optgroup/) {
            for my $v (split(/\n/)) {
                my $selectit = $XHTML ? 'selected="selected"' : 'selected';
		for my $selected (keys %selected) {
		    $v =~ s/(value="\Q$selected\E")/$selectit $1/;
		}
                $result .= "$v\n";
            }
        }
        else {
          my $attribs   = $self->_set_attributes($_, $attributes);
	  my($selectit) = $self->_selected($selected{$_});
	  my($label)    = $_;
	  $label        = $labels->{$_} if defined($labels) && defined($labels->{$_});
	  my($value)    = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($_);
	  $label        = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($label,1);
          $result      .= "<option${attribs} ${selectit}value=\"$value\">$label</option>\n";
        }
    }

    $result .= "</select>";
    return $result;
}

#### Method: optgroup
# Create a optgroup.
# Parameters:
#   $name -> Label for the group
#   $values -> A pointer to a regular array containing the
#              values for each option line in the group.
#   $labels -> (optional)
#              A pointer to a hash of labels to print next to each item
#              in the form $label{'value'}="Long explanatory label".
#              Otherwise the provided values are used as the labels.
#   $labeled -> (optional)
#               A true value indicates the value should be used as the label attribute
#               in the option elements.
#               The label attribute specifies the option label presented to the user.
#               This defaults to the content of the <option> element, but the label
#               attribute allows authors to more easily use optgroup without sacrificing
#               compatibility with browsers that do not support option groups.
#   $novals -> (optional)
#              A true value indicates to suppress the val attribute in the option elements
# Returns:
#   A string containing the definition of an option group.
####
sub optgroup {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    my($name,$values,$attributes,$labeled,$noval,$labels,@other)
        = rearrange([NAME,[VALUES,VALUE],ATTRIBUTES,LABELED,NOVALS,LABELS],@p);

    my($result,@values);
    @values = $self->_set_values_and_labels($values,\$labels,$name,$labeled,$novals);
    my($other) = @other ? " @other" : '';

    $name = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($name) || q{};
    $result = qq/<optgroup label="$name"$other>\n/;
    for (@values) {
        if (/<optgroup/) {
            for (split(/\n/)) {
                my $selectit = $XHTML ? 'selected="selected"' : 'selected';
                s/(value="$selected")/$selectit $1/ if defined $selected;
                $result .= "$_\n";
            }
        }
        else {
            my $attribs = $self->_set_attributes($_, $attributes);
            my($label) = $_;
            $label = $labels->{$_} if defined($labels) && defined($labels->{$_});
            $label=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($label);
            my($value)=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($_,1);
            $result .= $labeled ? $novals ? "<option$attribs label=\"$value\">$label</option>\n"
                                          : "<option$attribs label=\"$value\" value=\"$value\">$label</option>\n"
                                : $novals ? "<option$attribs>$label</option>\n"
                                          : "<option$attribs value=\"$value\">$label</option>\n";
        }
    }
    $result .= "</optgroup>";
    return $result;
}

#### Method: scrolling_list
# Create a scrolling list.
# Parameters:
#   $name -> name for the list
#   $values -> A pointer to a regular array containing the
#             values for each option line in the list.
#   $defaults -> (optional)
#             1. If a pointer to a regular array of options,
#             then this will be used to decide which
#             lines to turn on by default.
#             2. Otherwise holds the value of the single line to turn on.
#   $size -> (optional) Size of the list.
#   $multiple -> (optional) If set, allow multiple selections.
#   $labels -> (optional)
#             A pointer to a hash of labels to print next to each checkbox
#             in the form $label{'value'}="Long explanatory label".
#             Otherwise the provided values are used as the labels.
# Returns:
#   A string containing the definition of a scrolling list.
####
sub scrolling_list {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    my($name,$values,$defaults,$size,$multiple,$labels,$attributes,$override,$tabindex,@other)
	= rearrange([NAME,[VALUES,VALUE],[DEFAULTS,DEFAULT],
          SIZE,MULTIPLE,LABELS,ATTRIBUTES,[OVERRIDE,FORCE],TABINDEX],@p);

    my($result,@values);
    @values = $self->_set_values_and_labels($values,\$labels,$name);

    $size = $size || scalar(@values);

    my(%selected) = $self->previous_or_default($name,$defaults,$override);

    my($is_multiple) = $multiple ? qq/ multiple="multiple"/ : '';
    my($has_size) = $size ? qq/ size="$size"/: '';
    my($other) = @other ? " @other" : '';

    $name=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($name);
    $tabindex = $self->element_tab($tabindex);
    $result = qq/<select name="$name" $tabindex$has_size$is_multiple$other>\n/;
    for (@values) {
        if (/<optgroup/) {
            for my $v (split(/\n/)) {
                my $selectit = $XHTML ? 'selected="selected"' : 'selected';
		for my $selected (keys %selected) {
		    $v =~ s/(value="$selected")/$selectit $1/;
		}
                $result .= "$v\n";
            }
        }
        else {
          my $attribs   = $self->_set_attributes($_, $attributes);
	  my($selectit) = $self->_selected($selected{$_});
	  my($label)    = $_;
	  $label        = $labels->{$_} if defined($labels) && defined($labels->{$_});
	  my($value)    = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($_);
	  $label        = $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($label,1);
          $result      .= "<option${attribs} ${selectit}value=\"$value\">$label</option>\n";
        }
    }

    $result .= "</select>";
    $self->register_parameter($name);
    return $result;
}

#### Method: hidden
# Parameters:
#   $name -> Name of the hidden field
#   @default -> (optional) Initial values of field (may be an array)
#      or
#   $default->[initial values of field]
# Returns:
#   A string containing a <input type="hidden" name="name" value="value">
####
sub hidden {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);

    # this is the one place where we departed from our standard
    # calling scheme, so we have to special-case (darn)
    my(@result,@value);
    my($name,$default,$override,@other) = 
	rearrange([NAME,[DEFAULT,VALUE,VALUES],[OVERRIDE,FORCE]],@p);

    my $do_override = 0;
    if ( ref($p[0]) || substr($p[0],0,1) eq '-') {
	@value = ref($default) ? @{$default} : $default;
	$do_override = $override;
    } else {
	for ($default,$override,@other) {
	    push(@value,$_) if defined($_);
	}
        undef @other;
    }

    # use previous values if override is not set
    my @prev = $self->param($name);
    @value = @prev if !$do_override && @prev;

