package Crypt::CBC;

use Digest::MD5 'md5';
use Carp;
use strict;
use bytes;
use vars qw($VERSION);
$VERSION = '2.33';

use constant RANDOM_DEVICE => '/dev/urandom';

sub new {
    my $class = shift;

    my $options = {};

    # hashref arguments
    if (ref $_[0] eq 'HASH') {
      $options = shift;

    # CGI style arguments
    elsif ($_[0] =~ /^-[a-zA-Z_]{1,20}$/) {
      my %tmp = @_;
      while ( my($key,$value) = each %tmp) {
	$key =~ s/^-//;
	$options->{lc $key} = $value;

    else {
	$options->{key}    = shift;
	$options->{cipher} = shift;

    my $cipher_object_provided = $options->{cipher} && ref $options->{cipher};

    # "key" is a misnomer here, because it is actually usually a passphrase that is used
    # to derive the true key
    my $pass = $options->{key};

    if ($cipher_object_provided) {
      carp "Both a key and a pre-initialized Crypt::* object were passed. The key will be ignored"
	if defined $pass;
      $pass ||= '';
    elsif (!defined $pass) {
      croak "Please provide an encryption/decryption passphrase or key using -key"

    # header mode
    my %valid_modes = map {$_=>1} qw(none salt randomiv);
    my $header_mode     = $options->{header};
    $header_mode      ||= 'none'     if exists $options->{prepend_iv} && !$options->{prepend_iv};
    $header_mode      ||= 'none'     if exists $options->{add_header} && !$options->{add_header};
    $header_mode      ||= 'salt';    # default
    croak "Invalid -header mode '$header_mode'" unless $valid_modes{$header_mode};

    croak "The -salt argument is incompatible with a -header mode of $header_mode"
      if exists $options->{salt} && $header_mode ne 'salt';

    my $cipher = $options->{cipher};
    $cipher = 'Crypt::DES' unless $cipher;
    my $cipherclass = ref $cipher || $cipher;

    unless (ref $cipher) {  # munge the class name if no object passed
      $cipher = $cipher=~/^Crypt::/ ? $cipher : "Crypt::$cipher";
      $cipher->can('encrypt') or eval "require $cipher; 1" or croak "Couldn't load $cipher: $@";
      # some crypt modules use the class Crypt::, and others don't
      $cipher =~ s/^Crypt::// unless $cipher->can('keysize');

    # allow user to override these values
    my $ks        = $options->{keysize};
    my $bs        = $options->{blocksize};

    # otherwise we get the values from the cipher
    $ks ||= eval {$cipher->keysize};
    $bs ||= eval {$cipher->blocksize};

    # Some of the cipher modules are busted and don't report the
    # keysize (well, Crypt::Blowfish in any case).  If we detect
    # this, and find the blowfish module in use, then assume 56.
    # Otherwise assume the least common denominator of 8.
    $ks ||= $cipherclass =~ /blowfish/i ? 56 : 8;
    $bs ||= $ks;

    my $pcbc = $options->{'pcbc'};

    # Default behavior is to treat -key as a passphrase.
    # But if the literal_key option is true, then use key as is
    croak "The options -literal_key and -regenerate_key are incompatible with each other" 
      if exists $options->{literal_key} && exists $options->{regenerate_key};
    my $key;
    $key     = $pass if $options->{literal_key};
    $key     = $pass if exists $options->{regenerate_key} && !$options->{regenerate_key};

    # Get the salt.
    my $salt        = $options->{salt};
    my $random_salt = 1 unless defined $salt && $salt ne '1';
    croak "Argument to -salt must be exactly 8 bytes long" if defined $salt && length $salt != 8 && $salt ne '1';

    # note: iv will be autogenerated by start() if not specified in options
    my $iv = $options->{iv};
    my $random_iv = 1 unless defined $iv;
    croak "Initialization vector must be exactly $bs bytes long when using the $cipherclass cipher" if defined $iv and length($iv) != $bs;

    my $literal_key = $options->{literal_key} || (exists $options->{regenerate_key} && !$options->{regenerate_key});
    my $legacy_hack = $options->{insecure_legacy_decrypt};
    my $padding     = $options->{padding} || 'standard';

    if ($padding && ref($padding) eq 'CODE') {
      # check to see that this code does its padding correctly
      for my $i (1..$bs-1) {
	my $rbs = length($padding->(" "x$i,$bs,'e'));
	croak "padding method callback does not behave properly: expected $bs bytes back, got $rbs bytes back." 
	  unless ($rbs == $bs);
    } else {
      $padding = $padding eq 'none'           ? \&_no_padding
	        :$padding eq 'null'           ? \&_null_padding
	        :$padding eq 'space'          ? \&_space_padding
		:$padding eq 'oneandzeroes'   ? \&_oneandzeroes_padding
		:$padding eq 'rijndael_compat'? \&_rijndael_compat
                :$padding eq 'standard'       ? \&_standard_padding
	        :croak "'$padding' padding not supported.  See perldoc Crypt::CBC for instructions on creating your own.";

