#   DBD::CSV - A DBI driver for CSV and similar structured files
#   This module is currently maintained by
#	H.Merijn Brand <h.m.brand@xs4all.nl>
#   See for full acknowledgements the last two pod sections in this file

use strict;
use warnings;

require DynaLoader;
require DBD::File;
require IO::File;

package DBD::CSV;

use strict;

use vars qw( @ISA $VERSION $ATTRIBUTION $drh $err $errstr $sqlstate );

@ISA =   qw( DBD::File );

$VERSION     = "0.54";

$err      = 0;		# holds error code   for DBI::err
$errstr   = "";		# holds error string for DBI::errstr
$sqlstate = "";         # holds error state  for DBI::state
$drh      = undef;	# holds driver handle once initialized

sub CLONE {		# empty method: prevent warnings when threads are cloned
    } # CLONE

# --- DRIVER -------------------------------------------------------------------

package DBD::CSV::dr;

use strict;

use Text::CSV_XS ();
use vars qw( @ISA @CSV_TYPES );

    Text::CSV_XS::IV (), # SQL_TINYINT
    Text::CSV_XS::IV (), # SQL_BIGINT
    Text::CSV_XS::PV (), # SQL_VARBINARY
    Text::CSV_XS::PV (), # SQL_BINARY
    Text::CSV_XS::PV (), # SQL_ALL_TYPES
    Text::CSV_XS::PV (), # SQL_CHAR
    Text::CSV_XS::NV (), # SQL_NUMERIC
    Text::CSV_XS::NV (), # SQL_DECIMAL
    Text::CSV_XS::IV (), # SQL_INTEGER
    Text::CSV_XS::IV (), # SQL_SMALLINT
    Text::CSV_XS::NV (), # SQL_FLOAT
    Text::CSV_XS::NV (), # SQL_REAL
    Text::CSV_XS::NV (), # SQL_DOUBLE

our @ISA = qw( DBD::File::dr );

our $imp_data_size     = 0;
our $data_sources_attr = undef;

sub connect {
    my ($drh, $dbname, $user, $auth, $attr) = @_;
    my $dbh = $drh->DBD::File::dr::connect ($dbname, $user, $auth, $attr);
    $dbh and $dbh->{Active} = 1;
    } # connect

# --- DATABASE -----------------------------------------------------------------

package DBD::CSV::db;

use strict;

our $imp_data_size = 0;
our @ISA = qw( DBD::File::db );

sub set_versions {
    my $this = shift;
    $this->{csv_version} = $DBD::CSV::VERSION;
    return $this->SUPER::set_versions ();
    } # set_versions

my %csv_xs_attr;

sub init_valid_attributes {
    my $dbh = shift;

    # Straight from Text::CSV_XS.pm
    my @xs_attr = qw(
    @csv_xs_attr{@xs_attr} = ();

    $dbh->{csv_xs_valid_attrs} = [ @xs_attr ];

    $dbh->{csv_valid_attrs} = { map {("csv_$_" => 1 )} @xs_attr, qw(

	class tables in csv_in out csv_out skip_first_row

	null sep quote escape bom

    $dbh->{csv_readonly_attrs} = { };

    $dbh->{csv_meta} = "csv_tables";

    return $dbh->SUPER::init_valid_attributes ();
    } # init_valid_attributes

sub get_csv_versions {
    my ($dbh, $table) = @_;
    $table ||= "";
    my $class = $dbh->{ImplementorClass};
    $class =~ s/::db$/::Table/;
    my $meta;
    $table and (undef, $meta) = $class->get_table_meta ($dbh, $table, 1);
    unless ($meta) {
	$meta = {};
	$class->bootstrap_table_meta ($dbh, $meta, $table);
    my $dvsn  = eval { $meta->{csv_class}->VERSION (); };
    my $dtype = $meta->{csv_class};
    $dvsn and $dtype .= " ($dvsn)";
    return sprintf "%s using %s", $dbh->{csv_version}, $dtype;
    } # get_csv_versions

sub get_info {
    my ($dbh, $info_type) = @_;
    require  DBD::CSV::GetInfo;
    my $v = $DBD::CSV::GetInfo::info{int ($info_type)};
    ref $v eq "CODE" and $v = $v->($dbh);
    return $v;
    } # get_info

sub type_info_all {
#   my $dbh = shift;
    require   DBD::CSV::TypeInfo;
    return [@$DBD::CSV::TypeInfo::type_info_all];
    } # type_info_all