    $name=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($name);
    for (@value) {
	$_ = defined($_) ? $self->_maybe_escapeHTML($_,1) : '';
	push @result,$XHTML ? qq(<input type="hidden" name="$name" value="$_" @other />)
                            : qq(<input type="hidden" name="$name" value="$_" @other>);
    }
    return wantarray ? @result : join('',@result);
}

#### Method: image_button
# Parameters:
#   $name -> Name of the button
#   $src ->  URL of the image source
#   $align -> Alignment style (TOP, BOTTOM or MIDDLE)
# Returns:
#   A string containing a <input type="image" name="name" src="url" align="alignment">
####
sub image_button {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);

    my($name,$src,$alignment,@other) =
	rearrange([NAME,SRC,ALIGN],@p);

    my($align) = $alignment ? " align=\L\"$alignment\"" : '';
    my($other) = @other ? " @other" : '';
    $name=$self->_maybe_escapeHTML($name);
    return $XHTML ? qq(<input type="image" name="$name" src="$src"$align$other />)
                  : qq/<input type="image" name="$name" src="$src"$align$other>/;
}

#### Method: self_url
# Returns a URL containing the current script and all its
# param/value pairs arranged as a query.  You can use this
# to create a link that, when selected, will reinvoke the
# script with all its state information preserved.
####
sub self_url {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    return $self->url('-path_info'=>1,'-query'=>1,'-full'=>1,@p);
}

# This is provided as a synonym to self_url() for people unfortunate
# enough to have incorporated it into their programs already!
sub state {
    &self_url;
}

#### Method: url
# Like self_url, but doesn't return the query string part of
# the URL.
####
sub url {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    my ($relative,$absolute,$full,$path_info,$query,$base,$rewrite) = 
	rearrange(['RELATIVE','ABSOLUTE','FULL',['PATH','PATH_INFO'],['QUERY','QUERY_STRING'],'BASE','REWRITE'],@p);
    my $url  = '';
    $full++      if $base || !($relative || $absolute);
    $rewrite++   unless defined $rewrite;

    my $path        =  $self->path_info;
    my $script_name =  $self->script_name;
    my $request_uri =  $self->request_uri || '';
    my $query_str   =  $query ? $self->query_string : '';

    $script_name    =~ s/\?.*$//s; # remove query string
    $request_uri    =~ s/\?.*$//s; # remove query string
    $request_uri    =  unescape($request_uri);

    my $uri         =  $rewrite && $request_uri ? $request_uri : $script_name;

	if ( defined( $ENV{PATH_INFO} ) ) {
		# IIS sometimes sets PATH_INFO to the same value as SCRIPT_NAME so only sub it out
		# if SCRIPT_NAME isn't defined or isn't the same value as PATH_INFO
		$uri =~ s/\Q$ENV{PATH_INFO}\E$//
			if ( ! defined( $ENV{SCRIPT_NAME} ) or $ENV{PATH_INFO} ne $ENV{SCRIPT_NAME} );

		# if we're not IIS then keep to spec, the relevant info is here:
		# https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3875#section-4.1.13, namely
		# "No PATH_INFO segment (see section 4.1.5) is included in the
		# SCRIPT_NAME value." (see GH #126, GH #152, GH #176)
		if ( ! $IIS ) {
			$uri =~ s/\Q$ENV{PATH_INFO}\E$//;
		}
	}

    if ($full) {
        my $protocol = $self->protocol();
        $url = "$protocol://";
        my $vh = http('x_forwarded_host') || http('host') || '';
			$vh =~ s/^.*,\s*//; # x_forwarded_host may be a comma-separated list (e.g. when the request has
                                # passed through multiple reverse proxies. Take the last one.
            $vh =~ s/\:\d+$//;  # some clients add the port number (incorrectly). Get rid of it.

        $url .= $vh || server_name();

        my $port = $self->virtual_port;

        # add the port to the url unless it's the protocol's default port
        $url .= ':' . $port unless (lc($protocol) eq 'http'  && $port == 80)
                                or (lc($protocol) eq 'https' && $port == 443);

        return $url if $base;

        $url .= $uri;
    } elsif ($relative) {
	($url) = $uri =~ m!([^/]+)$!;
    } elsif ($absolute) {
	$url = $uri;
    }

    $url .= $path         if $path_info and defined $path;
    $url .= "?$query_str" if $query     and $query_str ne '';
    $url ||= '';
    $url =~ s/([^a-zA-Z0-9_.%;&?\/\\:+=~-])/sprintf("%%%02X",ord($1))/eg;
    return $url;
}

#### Method: cookie
# Set or read a cookie from the specified name.
# Cookie can then be passed to header().
# Usual rules apply to the stickiness of -value.
#  Parameters:
#   -name -> name for this cookie (optional)
#   -value -> value of this cookie (scalar, array or hash) 
#   -path -> paths for which this cookie is valid (optional)
#   -domain -> internet domain in which this cookie is valid (optional)
#   -secure -> if true, cookie only passed through secure channel (optional)
#   -expires -> expiry date in format Wdy, DD-Mon-YYYY HH:MM:SS GMT (optional)
####
sub cookie {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    my($name,$value,$path,$domain,$secure,$expires,$httponly,$max_age,$samesite) =
	rearrange([NAME,[VALUE,VALUES],PATH,DOMAIN,SECURE,EXPIRES,HTTPONLY,'MAX-AGE',SAMESITE],@p);

    require CGI::Cookie;

    # if no value is supplied, then we retrieve the
    # value of the cookie, if any.  For efficiency, we cache the parsed
    # cookies in our state variables.
    unless ( defined($value) ) {
	$self->{'.cookies'} = CGI::Cookie->fetch;
	
	# If no name is supplied, then retrieve the names of all our cookies.
	return () unless $self->{'.cookies'};
	return keys %{$self->{'.cookies'}} unless $name;
	return () unless $self->{'.cookies'}->{$name};
	return $self->{'.cookies'}->{$name}->value if defined($name) && $name ne '';
    }

