=encoding UTF-8

=head1 NAME

DBIx::Class - Extensible and flexible object <-> relational mapper.

=head1 WHERE TO START READING

See L<DBIx::Class::Manual::DocMap> for an overview of the exhaustive documentation.
To get the most out of DBIx::Class with the least confusion it is strongly
recommended to read (at the very least) the
L<Manuals|DBIx::Class::Manual::DocMap/Manuals> in the order presented there.


=cut

=head1 GETTING HELP/SUPPORT

Due to the sheer size of its problem domain, DBIx::Class is a relatively
complex framework. After you start using DBIx::Class questions will inevitably
arise. If you are stuck with a problem or have doubts about a particular
approach do not hesitate to contact us via any of the following options (the
list is sorted by "fastest response time"):

=over

=item * IRC: irc.perl.org#dbix-class

=for html
<a href="https://chat.mibbit.com/#dbix-class@irc.perl.org">(click for instant chatroom login)</a>

=item * Mailing list: L<http://lists.scsys.co.uk/mailman/listinfo/dbix-class>

=item * RT Bug Tracker: L<https://rt.cpan.org/NoAuth/Bugs.html?Dist=DBIx-Class>

=item * Twitter: L<https://www.twitter.com/dbix_class>

=item * Web Site: L<http://www.dbix-class.org/>

=back

=head1 SYNOPSIS

For the very impatient: L<DBIx::Class::Manual::QuickStart>

This code in the next step can be generated automatically from an existing
database, see L<dbicdump> from the distribution C<DBIx-Class-Schema-Loader>.

=head2 Schema classes preparation

Create a schema class called F<MyApp/Schema.pm>:

  package MyApp::Schema;
  use base qw/DBIx::Class::Schema/;

  __PACKAGE__->load_namespaces();

  1;

Create a result class to represent artists, who have many CDs, in
F<MyApp/Schema/Result/Artist.pm>:

See L<DBIx::Class::ResultSource> for docs on defining result classes.

  package MyApp::Schema::Result::Artist;
  use base qw/DBIx::Class::Core/;

  __PACKAGE__->table('artist');
  __PACKAGE__->add_columns(qw/ artistid name /);
  __PACKAGE__->set_primary_key('artistid');
  __PACKAGE__->has_many(cds => 'MyApp::Schema::Result::CD', 'artistid');

  1;

A result class to represent a CD, which belongs to an artist, in
F<MyApp/Schema/Result/CD.pm>:

  package MyApp::Schema::Result::CD;
  use base qw/DBIx::Class::Core/;

  __PACKAGE__->load_components(qw/InflateColumn::DateTime/);
  __PACKAGE__->table('cd');
  __PACKAGE__->add_columns(qw/ cdid artistid title year /);
  __PACKAGE__->set_primary_key('cdid');
  __PACKAGE__->belongs_to(artist => 'MyApp::Schema::Result::Artist', 'artistid');

  1;

=head2 API usage

Then you can use these classes in your application's code:

  # Connect to your database.
  use MyApp::Schema;
  my $schema = MyApp::Schema->connect($dbi_dsn, $user, $pass, \%dbi_params);

  # Query for all artists and put them in an array,
  # or retrieve them as a result set object.
  # $schema->resultset returns a DBIx::Class::ResultSet
  my @all_artists = $schema->resultset('Artist')->all;
  my $all_artists_rs = $schema->resultset('Artist');

  # Output all artists names
  # $artist here is a DBIx::Class::Row, which has accessors
  # for all its columns. Rows are also subclasses of your Result class.
  foreach $artist (@all_artists) {
    print $artist->name, "\n";
  }

  # Create a result set to search for artists.
  # This does not query the DB.
  my $johns_rs = $schema->resultset('Artist')->search(
    # Build your WHERE using an SQL::Abstract structure:
    { name => { like => 'John%' } }
  );

  # Execute a joined query to get the cds.
  my @all_john_cds = $johns_rs->search_related('cds')->all;

  # Fetch the next available row.
  my $first_john = $johns_rs->next;

  # Specify ORDER BY on the query.
  my $first_john_cds_by_title_rs = $first_john->cds(
    undef,
    { order_by => 'title' }
  );