# --- STATEMENT ----------------------------------------------------------------

package DBD::CSV::st;

use strict;

our $imp_data_size = 0;
our @ISA = qw( DBD::File::st );

package DBD::CSV::Statement;

use strict;
use Carp;

our @ISA = qw( DBD::File::Statement );

package DBD::CSV::Table;

use strict;
use Carp;

our @ISA = qw( DBD::File::Table );

#sub DESTROY {
#    my $self = shift or return;
#    $self->{meta} and delete $self->{meta}{csv_in};
#    } # DESTROY

sub bootstrap_table_meta {
    my ($self, $dbh, $meta, $table) = @_;
    $meta->{csv_class} ||= $dbh->{csv_class} || "Text::CSV_XS";
    $meta->{csv_eol}   ||= $dbh->{csv_eol}   || "\r\n";
    exists $meta->{csv_skip_first_row} or
	$meta->{csv_skip_first_row} = $dbh->{csv_skip_first_row};
    exists $meta->{csv_bom} or
	$meta->{csv_bom} = exists $dbh->{bom} ? $dbh->{bom} : $dbh->{csv_bom};
    $self->SUPER::bootstrap_table_meta ($dbh, $meta, $table);
    } # bootstrap_table_meta

sub init_table_meta {
    my ($self, $dbh, $meta, $table) = @_;

    $self->SUPER::init_table_meta ($dbh, $table, $meta);

    my $csv_in = $meta->{csv_in} || $dbh->{csv_csv_in};
    unless ($csv_in) {
	my %opts = ( binary => 1, auto_diag => 1 );

	# Allow specific Text::CSV_XS options
	foreach my $attr (@{$dbh->{csv_xs_valid_attrs}}) {
	    $attr eq "eol" and next; # Handles below
	    exists $dbh->{"csv_$attr"} and $opts{$attr} = $dbh->{"csv_$attr"};
	$dbh->{csv_null} || $meta->{csv_null} and
	    $opts{Text::CSV_XS->version < 1.18 ? "always_quote" : "quote_empty"} =
	    $opts{blank_is_undef} = 1;

	my $class = $meta->{csv_class};
	my $eol   = $meta->{csv_eol};
	$eol =~ m/^\A(?:[\r\n]|\r\n)\Z/ or $opts{eol} = $eol;
	for ([ "sep",    ',' ],
	     [ "quote",  '"' ],
	     [ "escape", '"' ],
	     ) {
	    my ($attr, $def) = ($_->[0]."_char", $_->[1]);
	    $opts{$attr} =
		exists $meta->{$attr} ? $meta->{$attr} :
		    exists $dbh->{"csv_$attr"} ? $dbh->{"csv_$attr"} : $def;
	$meta->{csv_in}  = $class->new (\%opts) or
	$opts{eol} = $eol;
	$meta->{csv_out} = $class->new (\%opts) or
    } # init_table_meta

my %compat_map = map { $_ => "csv_$_" }
    qw( class eof  eol quote_char sep_char escape_char );

__PACKAGE__->register_compat_map (\%compat_map);

sub table_meta_attr_changed {
    my ($class, $meta, $attr, $value) = @_;

    (my $csv_attr = $attr) =~ s/^csv_//;
    if (exists $csv_xs_attr{$csv_attr}) {
	for ("csv_in", "csv_out") {
	    exists $meta->{$_} && exists $meta->{$_}{$csv_attr} and
		$meta->{$_}{$csv_attr} = $value;

    $class->SUPER::table_meta_attr_changed ($meta, $attr, $value);
    } # table_meta_attr_changed

sub open_data {
    my ($self, $meta, $attrs, $flags) = @_;
    $self->SUPER::open_file ($meta, $attrs, $flags);