    # If we get here, we're creating a new cookie
    return undef unless defined($name) && $name ne '';	# this is an error

    my @param;
    push(@param,'-name'=>$name);
    push(@param,'-value'=>$value);
    push(@param,'-domain'=>$domain) if $domain;
    push(@param,'-path'=>$path) if $path;
    push(@param,'-expires'=>$expires) if $expires;
    push(@param,'-secure'=>$secure) if $secure;
    push(@param,'-httponly'=>$httponly) if $httponly;
    push(@param,'-max_age'=>$max_age) if $max_age;
    push(@param,'-samesite'=>$samesite) if $samesite;

    return CGI::Cookie->new(@param);
}

sub parse_keywordlist {
    my($self,$tosplit) = @_;
    $tosplit = unescape($tosplit); # unescape the keywords
    $tosplit=~tr/+/ /;          # pluses to spaces
    my(@keywords) = split(/\s+/,$tosplit);
    return @keywords;
}

sub param_fetch {
    my($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    my($name) = rearrange([NAME],@p);
    return [] unless defined $name;

    unless (exists($self->{param}{$name})) {
	$self->add_parameter($name);
	$self->{param}{$name} = [];
    }
    
    return $self->{param}{$name};
}

###############################################
# OTHER INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE ENVIRONMENT
###############################################

#### Method: path_info
# Return the extra virtual path information provided
# after the URL (if any)
####
sub path_info {
    my ($self,$info) = self_or_default(@_);
    if (defined($info)) {
	$info = "/$info" if $info ne '' &&  substr($info,0,1) ne '/';
	$self->{'.path_info'} = $info;
    } elsif (! defined($self->{'.path_info'}) ) {
        my (undef,$path_info) = $self->_name_and_path_from_env;
	$self->{'.path_info'} = $path_info || '';
    }
    return $self->{'.path_info'};
}

# This function returns a potentially modified version of SCRIPT_NAME
# and PATH_INFO. Some HTTP servers do sanitise the paths in those
# variables. It is the case of at least Apache 2. If for instance the
# user requests: /path/./to/script.cgi/x//y/z/../x?y, Apache will set:
# REQUEST_URI=/path/./to/script.cgi/x//y/z/../x?y
# SCRIPT_NAME=/path/to/env.cgi
# PATH_INFO=/x/y/x
#
# This is all fine except that some bogus CGI scripts expect
# PATH_INFO=/http://foo when the user requests
# http://xxx/script.cgi/http://foo
#
# Old versions of this module used to accomodate with those scripts, so
# this is why we do this here to keep those scripts backward compatible.
# Basically, we accomodate with those scripts but within limits, that is
# we only try to preserve the number of / that were provided by the user
# if $REQUEST_URI and "$SCRIPT_NAME$PATH_INFO" only differ by the number
# of consecutive /.
#
# So for instance, in: http://foo/x//y/script.cgi/a//b, we'll return a
# script_name of /x//y/script.cgi and a path_info of /a//b, but in:
# http://foo/./x//z/script.cgi/a/../b//c, we'll return the versions
# possibly sanitised by the HTTP server, so in the case of Apache 2:
# script_name == /foo/x/z/script.cgi and path_info == /b/c.
#
# Future versions of this module may no longer do that, so one should
# avoid relying on the browser, proxy, server, and CGI.pm preserving the
# number of consecutive slashes as no guarantee can be made there.
sub _name_and_path_from_env {
    my $self = shift;
    my $script_name = $ENV{SCRIPT_NAME}  || '';
    my $path_info   = $ENV{PATH_INFO}    || '';
    my $uri         = $self->request_uri || '';

    $uri =~ s/\?.*//s;
    $uri = unescape($uri);

    if ( $IIS ) {
      # IIS doesn't set $ENV{PATH_INFO} correctly. It sets it to
      # $ENV{SCRIPT_NAME}path_info 
      # IIS also doesn't set $ENV{REQUEST_URI} so we don't want to do
      # the test below, hence this comes first
      $path_info =~ s/^\Q$script_name\E(.*)/$1/;
    } elsif ($uri ne "$script_name$path_info") {
        my $script_name_pattern = quotemeta($script_name);
        my $path_info_pattern = quotemeta($path_info);
        $script_name_pattern =~ s{(?:\\/)+}{/+}g;
        $path_info_pattern =~ s{(?:\\/)+}{/+}g;

        if ($uri =~ /^($script_name_pattern)($path_info_pattern)$/s) {
            # REQUEST_URI and SCRIPT_NAME . PATH_INFO only differ by the
            # numer of consecutive slashes, so we can extract the info from
            # REQUEST_URI:
            ($script_name, $path_info) = ($1, $2);
        }
    }
    return ($script_name,$path_info);
}

#### Method: request_method
# Returns 'POST', 'GET', 'PUT', 'PATCH' or 'HEAD'
####
sub request_method {
    return (defined $ENV{'REQUEST_METHOD'}) ? $ENV{'REQUEST_METHOD'} : undef;
}

#### Method: content_type
# Returns the content_type string
####
sub content_type {
    return (defined $ENV{'CONTENT_TYPE'}) ? $ENV{'CONTENT_TYPE'} : undef;
}

#### Method: path_translated
# Return the physical path information provided
# by the URL (if any)
####
sub path_translated {
    return (defined $ENV{'PATH_TRANSLATED'}) ? $ENV{'PATH_TRANSLATED'} : undef;
}

#### Method: request_uri
# Return the literal request URI
####
sub request_uri {
    return (defined $ENV{'REQUEST_URI'}) ? $ENV{'REQUEST_URI'} : undef;
}

#### Method: query_string
# Synthesize a query string from our current
# parameters
####
sub query_string {
    my($self) = self_or_default(@_);
    my($param,$value,@pairs);
    for $param ($self->param) {
       my($eparam) = escape($param);
       for $value ($self->param($param)) {
           $value = escape($value);
            next unless defined $value;
           push(@pairs,"$eparam=$value");
       }
    }
    for (keys %{$self->{'.fieldnames'}}) {
      push(@pairs,".cgifields=".escape("$_"));
    }
    return join($USE_PARAM_SEMICOLONS ? ';' : '&',@pairs);
}

sub env_query_string {
    return (defined $ENV{'QUERY_STRING'}) ? $ENV{'QUERY_STRING'} : undef;
}