    # HEADER consistency
    if ($header_mode eq 'salt') {
      croak "Cannot use salt-based key generation if literal key is specified"
	if $options->{literal_key};
      croak "Cannot use salt-based IV generation if literal IV is specified"
	if exists $options->{iv};
    elsif ($header_mode eq 'randomiv') {
      croak "Cannot encrypt using a non-8 byte blocksize cipher when using randomiv header mode"
	unless $bs == 8 || $legacy_hack;
    elsif ($header_mode eq 'none') {
      croak "You must provide an initialization vector using -iv when using -header=>'none'"
	unless exists $options->{iv};

    # KEYSIZE consistency
    if (defined $key && length($key) != $ks) {
      croak "If specified by -literal_key, then the key length must be equal to the chosen cipher's key length of $ks bytes";

    # IV consistency
    if (defined $iv && length($iv) != $bs) {
      croak "If specified by -iv, then the initialization vector length must be equal to the chosen cipher's blocksize of $bs bytes";

    return bless {'cipher'      => $cipher,
		  'passphrase'  => $pass,
		  'key'         => $key,
		  'iv'          => $iv,
		  'salt'        => $salt,
		  'padding'     => $padding,
		  'blocksize'   => $bs,
		  'keysize'     => $ks,
                  'header_mode' => $header_mode,
		  'legacy_hack' => $legacy_hack,
                  'literal_key' => $literal_key,
                  'pcbc'        => $pcbc,
		  'make_random_salt' => $random_salt,
		  'make_random_iv'   => $random_iv,

sub encrypt (\$$) {
    my ($self,$data) = @_;
    my $result = $self->crypt($data);
    $result .= $self->finish;

sub decrypt (\$$){
    my ($self,$data) = @_;
    my $result = $self->crypt($data);
    $result .= $self->finish;

sub encrypt_hex (\$$) {
    my ($self,$data) = @_;
    return join('',unpack 'H*',$self->encrypt($data));

sub decrypt_hex (\$$) {
    my ($self,$data) = @_;
    return $self->decrypt(pack'H*',$data);

# call to start a series of encryption/decryption operations
sub start (\$$) {
    my $self = shift;
    my $operation = shift;
    croak "Specify <e>ncryption or <d>ecryption" unless $operation=~/^[ed]/i;

    $self->{'buffer'} = '';
    $self->{'decrypt'} = $operation=~/^d/i;

# call to encrypt/decrypt a bit of data
sub crypt (\$$){
    my $self = shift;
    my $data = shift;

    my $result;

    croak "crypt() called without a preceding start()"
      unless exists $self->{'buffer'};

    my $d = $self->{'decrypt'};

    unless ($self->{civ}) { # block cipher has not yet been initialized
      $result = $self->_generate_iv_and_cipher_from_datastream(\$data)      if $d;
      $result = $self->_generate_iv_and_cipher_from_options()           unless $d;

    my $iv = $self->{'civ'};
    $self->{'buffer'} .= $data;

    my $bs = $self->{'blocksize'};

    croak "When using no padding, plaintext size must be a multiple of $bs"
      if $self->{'padding'} eq \&_no_padding
	and length($data) % $bs;

    croak "When using rijndael_compat padding, plaintext size must be a multiple of $bs"
      if $self->{'padding'} eq \&_rijndael_compat
	and length($data) % $bs;

    return $result unless (length($self->{'buffer'}) >= $bs);

    my @blocks = unpack("a$bs "x(int(length($self->{'buffer'})/$bs)) . "a*", $self->{'buffer'});
    $self->{'buffer'} = '';

    if ($d) {  # when decrypting, always leave a free block at the end
      $self->{'buffer'} = length($blocks[-1]) < $bs ? join '',splice(@blocks,-2) : pop(@blocks);
    } else {
      $self->{'buffer'} = pop @blocks if length($blocks[-1]) < $bs;  # what's left over

    foreach my $block (@blocks) {
      if ($d) { # decrypting
	$result .= $iv = $iv ^ $self->{'crypt'}->decrypt($block);
	$iv = $block unless $self->{pcbc};
      } else { # encrypting
	$result .= $iv = $self->{'crypt'}->encrypt($iv ^ $block);
      $iv = $iv ^ $block if $self->{pcbc};
    $self->{'civ'} = $iv;	        # remember the iv
    return $result;