    if ($meta && $meta->{fh}) {
	$attrs->{csv_csv_in}  = $meta->{csv_in};
	$attrs->{csv_csv_out} = $meta->{csv_out};
	if (my $types = $meta->{types}) {
	    # XXX $meta->{types} is nowhere assigned and should better $meta->{csv_types}
	    # The 'types' array contains DBI types, but we need types
	    # suitable for Text::CSV_XS.
	    my $t = [];
	    for (@{$types}) {
		$_ = $_
		    ? $DBD::CSV::dr::CSV_TYPES[$_ + 6] || Text::CSV_XS::PV ()
		    : Text::CSV_XS::PV ();
		push @$t, $_;
	    $meta->{types} = $t;
	if (!$flags->{createMode}) {
	    my $array;
	    my $skipRows = defined $meta->{skip_rows}
		? $meta->{skip_rows}
		: defined $meta->{csv_skip_first_row}
		    ? 1
		    : exists $meta->{col_names} ? 0 : 1;
	    defined $meta->{skip_rows} or
		$meta->{skip_rows} = $skipRows;
	    if ($meta->{csv_bom}) {
		my @hdr = $attrs->{csv_csv_in}->header ($meta->{fh}) or
		    croak "Failed using the header row: ".$attrs->{csv_csv_in}->error_diag;
		$meta->{col_names} ||= \@hdr;
		$skipRows and $skipRows = 0;
	    if ($skipRows--) {
		$array = $attrs->{csv_csv_in}->getline ($meta->{fh}) or
		    croak "Missing first row due to ".$attrs->{csv_csv_in}->error_diag;
		unless ($meta->{raw_header}) {
		    s/\W/_/g for @$array;
		defined $meta->{col_names} or
		    $meta->{col_names} = $array;
		while ($skipRows--) {
		    $attrs->{csv_csv_in}->getline ($meta->{fh});
	    # lockMode is set 1 for DELETE, INSERT or UPDATE
	    # no other case need seeking
	    $flags->{lockMode} and # $meta->{fh}->can ("tell") and
		$meta->{first_row_pos} = $meta->{fh}->tell ();
	    exists $meta->{col_names} and
		$array = $meta->{col_names};
	    if (!$meta->{col_names} || !@{$meta->{col_names}}) {
		# No column names given; fetch first row and create default
		# names.
		my $ar = $meta->{cached_row} =
		    $attrs->{csv_csv_in}->getline ($meta->{fh});
		$array = $meta->{col_names};
		push @$array, map { "col$_" } 0 .. $#$ar;
    } # open_file

no warnings 'once';
$DBI::VERSION < 1.623 and
    *open_file = \&open_data;
use warnings;

sub _csv_diag {
    my @diag = $_[0]->error_diag;
    for (2, 3) {
	defined $diag[$_] or $diag[$_] = "?";
    return @diag;
    } # _csv_diag

sub fetch_row {
    my ($self, $data) = @_;

    my $tbl = $self->{meta};

    exists $tbl->{cached_row} and
	return $self->{row} = delete $tbl->{cached_row};

    my $csv = $self->{csv_csv_in} or
	return do { $data->set_err ($DBI::stderr, "Fetch from undefined handle"); undef };

    my $fields = eval { $csv->getline ($tbl->{fh}) };
    unless ($fields) {
	$csv->eof and return;

	my @diag = _csv_diag ($csv);
	$diag[0] == 2012 and return; # Also EOF (broken in Text::CSV_XS-1.10)

	my $file = $tbl->{f_fqfn};
	croak "Error $diag[0] while reading file $file: $diag[1] \@ line $diag[3] pos $diag[2]";
    @$fields < @{$tbl->{col_names}} and
	push @$fields, (undef) x (@{$tbl->{col_names}} - @$fields);
    $self->{row} = (@$fields ? $fields : undef);
    } # fetch_row

sub push_row {
    my ($self, $data, $fields) = @_;
    my $tbl = $self->{meta};
    my $csv = $self->{csv_csv_out};
    my $fh  = $tbl->{fh};

    unless ($csv->print ($fh, $fields)) {
	my @diag = _csv_diag ($csv);
	my $file = $tbl->{f_fqfn};
	return do { $data->set_err ($DBI::stderr,
	    "Error $diag[0] while writing file $file: $diag[1] \@ line $diag[3] pos $diag[2]"); undef };
    } # push_row

no warnings 'once';
*push_names = \&push_row;
use warnings;



=head1 NAME

DBD::CSV - DBI driver for CSV files


    use DBI;
    # See "Creating database handle" below
    $dbh = DBI->connect ("dbi:CSV:", undef, undef, {
        f_ext      => ".csv/r",
        RaiseError => 1,
        }) or die "Cannot connect: $DBI::errstr";

    # Simple statements
    $dbh->do ("CREATE TABLE foo (id INTEGER, name CHAR (10))");

    # Selecting
    my $sth = $dbh->prepare ("select * from foo");
    $sth->bind_columns (\my ($id, $name));
    while ($sth->fetch) {
	print "id: $id, name: $name\n";

    # Updates
    my $sth = $dbh->prepare ("UPDATE foo SET name = ? WHERE id = ?");
    $sth->execute ("DBI rocks!", 1);



The DBD::CSV module is yet another driver for the DBI (Database independent
interface for Perl). This one is based on the SQL "engine" SQL::Statement
and the abstract DBI driver DBD::File and implements access to so-called
CSV files (Comma Separated Values). Such files are often used for exporting
MS Access and MS Excel data.