  # Create a result set that will fetch the artist data
  # at the same time as it fetches CDs, using only one query.
  my $millennium_cds_rs = $schema->resultset('CD')->search(
    { year => 2000 },
    { prefetch => 'artist' }
  );

  my $cd = $millennium_cds_rs->next; # SELECT ... FROM cds JOIN artists ...
  my $cd_artist_name = $cd->artist->name; # Already has the data so no 2nd query

  # new() makes a Result object but doesn't insert it into the DB.
  # create() is the same as new() then insert().
  my $new_cd = $schema->resultset('CD')->new({ title => 'Spoon' });
  $new_cd->artist($cd->artist);
  $new_cd->insert; # Auto-increment primary key filled in after INSERT
  $new_cd->title('Fork');

  $schema->txn_do(sub { $new_cd->update }); # Runs the update in a transaction

  # change the year of all the millennium CDs at once
  $millennium_cds_rs->update({ year => 2002 });

=head1 DESCRIPTION

This is an SQL to OO mapper with an object API inspired by L<Class::DBI>
(with a compatibility layer as a springboard for porting) and a resultset API
that allows abstract encapsulation of database operations. It aims to make
representing queries in your code as perl-ish as possible while still
providing access to as many of the capabilities of the database as possible,
including retrieving related records from multiple tables in a single query,
C<JOIN>, C<LEFT JOIN>, C<COUNT>, C<DISTINCT>, C<GROUP BY>, C<ORDER BY> and
C<HAVING> support.

DBIx::Class can handle multi-column primary and foreign keys, complex
queries and database-level paging, and does its best to only query the
database in order to return something you've directly asked for. If a
resultset is used as an iterator it only fetches rows off the statement
handle as requested in order to minimise memory usage. It has auto-increment
support for SQLite, MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle, SQL Server and DB2 and is
known to be used in production on at least the first four, and is fork-
and thread-safe out of the box (although
L<your DBD may not be|DBI/Threads and Thread Safety>).

This project is still under rapid development, so large new features may be
marked B<experimental> - such APIs are still usable but may have edge bugs.
Failing test cases are I<always> welcome and point releases are put out rapidly
as bugs are found and fixed.

We do our best to maintain full backwards compatibility for published
APIs, since DBIx::Class is used in production in many organisations,
and even backwards incompatible changes to non-published APIs will be fixed
if they're reported and doing so doesn't cost the codebase anything.

The test suite is quite substantial, and several developer releases
are generally made to CPAN before the branch for the next release is
merged back to trunk for a major release.

=head1 HOW TO CONTRIBUTE

Contributions are always welcome, in all usable forms (we especially
welcome documentation improvements). The delivery methods include git-
or unified-diff formatted patches, GitHub pull requests, or plain bug
reports either via RT or the Mailing list. Do not hesitate to
L<get in touch|/GETTING HELP/SUPPORT> with any further questions you may
have.

=for comment
FIXME: Getty, frew and jnap need to get off their asses and finish the contrib section so we can link it here ;)

This project is maintained in a git repository. The code and related tools are
accessible at the following locations:

=over

=item * Current git repository: L<https://github.com/Perl5/DBIx-Class>

=item * Travis-CI log: L<https://travis-ci.org/Perl5/DBIx-Class/branches>

=back

=head1 AUTHORS

Even though a large portion of the source I<appears> to be written by just a
handful of people, this library continues to remain a collaborative effort -
perhaps one of the most successful such projects on L<CPAN|http://cpan.org>.
It is important to remember that ideas do not always result in a direct code
contribution, but deserve acknowledgement just the same. Time and time again
the seemingly most insignificant questions and suggestions have been shown
to catalyze monumental improvements in consistency, accuracy and performance.