# this is called at the end to flush whatever's left
sub finish (\$) {
    my $self = shift;
    my $bs    = $self->{'blocksize'};
    my $block = defined $self->{'buffer'} ? $self->{'buffer'} : '';

    $self->{civ} ||= '';

    my $result;
    if ($self->{'decrypt'}) { #decrypting
	$block = length $block ? pack("a$bs",$block) : ''; # pad and truncate to block size
	if (length($block)) {
	  $result = $self->{'civ'} ^ $self->{'crypt'}->decrypt($block);
	  $result = $self->{'padding'}->($result, $bs, 'd');
	} else {
	  $result = '';

    } else { # encrypting
      $block  = $self->{'padding'}->($block,$bs,'e') || '';
      $result = length $block ? $self->{'crypt'}->encrypt($self->{'civ'} ^ $block) : '';
    delete $self->{'civ'};
    delete $self->{'buffer'};
    return $result;

# this subroutine will generate the actual {en,de}cryption key, the iv
# and the block cipher object.  This is called when reading from a datastream
# and so it uses previous values of salt or iv if they are encoded in datastream
# header
sub _generate_iv_and_cipher_from_datastream {
  my $self         = shift;
  my $input_stream = shift;
  my $bs           = $self->blocksize;

  # use our header mode to figure out what to do with the data stream
  my $header_mode = $self->header_mode;

  if ($header_mode eq 'none') {
    croak "You must specify a $bs byte initialization vector by passing the -iv option to new() when using -header_mode=>'none'"
      unless exists $self->{iv};
    $self->{civ}   = $self->{iv};   # current IV equals saved IV
    $self->{key} ||= $self->_key_from_key($self->{passphrase});

  elsif ($header_mode eq 'salt') {
    my ($salt) = $$input_stream =~ /^Salted__(.{8})/s;
    croak "Ciphertext does not begin with a valid header for 'salt' header mode" unless defined $salt;
    $self->{salt} = $salt;          # new salt
    substr($$input_stream,0,16) = '';
    my ($key,$iv) = $self->_salted_key_and_iv($self->{passphrase},$salt);
    $self->{iv} = $self->{civ}  = $iv;
    $self->{key}  = $key;

  elsif ($header_mode eq 'randomiv') {
    my ($iv) = $$input_stream =~ /^RandomIV(.{8})/s;
    croak "Ciphertext does not begin with a valid header for 'randomiv' header mode" unless defined $iv;
    croak "randomiv header mode cannot be used securely when decrypting with a >8 byte block cipher.\nUse the -insecure_legacy_decrypt flag if you are sure you want to do this" unless $self->blocksize == 8 || $self->legacy_hack;
    $self->{iv} = $self->{civ} = $iv;
    $self->{key} = $self->_key_from_key($self->{passphrase});
    undef $self->{salt};  # paranoia
    substr($$input_stream,0,16) = ''; # truncate

  else {
    croak "Invalid header mode '$header_mode'";

  # we should have the key and iv now, or we are dead in the water
  croak "Cipher stream did not contain IV or salt, and you did not specify these values in new()"
    unless $self->{key} && $self->{civ};

  # now we can generate the crypt object itself
  $self->{crypt} = ref $self->{cipher} ? $self->{cipher}
                                       : $self->{cipher}->new($self->{key})
					 or croak "Could not create $self->{cipher} object: $@";
  return '';

sub _generate_iv_and_cipher_from_options {
  my $self   = shift;
  my $blocksize = $self->blocksize;

  my $result = '';

  my $header_mode = $self->header_mode;
  if ($header_mode eq 'none') {
    croak "You must specify a $blocksize byte initialization vector by passing the -iv option to new() when using -header_mode=>'none'"
      unless exists $self->{iv};
    $self->{civ}   = $self->{iv};
    $self->{key} ||= $self->_key_from_key($self->{passphrase});

  elsif ($header_mode eq 'salt') {
    $self->{salt} = $self->_get_random_bytes(8) if $self->{make_random_salt};
    defined (my $salt = $self->{salt}) or croak "No header_mode of 'salt' specified, but no salt value provided"; # shouldn't happen
    length($salt) == 8 or croak "Salt must be exactly 8 bytes long";
    my ($key,$iv) = $self->_salted_key_and_iv($self->{passphrase},$salt);
    $self->{key}  = $key;
    $self->{civ}  = $self->{iv} = $iv;
    $result  = "Salted__${salt}";