See L<DBI> for details on DBI, L<SQL::Statement> for details on
SQL::Statement and L<DBD::File> for details on the base class DBD::File.

=head2 Prerequisites

The only system dependent feature that DBD::File uses, is the C<flock ()>
function. Thus the module should run (in theory) on any system with
a working C<flock ()>, in particular on all Unix machines and on Windows
NT. Under Windows 95 and MacOS the use of C<flock ()> is disabled, thus
the module should still be usable.

Unlike other DBI drivers, you don't need an external SQL engine or a
running server. All you need are the following Perl modules, available
from any CPAN mirror, for example


=over 4

=item DBI

A recent version of the L<DBI> (Database independent interface for Perl).
See below why.

=item DBD::File

This is the base class for DBD::CSV, and it is part of the DBI
distribution. As DBD::CSV requires a matching version of L<DBD::File>
which is (partly) developed by the same team that maintains
DBD::CSV. See META.json or Makefile.PL for the minimum versions.

=item SQL::Statement

A simple SQL engine. This module defines all of the SQL syntax for
DBD::CSV, new SQL support is added with each release so you should
look for updates to SQL::Statement regularly.

It is possible to run C<DBD::CSV> without this module if you define
the environment variable C<$DBI_SQL_NANO> to 1. This will reduce the
SQL support a lot though. See L<DBI::SQL::Nano> for more details. Note
that the test suite does only test in this mode in the development

=item Text::CSV_XS

This module is used to read and write rows in a CSV file.


=head2 Installation

Installing this module (and the prerequisites from above) is quite simple.
The simplest way is to install the bundle:

    $ cpan Bundle::DBD::CSV

Alternatively, you can name them all

    $ cpan Text::CSV_XS DBI DBD::CSV

or even trust C<cpan> to resolve all dependencies for you:

    $ cpan DBD::CSV

If you cannot, for whatever reason, use cpan, fetch all modules from
CPAN, and build with a sequence like:

    gzip -d < DBD-CSV-0.40.tgz | tar xf -

(this is for Unix users, Windows users would prefer WinZip or something
similar) and then enter the following:

    cd DBD-CSV-0.40
    perl Makefile.PL
    make test

If any tests fail, let us know. Otherwise go on with

    make install UNINST=1

Note that you almost definitely need root or administrator permissions.
If you don't have them, read the ExtUtils::MakeMaker man page for details
on installing in your own directories. L<ExtUtils::MakeMaker>.

=head2 Supported SQL Syntax

All SQL processing for DBD::CSV is done by SQL::Statement. See
L<SQL::Statement> for more specific information about its feature set.
Features include joins, aliases, built-in and user-defined functions,
and more.  See L<SQL::Statement::Syntax> for a description of the SQL
syntax supported in DBD::CSV.

Table- and column-names are case insensitive unless quoted. Column names
will be sanitized unless L</raw_header> is true.

=head1 Using DBD::CSV with DBI

For most things, DBD-CSV operates the same as any DBI driver.
See L<DBI> for detailed usage.

=head2 Creating a database handle (connect)

Creating a database handle usually implies connecting to a database server.
Thus this command reads

    use DBI;
    my $dbh = DBI->connect ("dbi:CSV:", "", "", {
	f_dir => "/home/user/folder",

The directory tells the driver where it should create or open tables (a.k.a.
files). It defaults to the current directory, so the following are equivalent:

    $dbh = DBI->connect ("dbi:CSV:");
    $dbh = DBI->connect ("dbi:CSV:", undef, undef, { f_dir => "." });
    $dbh = DBI->connect ("dbi:CSV:f_dir=.");

We were told, that VMS might - for whatever reason - require:

    $dbh = DBI->connect ("dbi:CSV:f_dir=");

The preferred way of passing the arguments is by driver attributes:

    # specify most possible flags via driver flags
    $dbh = DBI->connect ("dbi:CSV:", undef, undef, {
        f_schema         => undef,
        f_dir            => "data",
        f_dir_search     => [],
        f_ext            => ".csv/r",
        f_lock           => 2,
        f_encoding       => "utf8",

        csv_eol          => "\r\n",
        csv_sep_char     => ",",
        csv_quote_char   => '"',
        csv_escape_char  => '"',
        csv_class        => "Text::CSV_XS",
        csv_null         => 1,
        csv_bom          => 0,
        csv_tables       => {
            syspwd => {
                sep_char    => ":",
                quote_char  => undef,
                escape_char => undef,
                file        => "/etc/passwd",
                col_names   => [qw( login password
                                    uid gid realname
                                    directory shell )],