List of the awesome contributors who made DBIC v0.082841 possible

=encoding utf8

=over

B<abraxxa>: Alexander Hartmaier <abraxxa@cpan.org>

B<acca>: Alexander Kuznetsov <acca@cpan.org>

B<aherzog>: Adam Herzog <adam@herzogdesigns.com>

Alexander Keusch <cpan@keusch.at>

B<alexrj>: Alessandro Ranellucci <aar@cpan.org>

B<alnewkirk>: Al Newkirk <github@alnewkirk.com>

B<Altreus>: Alastair McGowan-Douglas <alastair.mcgowan@opusvl.com>

B<amiri>: Amiri Barksdale <amiribarksdale@gmail.com>

B<amoore>: Andrew Moore <amoore@cpan.org>

Andrew Mehta <Andrew@unitedgames.co.uk>

B<andrewalker>: Andre Walker <andre@andrewalker.net>

B<andyg>: Andy Grundman <andy@hybridized.org>

B<ank>: Andres Kievsky <ank@ank.com.ar>

B<arc>: Aaron Crane <arc@cpan.org>

B<arcanez>: Justin Hunter <justin.d.hunter@gmail.com>

B<ash>: Ash Berlin <ash@cpan.org>

B<bert>: Norbert Csongrádi <bert@cpan.org>

B<bfwg>: Colin Newell <colin.newell@gmail.com>

B<blblack>: Brandon L. Black <blblack@gmail.com>

B<bluefeet>: Aran Deltac <bluefeet@cpan.org>

B<boghead>: Bryan Beeley <cpan@beeley.org>

B<bphillips>: Brian Phillips <bphillips@cpan.org>

B<brd>: Brad Davis <brd@FreeBSD.org>

Brian Kirkbride <brian.kirkbride@deeperbydesign.com>

B<bricas>: Brian Cassidy <bricas@cpan.org>

B<brunov>: Bruno Vecchi <vecchi.b@gmail.com>

B<caelum>: Rafael Kitover <rkitover@cpan.org>

B<caldrin>: Maik Hentsche <maik.hentsche@amd.com>

B<castaway>: Jess Robinson <castaway@desert-island.me.uk>

B<chorny>: Alexandr Ciornii <alexchorny@gmail.com>

B<cj>: C.J. Adams-Collier <cjcollier@cpan.org>

B<claco>: Christopher H. Laco <claco@cpan.org>

B<clkao>: CL Kao <clkao@clkao.org>

Ctrl-O L<http://ctrlo.com/|http://ctrlo.com/>

B<da5id>: David Jack Olrik <david@olrik.dk>

B<dams>: Damien Krotkine <dams@cpan.org>

B<dandv>: Dan Dascalescu <ddascalescu+github@gmail.com>

B<dariusj>: Darius Jokilehto <dariusjokilehto@yahoo.co.uk>

B<davewood>: David Schmidt <mail@davidschmidt.at>

B<daxim>: Lars Dɪᴇᴄᴋᴏᴡ 迪拉斯 <daxim@cpan.org>

B<dduncan>: Darren Duncan <darren@darrenduncan.net>

B<debolaz>: Anders Nor Berle <berle@cpan.org>

B<dew>: Dan Thomas <dan@godders.org>

B<dim0xff>: Dmitry Latin <dim0xff@gmail.com>

B<dkubb>: Dan Kubb <dan.kubb-cpan@onautopilot.com>

B<dnm>: Justin Wheeler <jwheeler@datademons.com>

B<dpetrov>: Dimitar Petrov <mitakaa@gmail.com>

B<Dr^ZigMan>: Robert Stone <drzigman@drzigman.com>

B<dsteinbrunner>: David Steinbrunner <dsteinbrunner@pobox.com>

B<duncan_dmg>: Duncan Garland <Duncan.Garland@motortrak.com>

B<dwc>: Daniel Westermann-Clark <danieltwc@cpan.org>

B<dyfrgi>: Michael Leuchtenburg <michael@slashhome.org>

B<edenc>: Eden Cardim <edencardim@gmail.com>

Eligo L<http://eligo.co.uk/|http://eligo.co.uk/>

B<ether>: Karen Etheridge <ether@cpan.org>

B<evdb>: Edmund von der Burg <evdb@ecclestoad.co.uk>