  elsif ($header_mode eq 'randomiv') {
    croak "randomiv header mode cannot be used when encrypting with a >8 byte block cipher. There is no option to allow this"
      unless $blocksize == 8;
    $self->{key} ||= $self->_key_from_key($self->{passphrase});
    $self->{iv}    = $self->_get_random_bytes(8) if $self->{make_random_iv};
    length($self->{iv}) == 8 or croak "IV must be exactly 8 bytes long when used with header mode of 'randomiv'";
    $self->{civ}   = $self->{iv};
    $result = "RandomIV$self->{iv}";

  croak "key and/or iv are missing" unless defined $self->{key} && defined $self->{civ};

  $self->{crypt} = ref $self->{cipher} ? $self->{cipher}
                                       : $self->{cipher}->new($self->{key})
					 or croak "Could not create $self->{cipher} object: $@";
  return $result;

sub _taintcheck {
    my $self = shift;
    my $key  = shift;
    return unless ${^TAINT};

    my $has_scalar_util = eval "require Scalar::Util; 1";
    my $tainted;

    if ($has_scalar_util) {
	$tainted = Scalar::Util::tainted($key);
    } else {
	local($@, $SIG{__DIE__}, $SIG{__WARN__});
	local $^W = 0;
	eval { kill 0 * $key };
	$tainted = $@ =~ /^Insecure/;

    croak "Taint checks are turned on and your key is tainted. Please untaint the key and try again"
	if $tainted;

sub _key_from_key {
  my $self  = shift;
  my $pass  = shift;
  my $ks    = $self->{keysize};

  return $pass if $self->{literal_key};

  my $material = md5($pass);
  while (length($material) < $ks)  {
    $material .= md5($material);
  return substr($material,0,$ks);

sub _salted_key_and_iv {
  my $self = shift;
  my ($pass,$salt)  = @_;

  croak "Salt must be 8 bytes long" unless length $salt == 8;

  my $key_len = $self->{keysize};
  my $iv_len  = $self->{blocksize};

  my $desired_len = $key_len+$iv_len;

  my $data  = '';
  my $d = '';

  while (length $data < $desired_len) {
    $d = md5($d . $pass . $salt);
    $data .= $d;
  return (substr($data,0,$key_len),substr($data,$key_len,$iv_len));

sub random_bytes {
  my $self  = shift;
  my $bytes = shift or croak "usage: random_bytes(\$byte_length)";

sub _get_random_bytes {
  my $self   = shift;
  my $length = shift;
  my $result;

  if (-r RANDOM_DEVICE && open(F,RANDOM_DEVICE)) {
    close F;
  } else {
    $result = pack("C*",map {rand(256)} 1..$length);
  # Clear taint and check length
  $result =~ /^(.+)$/s;
  length($1) == $length or croak "Invalid length while gathering $length random bytes";
  return $1;

sub _standard_padding ($$$) {
  my ($b,$bs,$decrypt) = @_;
  $b = length $b ? $b : '';
  if ($decrypt eq 'd') {
    my $pad_length = unpack("C",substr($b,-1));

    # sanity check for implementations that don't pad correctly
    return $b unless $pad_length >= 0 && $pad_length <= $bs;
    my @pad_chars = unpack("C*",substr($b,-$pad_length));
    return $b if grep {$pad_length != $_} @pad_chars;

    return substr($b,0,$bs-$pad_length);
  my $pad = $bs - length($b) % $bs;
  return $b . pack("C*",($pad)x$pad);

sub _space_padding ($$$) {
  my ($b,$bs,$decrypt) = @_;
  return unless length $b;
  $b = length $b ? $b : '';
  if ($decrypt eq 'd') {
     $b=~ s/ *\z//s;
     return $b;
  return $b . pack("C*", (32) x ($bs - length($b) % $bs));

sub _no_padding ($$$) {
  my ($b,$bs,$decrypt) = @_;
  return $b;

sub _null_padding ($$$) {
  my ($b,$bs,$decrypt) = @_;
  return unless length $b;
  $b = length $b ? $b : '';
  if ($decrypt eq 'd') {
     $b=~ s/\0*\z//s;
     return $b;
  return $b . pack("C*", (0) x ($bs - length($b) % $bs));

sub _oneandzeroes_padding ($$$) {
  my ($b,$bs,$decrypt) = @_;
  $b = length $b ? $b : '';
  if ($decrypt eq 'd') {
     $b=~ s/\x80\0*\z//s;
     return $b;
  return $b . pack("C*", 128, (0) x ($bs - length($b) % $bs - 1) );