        RaiseError       => 1,
        PrintError       => 1,
        FetchHashKeyName => "NAME_lc",
        }) or die $DBI::errstr;

but you may set these attributes in the DSN as well, separated by semicolons.
Pay attention to the semi-colon for C<csv_sep_char> (as seen in many CSV
exports from MS Excel) is being escaped in below example, as is would
otherwise be seen as attribute separator:

    $dbh = DBI->connect (
	"dbi:CSV:f_dir=$ENV{HOME}/csvdb;f_ext=.csv;f_lock=2;" .
	"f_encoding=utf8;csv_eol=\n;csv_sep_char=\\;;" .
	"csv_quote_char=\";csv_escape_char=\\;csv_class=Text::CSV_XS;" .
	"csv_null=1") or die $DBI::errstr;

Using attributes in the DSN is easier to use when the DSN is derived from an
outside source (environment variable, database entry, or configure file),
whereas specifying entries in the attribute hash is easier to read and to

The default value for C<csv_binary> is C<1> (True).

The default value for C<csv_auto_diag> is <1>. Note that this might cause
trouble on perl versions older than 5.8.9, so up to and including perl
version 5.8.8 it might be required to use C<;csv_auto_diag=0> inside the
C<DSN> or C<csv_auto_diag => 0> inside the attributes.

=head2 Creating and dropping tables

You can create and drop tables with commands like the following:

    $dbh->do ("CREATE TABLE $table (id INTEGER, name CHAR (64))");
    $dbh->do ("DROP TABLE $table");

Note that currently only the column names will be stored and no other data.
Thus all other information including column type (INTEGER or CHAR (x), for
example), column attributes (NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY, ...) will silently be
discarded. This may change in a later release.

A drop just removes the file without any warning.

See L<DBI> for more details.

Table names cannot be arbitrary, due to restrictions of the SQL syntax.
I recommend that table names are valid SQL identifiers: The first
character is alphabetic, followed by an arbitrary number of alphanumeric
characters. If you want to use other files, the file names must start
with "/", "./" or "../" and they must not contain white space.

=head2 Inserting, fetching and modifying data

The following examples insert some data in a table and fetch it back:
First, an example where the column data is concatenated in the SQL string:

    $dbh->do ("INSERT INTO $table VALUES (1, ".
	       $dbh->quote ("foobar") . ")");

Note the use of the quote method for escaping the word "foobar". Any
string must be escaped, even if it does not contain binary data.

Next, an example using parameters:

    $dbh->do ("INSERT INTO $table VALUES (?, ?)", undef, 2,
	      "It's a string!");

Note that you don't need to quote column data passed as parameters.
This version is particularly well designed for
loops. Whenever performance is an issue, I recommend using this method.

You might wonder about the C<undef>. Don't wonder, just take it as it
is. :-) It's an attribute argument that I have never used and will be
passed to the prepare method as the second argument.

To retrieve data, you can use the following:

    my $query = "SELECT * FROM $table WHERE id > 1 ORDER BY id";
    my $sth   = $dbh->prepare ($query);
    $sth->execute ();
    while (my $row = $sth->fetchrow_hashref) {
	print "Found result row: id = ", $row->{id},
	      ", name = ", $row->{name};
    $sth->finish ();

Again, column binding works: The same example again.

    my $sth = $dbh->prepare (qq;
	SELECT * FROM $table WHERE id > 1 ORDER BY id;
    my ($id, $name);
    $sth->bind_columns (undef, \$id, \$name);
    while ($sth->fetch) {
	print "Found result row: id = $id, name = $name\n";

Of course you can even use input parameters. Here's the same example
for the third time:

    my $sth = $dbh->prepare ("SELECT * FROM $table WHERE id = ?");
    $sth->bind_columns (undef, \$id, \$name);
    for (my $i = 1; $i <= 2; $i++) {
	$sth->execute ($id);
	if ($sth->fetch) {
	    print "Found result row: id = $id, name = $name\n";

See L<DBI> for details on these methods. See L<SQL::Statement> for
details on the WHERE clause.