#### Method: accept
# Without parameters, returns an array of the
# MIME types the browser accepts.
# With a single parameter equal to a MIME
# type, will return undef if the browser won't
# accept it, 1 if the browser accepts it but
# doesn't give a preference, or a floating point
# value between 0.0 and 1.0 if the browser
# declares a quantitative score for it.
# This handles MIME type globs correctly.
####
sub Accept {
    my($self,$search) = self_or_CGI(@_);
    my(%prefs,$type,$pref,$pat);
    
    my(@accept) = defined $self->http('accept') 
                ? split(',',$self->http('accept'))
                : ();

    for (@accept) {
	($pref) = /q=(\d\.\d+|\d+)/;
	($type) = m#(\S+/[^;]+)#;
	next unless $type;
	$prefs{$type}=$pref || 1;
    }

    return keys %prefs unless $search;
    
    # if a search type is provided, we may need to
    # perform a pattern matching operation.
    # The MIME types use a glob mechanism, which
    # is easily translated into a perl pattern match

    # First return the preference for directly supported
    # types:
    return $prefs{$search} if $prefs{$search};

    # Didn't get it, so try pattern matching.
    for (keys %prefs) {
	next unless /\*/;       # not a pattern match
	($pat = $_) =~ s/([^\w*])/\\$1/g; # escape meta characters
	$pat =~ s/\*/.*/g; # turn it into a pattern
	return $prefs{$_} if $search=~/$pat/;
    }
}

#### Method: user_agent
# If called with no parameters, returns the user agent.
# If called with one parameter, does a pattern match (case
# insensitive) on the user agent.
####
sub user_agent {
    my($self,$match)=self_or_CGI(@_);
    my $user_agent = $self->http('user_agent');
    return $user_agent unless defined $match && $match && $user_agent;
    return $user_agent =~ /$match/i;
}

#### Method: raw_cookie
# Returns the magic cookies for the session.
# The cookies are not parsed or altered in any way, i.e.
# cookies are returned exactly as given in the HTTP
# headers.  If a cookie name is given, only that cookie's
# value is returned, otherwise the entire raw cookie
# is returned.
####
sub raw_cookie {
    my($self,$key) = self_or_CGI(@_);

    require CGI::Cookie;

    if (defined($key)) {
	$self->{'.raw_cookies'} = CGI::Cookie->raw_fetch
	    unless $self->{'.raw_cookies'};

	return () unless $self->{'.raw_cookies'};
	return () unless $self->{'.raw_cookies'}->{$key};
	return $self->{'.raw_cookies'}->{$key};
    }
    return $self->http('cookie') || $ENV{'COOKIE'} || '';
}

#### Method: virtual_host
# Return the name of the virtual_host, which
# is not always the same as the server
######
sub virtual_host {
    my $vh = http('x_forwarded_host') || http('host') || server_name();
    $vh =~ s/:\d+$//;		# get rid of port number
    return $vh;
}

#### Method: remote_host
# Return the name of the remote host, or its IP
# address if unavailable.  If this variable isn't
# defined, it returns "localhost" for debugging
# purposes.
####
sub remote_host {
    return $ENV{'REMOTE_HOST'} || $ENV{'REMOTE_ADDR'} 
    || 'localhost';
}

#### Method: remote_addr
# Return the IP addr of the remote host.
####
sub remote_addr {
    return $ENV{'REMOTE_ADDR'} || '127.0.0.1';
}

#### Method: script_name
# Return the partial URL to this script for
# self-referencing scripts.  Also see
# self_url(), which returns a URL with all state information
# preserved.
####
sub script_name {
    my ($self,@p) = self_or_default(@_);
    if (@p) {
        $self->{'.script_name'} = shift @p;
    } elsif (!exists $self->{'.script_name'}) {
        my ($script_name,$path_info) = $self->_name_and_path_from_env();
        $self->{'.script_name'} = $script_name;
    }
    return $self->{'.script_name'};
}

#### Method: referer
# Return the HTTP_REFERER: useful for generating
# a GO BACK button.
####
sub referer {
    my($self) = self_or_CGI(@_);
    return $self->http('referer');
}

#### Method: server_name
# Return the name of the server
####
sub server_name {
    return $ENV{'SERVER_NAME'} || 'localhost';
}

#### Method: server_software
# Return the name of the server software
####
sub server_software {
    return $ENV{'SERVER_SOFTWARE'} || 'cmdline';
}

#### Method: virtual_port
# Return the server port, taking virtual hosts into account
####
sub virtual_port {
    my($self) = self_or_default(@_);
    my $vh = $self->http('x_forwarded_host') || $self->http('host');
    my $protocol = $self->protocol;
    if ($vh) {
        return ($vh =~ /:(\d+)$/)[0] || ($protocol eq 'https' ? 443 : 80);
    } else {
        return $self->server_port();
    }
}

#### Method: server_port
# Return the tcp/ip port the server is running on
####
sub server_port {
    return $ENV{'SERVER_PORT'} || 80; # for debugging
}

#### Method: server_protocol
# Return the protocol (usually HTTP/1.0)
####
sub server_protocol {
    return $ENV{'SERVER_PROTOCOL'} || 'HTTP/1.0'; # for debugging
}

#### Method: http
# Return the value of an HTTP variable, or
# the list of variables if none provided
####
sub http {
    my ($self,$parameter) = self_or_CGI(@_);
    if ( defined($parameter) ) {
        $parameter =~ tr/-a-z/_A-Z/;
        if ( $parameter =~ /^HTTP(?:_|$)/ ) {
            return $ENV{$parameter};
        }
        return $ENV{"HTTP_$parameter"};
    }
    return grep { /^HTTP(?:_|$)/ } keys %ENV;
}

#### Method: https
# Return the value of HTTPS, or
# the value of an HTTPS variable, or
# the list of variables
####
sub https {
    my ($self,$parameter) = self_or_CGI(@_);
    if ( defined($parameter) ) {
        $parameter =~ tr/-a-z/_A-Z/;
        if ( $parameter =~ /^HTTPS(?:_|$)/ ) {
            return $ENV{$parameter};
        }
        return $ENV{"HTTPS_$parameter"};
    }
    return wantarray
        ? grep { /^HTTPS(?:_|$)/ } keys %ENV
        : $ENV{'HTTPS'};
}

#### Method: protocol
# Return the protocol (http or https currently)
####
sub protocol {
    local($^W)=0;
    my $self = shift;
    return 'https' if uc($self->https()) eq 'ON'; 
    return 'https' if $self->server_port == 443;
    my $prot = $self->server_protocol;
    my($protocol,$version) = split('/',$prot);
    return "\L$protocol\E";
}