sub _rijndael_compat ($$$) {
  my ($b,$bs,$decrypt) = @_;
  return unless length $b;
  if ($decrypt eq 'd') {
     $b=~ s/\x80\0*\z//s;
     return $b;
  return $b . pack("C*", 128, (0) x ($bs - length($b) % $bs - 1) );

sub get_initialization_vector (\$) {
  my $self = shift;

sub set_initialization_vector (\$$) {
  my $self = shift;
  my $iv   = shift;
  my $bs   = $self->blocksize;
  croak "Initialization vector must be $bs bytes in length" unless length($iv) == $bs;

sub salt {
  my $self = shift;
  my $d    = $self->{salt};
  $self->{salt} = shift if @_;

sub iv {
  my $self = shift;
  my $d    = $self->{iv};
  $self->{iv} = shift if @_;

sub key {
  my $self = shift;
  my $d    = $self->{key};
  $self->{key} = shift if @_;

sub passphrase {
  my $self = shift;
  my $d    = $self->{passphrase};
  if (@_) {
    undef $self->{key};
    undef $self->{iv};
    $self->{passphrase} = shift;

sub cipher    { shift->{cipher}    }
sub padding   { shift->{padding}   }
sub keysize   { shift->{keysize}   }
sub blocksize { shift->{blocksize} }
sub pcbc      { shift->{pcbc}      }
sub header_mode {shift->{header_mode} }
sub legacy_hack { shift->{legacy_hack} }


=head1 NAME

Crypt::CBC - Encrypt Data with Cipher Block Chaining Mode


  use Crypt::CBC;
  $cipher = Crypt::CBC->new( -key    => 'my secret key',
			     -cipher => 'Blowfish'

  $ciphertext = $cipher->encrypt("This data is hush hush");
  $plaintext  = $cipher->decrypt($ciphertext);

  while (read(F,$buffer,1024)) {
      print $cipher->crypt($buffer);
  print $cipher->finish;

  # do-it-yourself mode -- specify key, initialization vector yourself
  $key    = Crypt::CBC->random_bytes(8);  # assuming a 8-byte block cipher
  $iv     = Crypt::CBC->random_bytes(8);
  $cipher = Crypt::CBC->new(-literal_key => 1,
                            -key         => $key,
                            -iv          => $iv,
                            -header      => 'none');

  $ciphertext = $cipher->encrypt("This data is hush hush");
  $plaintext  = $cipher->decrypt($ciphertext);

  # RANDOMIV-compatible mode
  $cipher = Crypt::CBC->new(-key         => 'Super Secret!'
                            -header      => 'randomiv');


This module is a Perl-only implementation of the cryptographic cipher
block chaining mode (CBC).  In combination with a block cipher such as
DES or IDEA, you can encrypt and decrypt messages of arbitrarily long
length.  The encrypted messages are compatible with the encryption
format used by the B<OpenSSL> package.

To use this module, you will first create a Crypt::CBC cipher object
with new().  At the time of cipher creation, you specify an encryption
key to use and, optionally, a block encryption algorithm.  You will
then call the start() method to initialize the encryption or
decryption process, crypt() to encrypt or decrypt one or more blocks
of data, and lastly finish(), to pad and encrypt the final block.  For
your convenience, you can call the encrypt() and decrypt() methods to
operate on a whole data value at once.

=head2 new()

  $cipher = Crypt::CBC->new( -key    => 'my secret key',
			     -cipher => 'Blowfish',

  # or (for compatibility with versions prior to 2.13)
  $cipher = Crypt::CBC->new( {
                              key    => 'my secret key',
			      cipher => 'Blowfish'

  # or (for compatibility with versions prior to 2.0)
  $cipher = new Crypt::CBC('my secret key' => 'Blowfish');

The new() method creates a new Crypt::CBC object. It accepts a list of
-argument => value pairs selected from the following list:

  Argument        Description
  --------        -----------

  -key            The encryption/decryption key (required)

  -cipher         The cipher algorithm (defaults to Crypt::DES), or
                     a preexisting cipher object.

  -salt           Enables OpenSSL-compatibility. If equal to a value
                    of "1" then causes a random salt to be generated
                    and used to derive the encryption key and IV. Other
                    true values are taken to be the literal salt.