Data rows are modified with the UPDATE statement:

    $dbh->do ("UPDATE $table SET id = 3 WHERE id = 1");

Likewise you use the DELETE statement for removing rows:

    $dbh->do ("DELETE FROM $table WHERE id > 1");

=head2 Error handling

In the above examples we have never cared about return codes. Of
course, this is not recommended. Instead we should have written (for

    my $sth = $dbh->prepare ("SELECT * FROM $table WHERE id = ?") or
	die "prepare: " . $dbh->errstr ();
    $sth->bind_columns (undef, \$id, \$name) or
	die "bind_columns: " . $dbh->errstr ();
    for (my $i = 1; $i <= 2; $i++) {
	$sth->execute ($id) or
	    die "execute: " . $dbh->errstr ();
	$sth->fetch and
	    print "Found result row: id = $id, name = $name\n";
    $sth->finish ($id) or die "finish: " . $dbh->errstr ();

Obviously this is tedious. Fortunately we have DBI's I<RaiseError>

    $dbh->{RaiseError} = 1;
    $@ = "";
    eval {
	my $sth = $dbh->prepare ("SELECT * FROM $table WHERE id = ?");
	$sth->bind_columns (undef, \$id, \$name);
	for (my $i = 1; $i <= 2; $i++) {
	    $sth->execute ($id);
	    $sth->fetch and
		print "Found result row: id = $id, name = $name\n";
	$sth->finish ($id);
    $@ and die "SQL database error: $@";

This is not only shorter, it even works when using DBI methods within

=head1 DBI database handle attributes

=head2 Metadata

The following attributes are handled by DBI itself and not by DBD::File,
thus they all work as expected:

    CompatMode             (Not used)
    Warn                   (Not used)

The following DBI attributes are handled by DBD::File:

=over 4

=item AutoCommit

Always on

=item ChopBlanks



Valid after C<$sth-E<gt>execute>


Valid after C<$sth-E<gt>prepare>

=item NAME

=item NAME_lc

=item NAME_uc

Valid after C<$sth-E<gt>execute>; undef for Non-Select statements.


Not really working. Always returns an array ref of one's, as DBD::CSV
does not verify input data. Valid after C<$sth-E<gt>execute>; undef for
non-Select statements.


These attributes and methods are not supported:


=head1 DBD-CSV specific database handle attributes

In addition to the DBI attributes, you can use the following dbh

=head2 DBD::File attributes

=over 4

=item f_dir

This attribute is used for setting the directory where CSV files are
opened. Usually you set it in the dbh and it defaults to the current
directory ("."). However, it may be overridden in statement handles.

=item f_dir_search

This attribute optionally defines a list of extra directories to search
when opening existing tables. It should be an anonymous list or an array
reference listing all folders where tables could be found.

    my $dbh = DBI->connect ("dbi:CSV:", "", "", {
	f_dir        => "data",
	f_dir_search => [ "ref/data", "ref/old" ],
	f_ext        => ".csv/r",
	}) or die $DBI::errstr;

=item f_ext

This attribute is used for setting the file extension.

=item f_schema

This attribute allows you to set the database schema name. The default is
to use the owner of C<f_dir>. C<undef> is allowed, but not in the DSN part.

    my $dbh = DBI->connect ("dbi:CSV:", "", "", {
	f_schema => undef,
	f_dir    => "data",
	f_ext    => ".csv/r",
	}) or die $DBI::errstr;

=item f_encoding

This attribute allows you to set the encoding of the data. With CSV, it is not
possible to set (and remember) the encoding on a column basis, but DBD::File
now allows the encoding to be set on the underlying file. If this attribute is
not set, or undef is passed, the file will be seen as binary.

=item f_lock

With this attribute you can specify a locking mode to be used (if locking is
supported at all) for opening tables. By default, tables are opened with a
shared lock for reading, and with an exclusive lock for writing. The
supported modes are:

=over 2

=item 0

Force no locking at all.

=item 1

Only shared locks will be used.

=item 2

Only exclusive locks will be used.



But see L<DBD::File/"KNOWN BUGS">.

=head2 DBD::CSV specific attributes

=over 4

=item csv_class

The attribute I<csv_class> controls the CSV parsing engine. This defaults
to C<Text::CSV_XS>, but C<Text::CSV> can be used in some cases, too.
Please be aware that C<Text::CSV> does not care about any edge case as
C<Text::CSV_XS> does and that C<Text::CSV> is probably about 100 times
slower than C<Text::CSV_XS>.