#### Method: remote_ident
# Return the identity of the remote user
# (but only if his host is running identd)
####
sub remote_ident {
    return (defined $ENV{'REMOTE_IDENT'}) ? $ENV{'REMOTE_IDENT'} : undef;
}

#### Method: auth_type
# Return the type of use verification/authorization in use, if any.
####
sub auth_type {
    return (defined $ENV{'AUTH_TYPE'}) ? $ENV{'AUTH_TYPE'} : undef;
}

#### Method: remote_user
# Return the authorization name used for user
# verification.
####
sub remote_user {
    return (defined $ENV{'REMOTE_USER'}) ? $ENV{'REMOTE_USER'} : undef;
}

#### Method: user_name
# Try to return the remote user's name by hook or by
# crook
####
sub user_name {
    my ($self) = self_or_CGI(@_);
    return $self->http('from') || $ENV{'REMOTE_IDENT'} || $ENV{'REMOTE_USER'};
}

#### Method: nosticky
# Set or return the NOSTICKY global flag
####
sub nosticky {
    my ($self,$param) = self_or_CGI(@_);
    $CGI::NOSTICKY = $param if defined($param);
    return $CGI::NOSTICKY;
}

#### Method: nph
# Set or return the NPH global flag
####
sub nph {
    my ($self,$param) = self_or_CGI(@_);
    $CGI::NPH = $param if defined($param);
    return $CGI::NPH;
}

#### Method: private_tempfiles
# Set or return the private_tempfiles global flag
####
sub private_tempfiles {
	warn "private_tempfiles has been deprecated";
    return 0;
}
#### Method: close_upload_files
# Set or return the close_upload_files global flag
####
sub close_upload_files {
    my ($self,$param) = self_or_CGI(@_);
    $CGI::CLOSE_UPLOAD_FILES = $param if defined($param);
    return $CGI::CLOSE_UPLOAD_FILES;
}

#### Method: default_dtd
# Set or return the default_dtd global
####
sub default_dtd {
    my ($self,$param,$param2) = self_or_CGI(@_);
    if (defined $param2 && defined $param) {
        $CGI::DEFAULT_DTD = [ $param, $param2 ];
    } elsif (defined $param) {
        $CGI::DEFAULT_DTD = $param;
    }
    return $CGI::DEFAULT_DTD;
}

# -------------- really private subroutines -----------------
sub _maybe_escapeHTML {
    # hack to work around  earlier hacks
    push @_,$_[0] if @_==1 && $_[0] eq 'CGI';
    my ($self,$toencode,$newlinestoo) = CGI::self_or_default(@_);
    return undef unless defined($toencode);
    return $toencode if ref($self) && !$self->{'escape'};
    return $self->escapeHTML($toencode, $newlinestoo);
}

sub previous_or_default {
    my($self,$name,$defaults,$override) = @_;
    my(%selected);

    if (!$override && ($self->{'.fieldnames'}->{$name} || 
		       defined($self->param($name)) ) ) {
	$selected{$_}++ for $self->param($name);
    } elsif (defined($defaults) && ref($defaults) && 
	     (ref($defaults) eq 'ARRAY')) {
	$selected{$_}++ for @{$defaults};
    } else {
	$selected{$defaults}++ if defined($defaults);
    }

    return %selected;
}

sub register_parameter {
    my($self,$param) = @_;
    $self->{'.parametersToAdd'}->{$param}++;
}

sub get_fields {
    my($self) = @_;
    return $self->CGI::hidden('-name'=>'.cgifields',
			      '-values'=>[keys %{$self->{'.parametersToAdd'}}],
			      '-override'=>1);
}

sub read_from_cmdline {
    my($input,@words);
    my($query_string);
    my($subpath);
    if ($DEBUG && @ARGV) {
	@words = @ARGV;
    } elsif ($DEBUG > 1) {
	require Text::ParseWords;
	print STDERR "(offline mode: enter name=value pairs on standard input; press ^D or ^Z when done)\n";
	chomp(@lines = <STDIN>); # remove newlines
	$input = join(" ",@lines);
	@words = &Text::ParseWords::old_shellwords($input);    
    }
    for (@words) {
	s/\\=/%3D/g;
	s/\\&/%26/g;	    
    }

    if ("@words"=~/=/) {
	$query_string = join('&',@words);
    } else {
	$query_string = join('+',@words);
    }
    if ($query_string =~ /^(.*?)\?(.*)$/)
    {
        $query_string = $2;
        $subpath = $1;
    }
    return { 'query_string' => $query_string, 'subpath' => $subpath };
}

#####
# subroutine: read_multipart
#
# Read multipart data and store it into our parameters.
# An interesting feature is that if any of the parts is a file, we
# create a temporary file and open up a filehandle on it so that the
# caller can read from it if necessary.
#####
sub read_multipart {
    my($self,$boundary,$length) = @_;
    my($buffer) = $self->new_MultipartBuffer($boundary,$length);
    return unless $buffer;
    my(%header,$body);
    my $filenumber = 0;
    while (!$buffer->eof) {
	%header = $buffer->readHeader;

	unless (%header) {
	    $self->cgi_error("400 Bad request (malformed multipart POST)");
	    return;
	}

	$header{'Content-Disposition'} ||= ''; # quench uninit variable warning

	my $param = _mp_value_parse( $header{'Content-Disposition'},'name' );
        $param .= $TAINTED;

        # See RFC 1867, 2183, 2045
        # NB: File content will be loaded into memory should
        # content-disposition parsing fail.
        my ($filename) = $header{'Content-Disposition'}
	               =~/ filename=(("[^"]*")|([a-z\d!\#'\*\+,\.^_\`\{\}\|\~]*))/i;

	$filename ||= ''; # quench uninit variable warning

        $filename =~ s/^"([^"]*)"$/$1/;
	# Test for Opera's multiple upload feature
	my($multipart) = ( defined( $header{'Content-Type'} ) &&
		$header{'Content-Type'} =~ /multipart\/mixed/ ) ?
		1 : 0;

	# add this parameter to our list
	$self->add_parameter($param);

	# If no filename specified, then just read the data and assign it
	# to our parameter list.
	if ( ( !defined($filename) || $filename eq '' ) && !$multipart ) {
	    my($value) = $buffer->readBody;
            $value .= $TAINTED;
	    push(@{$self->{param}{$param}},$value);
	    next;
	}

      UPLOADS: {
	  # If we get here, then we are dealing with a potentially large
	  # uploaded form.  Save the data to a temporary file, then open
	  # the file for reading.