  -iv             The initialization vector (IV)

  -header         What type of header to prepend to ciphertext. One of
                    'salt'   -- use OpenSSL-compatible salted header
                    'randomiv' -- Randomiv-compatible "RandomIV" header
                    'none'   -- prepend no header at all

  -padding        The padding method, one of "standard" (default),
                     "space", "oneandzeroes", "rijndael_compat",
                     "null", or "none" (default "standard").

  -literal_key    If true, the key provided by "key" is used directly
                      for encryption/decryption.  Otherwise the actual
                      key used will be a hash of the provided key.
		      (default false)

  -pcbc           Whether to use the PCBC chaining algorithm rather than
                    the standard CBC algorithm (default false).

  -keysize        Force the cipher keysize to the indicated number of bytes.

  -blocksize      Force the cipher blocksize to the indicated number of bytes.

                  Allow decryption of data encrypted using the "RandomIV" header
                    produced by pre-2.17 versions of Crypt::CBC.

  -add_header     [deprecated; use -header instread]
                   Whether to add the salt and IV to the header of the output
                    cipher text.

  -regenerate_key [deprecated; use literal_key instead]
                  Whether to use a hash of the provided key to generate
                    the actual encryption key (default true)

  -prepend_iv     [deprecated; use add_header instead]
                  Whether to prepend the IV to the beginning of the
                    encrypted stream (default true)

Crypt::CBC requires three pieces of information to do its job. First
it needs the name of the block cipher algorithm that will encrypt or
decrypt the data in blocks of fixed length known as the cipher's
"blocksize." Second, it needs an encryption/decryption key to pass to
the block cipher. Third, it needs an initialization vector (IV) that
will be used to propagate information from one encrypted block to the
next. Both the key and the IV must be exactly the same length as the
chosen cipher's blocksize.

Crypt::CBC can derive the key and the IV from a passphrase that you
provide, or can let you specify the true key and IV manually. In
addition, you have the option of embedding enough information to
regenerate the IV in a short header that is emitted at the start of
the encrypted stream, or outputting a headerless encryption stream. In
the first case, Crypt::CBC will be able to decrypt the stream given
just the original key or passphrase. In the second case, you will have
to provide the original IV as well as the key/passphrase.

The B<-cipher> option specifies which block cipher algorithm to use to
encode each section of the message.  This argument is optional and
will default to the quick-but-not-very-secure DES algorithm unless
specified otherwise. You may use any compatible block encryption
algorithm that you have installed. Currently, this includes
Crypt::DES, Crypt::DES_EDE3, Crypt::IDEA, Crypt::Blowfish,
Crypt::CAST5 and Crypt::Rijndael. You may refer to them using their
full names ("Crypt::IDEA") or in abbreviated form ("IDEA").

Instead of passing the name of a cipher class, you may pass an
already-created block cipher object. This allows you to take advantage
of cipher algorithms that have parameterized new() methods, such as

  my $eksblowfish = Crypt::Eksblowfish->new(8,$salt,$key);
  my $cbc         = Crypt::CBC->new(-cipher=>$eksblowfish);

The B<-key> argument provides either a passphrase to use to generate
the encryption key, or the literal value of the block cipher key. If
used in passphrase mode (which is the default), B<-key> can be any
number of characters; the actual key will be derived by passing the
passphrase through a series of MD5 hash operations. To take full
advantage of a given block cipher, the length of the passphrase should
be at least equal to the cipher's blocksize. To skip this hashing
operation and specify the key directly, pass a true value to the
B<-literal_key> option. In this case, you should choose a key of
length exactly equal to the cipher's key length. You should also
specify the IV yourself and a -header mode of 'none'.

If you pass an existing Crypt::* object to new(), then the -key
argument is ignored and the module will generate a warning.

The B<-header> argument specifies what type of header, if any, to
prepend to the beginning of the encrypted data stream. The header
allows Crypt::CBC to regenerate the original IV and correctly decrypt
the data without your having to provide the same IV used to encrypt
the data. Valid values for the B<-header> are:

 "salt" -- Combine the passphrase with an 8-byte random value to
           generate both the block cipher key and the IV from the
           provided passphrase. The salt will be appended to the
           beginning of the data stream allowing decryption to
           regenerate both the key and IV given the correct passphrase.
           This method is compatible with current versions of OpenSSL.

 "randomiv" -- Generate the block cipher key from the passphrase, and
           choose a random 8-byte value to use as the IV. The IV will
           be prepended to the data stream. This method is compatible
           with ciphertext produced by versions of the library prior to
           2.17, but is incompatible with block ciphers that have non
           8-byte block sizes, such as Rijndael. Crypt::CBC will exit
           with a fatal error if you try to use this header mode with a
           non 8-byte cipher.