=head2 Text::CSV_XS specific attributes

=over 4

=item csv_eol

=item csv_sep_char

=item csv_quote_char

=item csv_escape_char

=item csv_csv

The attributes I<csv_eol>, I<csv_sep_char>, I<csv_quote_char> and
I<csv_escape_char> are corresponding to the respective attributes of the
I<csv_class> (usually Text::CSV_CS) object. You may want to set these
attributes if you have unusual CSV files like F</etc/passwd> or MS Excel
generated CSV files with a semicolon as separator. Defaults are
C<\015\012>", C<,>, C<"> and C<">, respectively.

The I<csv_eol> attribute defines the end-of-line pattern, which is better
known as a record separator pattern since it separates records.  The default
is windows-style end-of-lines C<\015\012> for output (writing) and unset for
input (reading), so if on unix you may want to set this to newline (C<\n>)
like this:

  $dbh->{csv_eol} = "\n";

It is also possible to use multi-character patterns as record separators.
For example this file uses newlines as field separators (sep_char) and
the pattern "\n__ENDREC__\n" as the record separators (eol):


To handle this file, you'd do this:

  $dbh->{eol}      = "\n__ENDREC__\n" ,
  $dbh->{sep_char} = "\n"

The attributes are used to create an instance of the class I<csv_class>,
by default Text::CSV_XS. Alternatively you may pass an instance as
I<csv_csv>, the latter takes precedence. Note that the I<binary>
attribute I<must> be set to a true value in that case.

Additionally you may overwrite these attributes on a per-table base in
the I<csv_tables> attribute.

=item csv_null

With this option set, all new statement handles will set C<always_quote>
and C<blank_is_undef> in the CSV parser and writer, so it knows how to
distinguish between the empty string and C<undef> or C<NULL>. You cannot
reset it with a false value. You can pass it to connect, or set it later:

  $dbh = DBI->connect ("dbi:CSV:", "", "", { csv_null => 1 });

  $dbh->{csv_null} = 1;

=item csv_bom

With this option set, the CSV parser will try to detect BOM (Byte Order Mark)
in the header line. This requires L<Text::CSV_XS> version 1.22 or higher.

  $dbh = DBI->connect ("dbi:CSV:", "", "", { csv_bom => 1 });

  $dbh->{csv_bom} = 1;

=item csv_tables

This hash ref is used for storing table dependent metadata. For any
table it contains an element with the table name as key and another
hash ref with the following attributes:

=over 4

=item o

All valid attributes to the CSV parsing module. Any of the can optionally
be prefixed with C<csv_>.

=item o

All attributes valid to DBD::File


If you pass it C<f_file> or its alias C<file>, C<f_ext> has no effect, but
C<f_dir> and C<f_encoding> still have.

=item csv_*

All other attributes that start with C<csv_> and are not described above
will be passed to C<Text::CSV_XS> (without the C<csv_> prefix). These
extra options are only likely to be useful for reading (select)
handles. Examples:

  $dbh->{csv_allow_whitespace}    = 1;
  $dbh->{csv_allow_loose_quotes}  = 1;
  $dbh->{csv_allow_loose_escapes} = 1;

See the C<Text::CSV_XS> documentation for the full list and the documentation.


=head2 Driver specific attributes

=over 4

=item f_file

The name of the file used for the table; defaults to


=item eol

=item sep_char

=item quote_char

=item escape_char

=item class

=item csv

These correspond to the attributes I<csv_eol>, I<csv_sep_char>,
I<csv_quote_char>, I<csv_escape_char>, I<csv_class> and I<csv_csv>.
The difference is that they work on a per-table basis.

=item col_names

=item skip_first_row

By default DBD::CSV assumes that column names are stored in the first row
of the CSV file and sanitizes them (see C<raw_header> below). If this is
not the case, you can supply an array ref of table names with the
I<col_names> attribute. In that case the attribute I<skip_first_row> will
be set to FALSE.

If you supply an empty array ref, the driver will read the first row
for you, count the number of columns and create column names like
C<col0>, C<col1>, ...

Note that column names that match reserved SQL words will cause unwanted
and sometimes confusing errors. If your CSV has headers that match reserved
words, you will require these two attributes.

If C<test.csv> looks like


the select query would result in C<select select, from from test;>, which
obviously is illegal SQL.

=item raw_header

Due to the SQL standard, field names cannot contain special characters
like a dot (C<.>) or a space (C< >) unless the column names are quoted.
Following the approach of mdb_tools, all these tokens are translated to an
underscore (C<_>) when reading the first line of the CSV file, so all field
names are 'sanitized'. If you do not want this to happen, set C<raw_header>
to a true value and the entries in the first line of the CSV data will be
used verbatim for column headers and field names.  DBD::CSV cannot guarantee
that any part in the toolchain will work if field names have those characters,
and the chances are high that the SQL statements will fail.