	  # skip the file if uploads disabled
	  if ($DISABLE_UPLOADS) {
	      while (defined($data = $buffer->read)) { }
	      last UPLOADS;
	  }

	  # set the filename to some recognizable value
          if ( ( !defined($filename) || $filename eq '' ) && $multipart ) {
              $filename = "multipart/mixed";
          }

	my $tmp_dir    = $CGI::OS eq 'WINDOWS'
		? ( $ENV{TEMP} || $ENV{TMP} || ( $ENV{WINDIR} ? ( $ENV{WINDIR} . $SL . 'TEMP' ) : undef ) )
		: undef; # File::Temp defaults to TMPDIR

      require CGI::File::Temp;
      my $filehandle = CGI::File::Temp->new(
		UNLINK => $UNLINK_TMP_FILES,
		DIR    => $tmp_dir,
      );
	  $filehandle->_mp_filename( $filename );

	  $CGI::DefaultClass->binmode($filehandle) if $CGI::needs_binmode 
                     && defined fileno($filehandle);

	  # if this is an multipart/mixed attachment, save the header
	  # together with the body for later parsing with an external
	  # MIME parser module
	  if ( $multipart ) {
	      for ( keys %header ) {
		  print $filehandle "$_: $header{$_}${CRLF}";
	      }
	      print $filehandle "${CRLF}";
	  }

	  my ($data);
	  local($\) = '';
          my $totalbytes = 0;
          while (defined($data = $buffer->read)) {
              if (defined $self->{'.upload_hook'})
               {
                  $totalbytes += length($data);
                   &{$self->{'.upload_hook'}}($filename ,$data, $totalbytes, $self->{'.upload_data'});
              }
              print $filehandle $data if ($self->{'use_tempfile'});
          }

	  # back up to beginning of file
	  seek($filehandle,0,0);

      ## Close the filehandle if requested this allows a multipart MIME
      ## upload to contain many files, and we won't die due to too many
      ## open file handles. The user can access the files using the hash
      ## below.
      close $filehandle if $CLOSE_UPLOAD_FILES;
	  $CGI::DefaultClass->binmode($filehandle) if $CGI::needs_binmode;

	  # Save some information about the uploaded file where we can get
	  # at it later.
	  # Use the typeglob + filename as the key, as this is guaranteed to be
	  # unique for each filehandle.  Don't use the file descriptor as
	  # this will be re-used for each filehandle if the
	  # close_upload_files feature is used.
      $self->{'.tmpfiles'}->{$$filehandle . $filehandle} = {
              hndl => $filehandle,
		  name => $filehandle->filename,
	      info => {%header},
	  };
	  push(@{$self->{param}{$param}},$filehandle);
      }
    }
}

sub _mp_value_parse {
	my ( $string,$field ) = @_;

	my $is_quoted = $string =~/[\s;]$field="/ ? 1 : 0;
	my $param;

	if ( $is_quoted ) {
		# a quoted token cannot contain anything but an unescaped quote
		($param) = $string =~/[\s;]$field="((?:\\"|[^"])*)"/;
	} else {
		# a plain token cannot contain any reserved characters
		# https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2616#section-2.2
		# separators     = "(" | ")" | "<" | ">" | "@"
		#                | "," | ";" | ":" | "\" | <">
		#                | "/" | "[" | "]" | "?" | "="
		#                | "{" | "}" | SP | HT
		($param) = $string =~/[\s;]$field=([^\(\)<>\@,;:\\"\/\[\]\?=\{\} \015\n\t]*)/;
	}

	return $param;
}

#####
# subroutine: read_multipart_related
#
# Read multipart/related data and store it into our parameters.  The
# first parameter sets the start of the data. The part identified by
# this Content-ID will not be stored as a file upload, but will be
# returned by this method.  All other parts will be available as file
# uploads accessible by their Content-ID
#####
sub read_multipart_related {
    my($self,$start,$boundary,$length) = @_;
    my($buffer) = $self->new_MultipartBuffer($boundary,$length);
    return unless $buffer;
    my(%header,$body);
    my $filenumber = 0;
    my $returnvalue;
    while (!$buffer->eof) {
	%header = $buffer->readHeader;

	unless (%header) {
	    $self->cgi_error("400 Bad request (malformed multipart POST)");
	    return;
	}

	my($param) = $header{'Content-ID'}=~/\<([^\>]*)\>/;
        $param .= $TAINTED;

	# If this is the start part, then just read the data and assign it
	# to our return variable.
	if ( $param eq $start ) {
	    $returnvalue = $buffer->readBody;
            $returnvalue .= $TAINTED;
	    next;
	}

	# add this parameter to our list
	$self->add_parameter($param);

      UPLOADS: {
	  # If we get here, then we are dealing with a potentially large
	  # uploaded form.  Save the data to a temporary file, then open
	  # the file for reading.

	  # skip the file if uploads disabled
	  if ($DISABLE_UPLOADS) {
	      while (defined($data = $buffer->read)) { }
	      last UPLOADS;
	  }

	my $tmp_dir    = $CGI::OS eq 'WINDOWS'
		? ( $ENV{TEMP} || $ENV{TMP} || ( $ENV{WINDIR} ? ( $ENV{WINDIR} . $SL . 'TEMP' ) : undef ) )
		: undef; # File::Temp defaults to TMPDIR

      require CGI::File::Temp;
      my $filehandle = CGI::File::Temp->new(
		UNLINK => $UNLINK_TMP_FILES,
		DIR    => $tmp_dir,
	  );
	  $filehandle->_mp_filename( $filehandle->filename );

	  $CGI::DefaultClass->binmode($filehandle) if $CGI::needs_binmode 
                     && defined fileno($filehandle);

	  my ($data);
	  local($\) = '';
          my $totalbytes;
          while (defined($data = $buffer->read)) {
              if (defined $self->{'.upload_hook'})
               {
                  $totalbytes += length($data);
                   &{$self->{'.upload_hook'}}($param ,$data, $totalbytes, $self->{'.upload_data'});
              }
              print $filehandle $data if ($self->{'use_tempfile'});
          }

	  # back up to beginning of file
	  seek($filehandle,0,0);

      ## Close the filehandle if requested this allows a multipart MIME
      ## upload to contain many files, and we won't die due to too many
      ## open file handles. The user can access the files using the hash
      ## below.
      close $filehandle if $CLOSE_UPLOAD_FILES;
	  $CGI::DefaultClass->binmode($filehandle) if $CGI::needs_binmode;