 "none"   -- Do not generate a header. To decrypt a stream encrypted
           in this way, you will have to provide the original IV

B<The "salt" header is now the default as of Crypt::CBC version 2.17. In
all earlier versions "randomiv" was the default.>

When using a "salt" header, you may specify your own value of the
salt, by passing the desired 8-byte salt to the B<-salt>
argument. Otherwise, the module will generate a random salt for
you. Crypt::CBC will generate a fatal error if you specify a salt
value that isn't exactly 8 bytes long. For backward compatibility
reasons, passing a value of "1" will generate a random salt, the same
as if no B<-salt> argument was provided.

The B<-padding> argument controls how the last few bytes of the
encrypted stream are dealt with when they not an exact multiple of the
cipher block length. The default is "standard", the method specified
in PKCS#5.

The B<-pcbc> argument, if true, activates a modified chaining mode
known as PCBC. It provides better error propagation characteristics
than the default CBC encryption and is required for authenticating to
Kerberos4 systems (see RFC 2222).

The B<-keysize> and B<-blocksize> arguments can be used to force the
cipher's keysize and/or blocksize. This is only currently useful for
the Crypt::Blowfish module, which accepts a variable length
keysize. If -keysize is not specified, then Crypt::CBC will use the
maximum length Blowfish key size of 56 bytes (448 bits). The Openssl
library defaults to 16 byte Blowfish key sizes, so for compatibility
with Openssl you may wish to set -keysize=>16. There are currently no
Crypt::* modules that have variable block sizes, but an option to
change the block size is provided just in case.

For compatibility with earlier versions of this module, you can
provide new() with a hashref containing key/value pairs. The key names
are the same as the arguments described earlier, but without the
initial hyphen.  You may also call new() with one or two positional
arguments, in which case the first argument is taken to be the key and
the second to be the optional block cipher algorithm.

B<IMPORTANT NOTE:> Versions of this module prior to 2.17 were
incorrectly using 8-byte IVs when generating the "randomiv" style of
header, even when the chosen cipher's blocksize was greater than 8
bytes. This primarily affects the Rijndael algorithm. Such encrypted
data streams were B<not secure>. From versions 2.17 onward, Crypt::CBC
will refuse to encrypt or decrypt using the "randomiv" header and non-8
byte block ciphers. To decrypt legacy data encrypted with earlier
versions of the module, you can override the check using the
B<-insecure_legacy_decrypt> option. It is not possible to override
encryption. Please use the default "salt" header style, or no headers
at all.

=head2 start()


The start() method prepares the cipher for a series of encryption or
decryption steps, resetting the internal state of the cipher if
necessary.  You must provide a string indicating whether you wish to
encrypt or decrypt.  "E" or any word that begins with an "e" indicates
encryption.  "D" or any word that begins with a "d" indicates

=head2 crypt()

   $ciphertext = $cipher->crypt($plaintext);

After calling start(), you should call crypt() as many times as
necessary to encrypt the desired data.  

=head2  finish()

   $ciphertext = $cipher->finish();

The CBC algorithm must buffer data blocks internally until they are
even multiples of the encryption algorithm's blocksize (typically 8
bytes).  After the last call to crypt() you should call finish().
This flushes the internal buffer and returns any leftover ciphertext.

In a typical application you will read the plaintext from a file or
input stream and write the result to standard output in a loop that
might look like this:

  $cipher = new Crypt::CBC('hey jude!');
  print $cipher->crypt($_) while <>;
  print $cipher->finish();

=head2 encrypt()

  $ciphertext = $cipher->encrypt($plaintext)

This convenience function runs the entire sequence of start(), crypt()
and finish() for you, processing the provided plaintext and returning
the corresponding ciphertext.

=head2 decrypt()

  $plaintext = $cipher->decrypt($ciphertext)

This convenience function runs the entire sequence of start(), crypt()
and finish() for you, processing the provided ciphertext and returning
the corresponding plaintext.

=head2 encrypt_hex(), decrypt_hex()

  $ciphertext = $cipher->encrypt_hex($plaintext)
  $plaintext  = $cipher->decrypt_hex($ciphertext)

These are convenience functions that operate on ciphertext in a
hexadecimal representation.  B<encrypt_hex($plaintext)> is exactly
equivalent to B<unpack('H*',encrypt($plaintext))>.  These functions
can be useful if, for example, you wish to place the encrypted in an
email message.