Currently, the sanitizing of headers is as simple as


Note that headers (column names) might be folded in other parts of the code
stack, specifically SQL::Statement, whose docs mention:

 Wildcards are expanded to lower cased identifiers. This might
 confuse some people, but it was easier to implement.

That means that in

 my $sth = $dbh->prepare ("select * from foo");
 while (my $row = $sth->fetchrow_hashref) {
     say for keys %$row;

all keys will show as all lower case, regardless of the original header.


It's strongly recommended to check the attributes supported by

Example: Suppose you want to use F</etc/passwd> as a CSV file. :-)
There simplest way is:

    use DBI;
    my $dbh = DBI->connect ("dbi:CSV:", undef, undef, {
	f_dir           => "/etc",
	csv_sep_char    => ":",
	csv_quote_char  => undef,
	csv_escape_char => undef,
    $dbh->{csv_tables}{passwd} = {
	col_names => [qw( login password uid gid realname
			  directory shell )];
    $sth = $dbh->prepare ("SELECT * FROM passwd");

Another possibility where you leave all the defaults as they are and
override them on a per table basis:

    require DBI;
    my $dbh = DBI->connect ("dbi:CSV:");
    $dbh->{csv_tables}{passwd} = {
	eol         => "\n",
	sep_char    => ":",
	quote_char  => undef,
	escape_char => undef,
	f_file      => "/etc/passwd",
	col_names   => [qw( login password uid gid
			    realname directory shell )],
    $sth = $dbh->prepare ("SELECT * FROM passwd");

=head2 Driver private methods

These methods are inherited from DBD::File:

=over 4

=item data_sources

The C<data_sources> method returns a list of sub-directories of the current
directory in the form "dbi:CSV:directory=$dirname".

If you want to read the sub-directories of another directory, use

    my $drh  = DBI->install_driver ("CSV");
    my @list = $drh->data_sources (f_dir => "/usr/local/csv_data");

=item list_tables

This method returns a list of file-names inside $dbh->{directory}.

    my $dbh  = DBI->connect ("dbi:CSV:directory=/usr/local/csv_data");
    my @list = $dbh->func ("list_tables");

Note that the list includes all files contained in the directory, even
those that have non-valid table names, from the view of SQL. See
L<Creating and dropping tables> above.



=over 4

=item *

The module is using flock () internally. However, this function is not
available on some platforms. Use of flock () is disabled on MacOS and
Windows 95: There's no locking at all (perhaps not so important on
these operating systems, as they are for single users anyways).


=head1 TODO

=over 4

=item Tests

Aim for a full 100% code coverage

 - eol      Make tests for different record separators.
 - csv_xs   Test with a variety of combinations for
	    sep_char, quote_char, and escape_char testing
 - quoting  $dbh->do ("drop table $_") for DBI-tables ();
 - errors   Make sure that all documented exceptions are tested.
	    . write to write-protected file
	    . read from badly formatted csv
	    . pass bad arguments to csv parser while fetching

Add tests that specifically test DBD::File functionality where
that is useful.

=item RT

Attack all open DBD::CSV bugs in RT

=item CPAN::Forum

Attack all items in http://www.cpanforum.com/dist/DBD-CSV

=item Documentation

Expand on error-handling, and document all possible errors.
Use Text::CSV_XS::error_diag () wherever possible.

=item Debugging

Implement and document dbd_verbose.

=item Data dictionary
X<Data dictionary>

Investigate the possibility to store the data dictionary in a file like
.sys$columns that can store the field attributes (type, key, nullable).

=item Examples

Make more real-life examples from the docs in examples/


=head1 SEE ALSO

L<DBI>, L<Text::CSV_XS>, L<SQL::Statement>, L<DBI::SQL::Nano>

For help on the use of DBD::CSV, see the DBI users mailing list:


For general information on DBI see

  http://dbi.perl.org/ and http://faq.dbi-support.com/


This module is currently maintained by

    H.Merijn Brand <h.m.brand@xs4all.nl>

in close cooperation with and help from

    Jens Rehsack <sno@NetBSD.org>

The original author is Jochen Wiedmann.
Previous maintainer was Jeff Zucker


Copyright (C) 2009-2018 by H.Merijn Brand
Copyright (C) 2004-2009 by Jeff Zucker
Copyright (C) 1998-2004 by Jochen Wiedmann

All rights reserved.

You may distribute this module under the terms of either the GNU
General Public License or the Artistic License, as specified in
the Perl README file.