	  # Save some information about the uploaded file where we can get
	  # at it later.
	  # Use the typeglob + filename as the key, as this is guaranteed to be
	  # unique for each filehandle.  Don't use the file descriptor as
	  # this will be re-used for each filehandle if the
	  # close_upload_files feature is used.
	  $self->{'.tmpfiles'}->{$$filehandle . $filehandle} = {
              hndl => $filehandle,
		  name => $filehandle->filename,
	      info => {%header},
	  };
	  push(@{$self->{param}{$param}},$filehandle);
      }
    }
    return $returnvalue;
}

sub upload {
    my($self,$param_name) = self_or_default(@_);
    my @param = grep {ref($_) && defined(fileno($_))} $self->param($param_name);
    return unless @param;
    return wantarray ? @param : $param[0];
}

sub tmpFileName {
    my($self,$filename) = self_or_default(@_);

    # preferred calling convention: $filename came directly from param or upload
    if (ref $filename) {
        return $self->{'.tmpfiles'}->{$$filename . $filename}->{name} || '';
    }

    # backwards compatible with older versions: $filename is merely equal to
    # one of our filenames when compared as strings
    foreach my $param_name ($self->param) {
        foreach my $filehandle ($self->multi_param($param_name)) {
            if ($filehandle eq $filename) {
                return $self->{'.tmpfiles'}->{$$filehandle . $filehandle}->{name} || '';
            }
        }
    }

    return '';
}

sub uploadInfo {
    my($self,$filename) = self_or_default(@_);
    return if ! defined $$filename;
    return $self->{'.tmpfiles'}->{$$filename . $filename}->{info};
}

# internal routine, don't use
sub _set_values_and_labels {
    my $self = shift;
    my ($v,$l,$n) = @_;
    $$l = $v if ref($v) eq 'HASH' && !ref($$l);
    return $self->param($n) if !defined($v);
    return $v if !ref($v);
    return ref($v) eq 'HASH' ? keys %$v : @$v;
}

# internal routine, don't use
sub _set_attributes {
    my $self = shift;
    my($element, $attributes) = @_;
    return '' unless defined($attributes->{$element});
    $attribs = ' ';
    for my $attrib (keys %{$attributes->{$element}}) {
        (my $clean_attrib = $attrib) =~ s/^-//;
        $attribs .= "@{[lc($clean_attrib)]}=\"$attributes->{$element}{$attrib}\" ";
    }
    $attribs =~ s/ $//;
    return $attribs;
}

#########################################################
# Globals and stubs for other packages that we use.
#########################################################

######################## CGI::MultipartBuffer ####################

package CGI::MultipartBuffer;

$_DEBUG = 0;

# how many bytes to read at a time.  We use
# a 4K buffer by default.
$MultipartBuffer::INITIAL_FILLUNIT ||= 1024 * 4;
$MultipartBuffer::TIMEOUT          ||= 240*60; # 4 hour timeout for big files
$MultipartBuffer::SPIN_LOOP_MAX    ||= 2000;   # bug fix for some Netscape servers
$MultipartBuffer::CRLF             ||= $CGI::CRLF;

$INITIAL_FILLUNIT = $MultipartBuffer::INITIAL_FILLUNIT;
$TIMEOUT          = $MultipartBuffer::TIMEOUT;
$SPIN_LOOP_MAX    = $MultipartBuffer::SPIN_LOOP_MAX;
$CRLF             = $MultipartBuffer::CRLF;

sub new {
    my($package,$interface,$boundary,$length) = @_;
    $FILLUNIT = $INITIAL_FILLUNIT;
    $CGI::DefaultClass->binmode($IN); # if $CGI::needs_binmode;  # just do it always

    # If the user types garbage into the file upload field,
    # then Netscape passes NOTHING to the server (not good).
    # We may hang on this read in that case. So we implement
    # a read timeout.  If nothing is ready to read
    # by then, we return.

    # Netscape seems to be a little bit unreliable
    # about providing boundary strings.
    my $boundary_read = 0;
    if ($boundary) {

	# Under the MIME spec, the boundary consists of the 
	# characters "--" PLUS the Boundary string

	# BUG: IE 3.01 on the Macintosh uses just the boundary -- not
	# the two extra hyphens.  We do a special case here on the user-agent!!!!
	$boundary = "--$boundary" unless CGI::user_agent('MSIE\s+3\.0[12];\s*Mac|DreamPassport');

    } else { # otherwise we find it ourselves
	my($old);
	($old,$/) = ($/,$CRLF); # read a CRLF-delimited line
	$boundary = <STDIN>;      # BUG: This won't work correctly under mod_perl
	$length -= length($boundary);
	chomp($boundary);               # remove the CRLF
	$/ = $old;                      # restore old line separator
        $boundary_read++;
    }

    my $self = {LENGTH=>$length,
		CHUNKED=>!$length,
		BOUNDARY=>$boundary,
		INTERFACE=>$interface,
		BUFFER=>'',
	    };

    $FILLUNIT = length($boundary)
	if length($boundary) > $FILLUNIT;

    my $retval = bless $self,ref $package || $package;

    # Read the preamble and the topmost (boundary) line plus the CRLF.
    unless ($boundary_read) {
      while ($self->read(0)) { }
    }
    die "Malformed multipart POST: data truncated\n" if $self->eof;

    return $retval;
}

sub readHeader {
    my($self) = @_;
    my($end);
    my($ok) = 0;
    my($bad) = 0;

    local($CRLF) = "\015\012" if $CGI::OS eq 'VMS' || $CGI::EBCDIC;

    do {
	$self->fillBuffer($FILLUNIT);
	$ok++ if ($end = index($self->{BUFFER},"${CRLF}${CRLF}")) >= 0;
	$ok++ if $self->{BUFFER} eq '';
	$bad++ if !$ok && $self->{LENGTH} <= 0;
	# this was a bad idea
	# $FILLUNIT *= 2 if length($self->{BUFFER}) >= $FILLUNIT; 
    } until $ok || $bad;
    return () if $bad;

    #EBCDIC NOTE: translate header into EBCDIC, but watch out for continuation lines!