=head2 get_initialization_vector()

  $iv = $cipher->get_initialization_vector()

This function will return the IV used in encryption and or decryption.
The IV is not guaranteed to be set when encrypting until start() is
called, and when decrypting until crypt() is called the first
time. Unless the IV was manually specified in the new() call, the IV
will change with every complete encryption operation.

=head2 set_initialization_vector()


This function sets the IV used in encryption and/or decryption. This
function may be useful if the IV is not contained within the
ciphertext string being decrypted, or if a particular IV is desired
for encryption.  Note that the IV must match the chosen cipher's
blocksize bytes in length.

=head2 iv()

  $iv = $cipher->iv();

As above, but using a single method call.

=head2 key()

  $key = $cipher->key();

Get or set the block cipher key used for encryption/decryption.  When
encrypting, the key is not guaranteed to exist until start() is
called, and when decrypting, the key is not guaranteed to exist until
after the first call to crypt(). The key must match the length
required by the underlying block cipher.

When salted headers are used, the block cipher key will change after
each complete sequence of encryption operations.

=head2 salt()

  $salt = $cipher->salt();

Get or set the salt used for deriving the encryption key and IV when
in OpenSSL compatibility mode.

=head2 passphrase()

  $passphrase = $cipher->passphrase();

This gets or sets the value of the B<key> passed to new() when
B<literal_key> is false.

=head2 $data = random_bytes($numbytes)

Return $numbytes worth of random data. On systems that support the
"/dev/urandom" device file, this data will be read from the
device. Otherwise, it will be generated by repeated calls to the Perl
rand() function.

=head2 cipher(), padding(), keysize(), blocksize(), pcbc()

These read-only methods return the identity of the chosen block cipher
algorithm, padding method, key and block size of the chosen block
cipher, and whether PCBC chaining is in effect.

=head2 Padding methods

Use the 'padding' option to change the padding method.

When the last block of plaintext is shorter than the block size,
it must be padded. Padding methods include: "standard" (i.e., PKCS#5),
"oneandzeroes", "space", "rijndael_compat", "null", and "none".

   standard: (default) Binary safe
      pads with the number of bytes that should be truncated. So, if 
      blocksize is 8, then "0A0B0C" will be padded with "05", resulting
      in "0A0B0C0505050505". If the final block is a full block of 8 
      bytes, then a whole block of "0808080808080808" is appended.

   oneandzeroes: Binary safe
      pads with "80" followed by as many "00" necessary to fill the
      block. If the last block is a full block and blocksize is 8, a
      block of "8000000000000000" will be appended.

   rijndael_compat: Binary safe, with caveats
      similar to oneandzeroes, except that no padding is performed if
      the last block is a full block. This is provided for
      compatibility with Crypt::Rijndael only and can only be used
      with messages that are a multiple of the Rijndael blocksize
      of 16 bytes.

   null: text only
      pads with as many "00" necessary to fill the block. If the last 
      block is a full block and blocksize is 8, a block of
      "0000000000000000" will be appended.

   space: text only
      same as "null", but with "20".

      no padding added. Useful for special-purpose applications where
      you wish to add custom padding to the message.

Both the standard and oneandzeroes paddings are binary safe.  The
space and null paddings are recommended only for text data.  Which
type of padding you use depends on whether you wish to communicate
with an external (non Crypt::CBC library).  If this is the case, use
whatever padding method is compatible.

You can also pass in a custom padding function.  To do this, create a
function that takes the arguments:

   $padded_block = function($block,$blocksize,$direction);

where $block is the current block of data, $blocksize is the size to
pad it to, $direction is "e" for encrypting and "d" for decrypting,
and $padded_block is the result after padding or depadding.

When encrypting, the function should always return a string of
<blocksize> length, and when decrypting, can expect the string coming
in to always be that length. See _standard_padding(), _space_padding(),
_null_padding(), or _oneandzeroes_padding() in the source for examples.

Standard and oneandzeroes padding are recommended, as both space and
null padding can potentially truncate more characters than they should. 


Two examples, and can be found in the eg/ subdirectory
of the Crypt-CBC distribution.  These implement command-line DES and
IDEA encryption algorithms.


The encryption and decryption process is about a tenth the speed of
the equivalent SSLeay programs (compiled C).  This could be improved
by implementing this module in C.  It may also be worthwhile to
optimize the DES and IDEA block algorithms further.

=head1 BUGS

Please report them.

=head1 AUTHOR

Lincoln Stein,

This module is distributed under the ARTISTIC LICENSE using the same
terms as Perl itself.

=head1 SEE ALSO

perl(1), Crypt::DES(3), Crypt::IDEA(3), rfc2898 (PKCS#5)