    my($header) = substr($self->{BUFFER},0,$end+2);
    substr($self->{BUFFER},0,$end+4) = '';
    my %return;

    if ($CGI::EBCDIC) {
      warn "untranslated header=$header\n" if $_DEBUG;
      $header = CGI::Util::ascii2ebcdic($header);
      warn "translated header=$header\n" if $_DEBUG;
    }

    # See RFC 2045 Appendix A and RFC 822 sections 3.4.8
    #   (Folding Long Header Fields), 3.4.3 (Comments)
    #   and 3.4.5 (Quoted-Strings).

    my $token = '[-\w!\#$%&\'*+.^_\`|{}~]';
    $header=~s/$CRLF\s+/ /og;		# merge continuation lines

    while ($header=~/($token+):\s+([^$CRLF]*)/mgox) {
        my ($field_name,$field_value) = ($1,$2);
	$field_name =~ s/\b(\w)/uc($1)/eg; #canonicalize
	$return{$field_name}=$field_value;
    }
    return %return;
}

# This reads and returns the body as a single scalar value.
sub readBody {
    my($self) = @_;
    my($data);
    my($returnval)='';

    #EBCDIC NOTE: want to translate returnval into EBCDIC HERE

    while (defined($data = $self->read)) {
	$returnval .= $data;
    }

    if ($CGI::EBCDIC) {
      warn "untranslated body=$returnval\n" if $_DEBUG;
      $returnval = CGI::Util::ascii2ebcdic($returnval);
      warn "translated body=$returnval\n"   if $_DEBUG;
    }
    return $returnval;
}

# This will read $bytes or until the boundary is hit, whichever happens
# first.  After the boundary is hit, we return undef.  The next read will
# skip over the boundary and begin reading again;
sub read {
    my($self,$bytes) = @_;

    # default number of bytes to read
    $bytes = $bytes || $FILLUNIT;

    # Fill up our internal buffer in such a way that the boundary
    # is never split between reads.
    $self->fillBuffer($bytes);

    my $boundary_start = $CGI::EBCDIC ? CGI::Util::ebcdic2ascii($self->{BOUNDARY})      : $self->{BOUNDARY};
    my $boundary_end   = $CGI::EBCDIC ? CGI::Util::ebcdic2ascii($self->{BOUNDARY}.'--') : $self->{BOUNDARY}.'--';

    # Find the boundary in the buffer (it may not be there).
    my $start = index($self->{BUFFER},$boundary_start);

    warn "boundary=$self->{BOUNDARY} length=$self->{LENGTH} start=$start\n" if $_DEBUG;

    # protect against malformed multipart POST operations
    die "Malformed multipart POST\n" unless $self->{CHUNKED} || ($start >= 0 || $self->{LENGTH} > 0);

    #EBCDIC NOTE: want to translate boundary search into ASCII here.

    # If the boundary begins the data, then skip past it
    # and return undef.
    if ($start == 0) {

	# clear us out completely if we've hit the last boundary.
	if (index($self->{BUFFER},$boundary_end)==0) {
	    $self->{BUFFER}='';
	    $self->{LENGTH}=0;
	    return undef;
	}

	# just remove the boundary.
	substr($self->{BUFFER},0,length($boundary_start))='';
        $self->{BUFFER} =~ s/^\012\015?//;
	return undef;
    }

    my $bytesToReturn;
    if ($start > 0) {           # read up to the boundary
        $bytesToReturn = $start-2 > $bytes ? $bytes : $start;
    } else {    # read the requested number of bytes
	# leave enough bytes in the buffer to allow us to read
	# the boundary.  Thanks to Kevin Hendrick for finding
	# this one.
	$bytesToReturn = $bytes - (length($boundary_start)+1);
    }

    my $returnval=substr($self->{BUFFER},0,$bytesToReturn);
    substr($self->{BUFFER},0,$bytesToReturn)='';
    
    # If we hit the boundary, remove the CRLF from the end.
    return ($bytesToReturn==$start)
           ? substr($returnval,0,-2) : $returnval;
}

# This fills up our internal buffer in such a way that the
# boundary is never split between reads
sub fillBuffer {
    my($self,$bytes) = @_;
    return unless $self->{CHUNKED} || $self->{LENGTH};

    my($boundaryLength) = length($self->{BOUNDARY});
    my($bufferLength) = length($self->{BUFFER});
    my($bytesToRead) = $bytes - $bufferLength + $boundaryLength + 2;
    $bytesToRead = $self->{LENGTH} if !$self->{CHUNKED} && $self->{LENGTH} < $bytesToRead;

    # Try to read some data.  We may hang here if the browser is screwed up.
    my $bytesRead = $self->{INTERFACE}->read_from_client(\$self->{BUFFER},
							 $bytesToRead,
							 $bufferLength);
    warn "bytesToRead=$bytesToRead, bufferLength=$bufferLength, buffer=$self->{BUFFER}\n" if $_DEBUG;
    $self->{BUFFER} = '' unless defined $self->{BUFFER};

    # An apparent bug in the Apache server causes the read()
    # to return zero bytes repeatedly without blocking if the
    # remote user aborts during a file transfer.  I don't know how
    # they manage this, but the workaround is to abort if we get
    # more than SPIN_LOOP_MAX consecutive zero reads.
    if ($bytesRead <= 0) {
	die  "CGI.pm: Server closed socket during multipart read (client aborted?).\n"
	    if ($self->{ZERO_LOOP_COUNTER}++ >= $SPIN_LOOP_MAX);
    } else {
	$self->{ZERO_LOOP_COUNTER}=0;
    }

    $self->{LENGTH} -= $bytesRead if !$self->{CHUNKED} && $bytesRead;
}

# Return true when we've finished reading
sub eof {
    my($self) = @_;
    return 1 if (length($self->{BUFFER}) == 0)
		 && ($self->{LENGTH} <= 0);
    undef;
}

1;

package CGI;

# We get a whole bunch of warnings about "possibly uninitialized variables"
# when running with the -w switch.  Touch them all once to get rid of the
# warnings.  This is ugly and I hate it.
if ($^W) {
    $CGI::CGI = '';
    $CGI::CGI=<<EOF;
    $CGI::VERSION;
    $CGI::MultipartBuffer::SPIN_LOOP_MAX;
    $CGI::MultipartBuffer::CRLF;
    $CGI::MultipartBuffer::TIMEOUT;
    $CGI::MultipartBuffer::INITIAL_FILLUNIT;
EOF
    ;
}

1;