B<faxm0dem>: Fabien Wernli <cpan@faxm0dem.org>

B<felliott>: Fitz Elliott <fitz.elliott@gmail.com>

B<fgabolde>: Fabrice Gabolde <fgabolde@weborama.com>

B<freetime>: Bill Moseley <moseley@hank.org>

B<frew>: Arthur Axel "fREW" Schmidt <frioux@gmail.com>

B<gbjk>: Gareth Kirwan <gbjk@thermeon.com>

B<geotheve>: Georgina Thevenet <geotheve@gmail.com>

B<Getty>: Torsten Raudssus <torsten@raudss.us>

B<goraxe>: Gordon Irving <goraxe@cpan.org>

B<gphat>: Cory G Watson <gphat@cpan.org>

Grant Street Group L<http://www.grantstreet.com/|http://www.grantstreet.com/>

B<gregoa>: Gregor Herrmann <gregoa@debian.org>

B<groditi>: Guillermo Roditi <groditi@cpan.org>

B<gshank>: Gerda Shank <gshank@cpan.org>

B<guacamole>: Fred Steinberg <fred.steinberg@gmail.com>

B<Haarg>: Graham Knop <haarg@haarg.org>

B<hobbs>: Andrew Rodland <andrew@cleverdomain.org>

Ian Wells <ijw@cack.org.uk>

B<idn>: Ian Norton <i.norton@shadowcat.co.uk>

B<ilmari>: Dagfinn Ilmari Mannsåker <ilmari@ilmari.org>

B<ingy>: Ingy döt Net <ingy@ingy.net>

B<initself>: Mike Baas <mike@initselftech.com>

B<ironcamel>: Naveed Massjouni <naveedm9@gmail.com>

B<jasonmay>: Jason May <jason.a.may@gmail.com>

B<jawnsy>: Jonathan Yu <jawnsy@cpan.org>

B<jegade>: Jens Gassmann <jens.gassmann@atomix.de>

B<jeneric>: Eric A. Miller <emiller@cpan.org>

B<jesper>: Jesper Krogh <jesper@krogh.cc>

Jesse Sheidlower <jester@panix.com>

B<jgoulah>: John Goulah <jgoulah@cpan.org>

B<jguenther>: Justin Guenther <jguenther@cpan.org>

B<jhannah>: Jay Hannah <jay@jays.net>

B<jmac>: Jason McIntosh <jmac@appleseed-sc.com>

B<jmmills>: Jason M. Mills <jmmills@cpan.org>

B<jnapiorkowski>: John Napiorkowski <jjn1056@yahoo.com>

Joe Carlson <jwcarlson@lbl.gov>

B<jon>: Jon Schutz <jjschutz@cpan.org>

Jordan Metzmeier <jmetzmeier@magazines.com>

B<jshirley>: J. Shirley <jshirley@gmail.com>

B<kaare>: Kaare Rasmussen

B<kd>: Kieren Diment <diment@gmail.com>

B<kentnl>: Kent Fredric <kentnl@cpan.org>

B<kkane>: Kevin L. Kane <kevin.kane@gmail.com>

B<konobi>: Scott McWhirter <konobi@cpan.org>

B<lejeunerenard>: Sean Zellmer <sean@lejeunerenard.com>

B<littlesavage>: Alexey Illarionov <littlesavage@orionet.ru>

B<lukes>: Luke Saunders <luke.saunders@gmail.com>

B<marcus>: Marcus Ramberg <mramberg@cpan.org>

B<mateu>: Mateu X. Hunter <hunter@missoula.org>

Matt LeBlanc <antirice@gmail.com>

Matt Sickler <imMute@msk4.com>

B<mattlaw>: Matt Lawrence

B<mattp>: Matt Phillips <mattp@cpan.org>

B<mdk>: Mark Keating <m.keating@shadowcat.co.uk>

B<melo>: Pedro Melo <melo@simplicidade.org>

B<metaperl>: Terrence Brannon <metaperl@gmail.com>

B<michaelr>: Michael Reddick <michael.reddick@gmail.com>

B<milki>: Jonathan Chu <milki@rescomp.berkeley.edu>

B<minty>: Murray Walker <perl@minty.org>

B<mithaldu>: Christian Walde <walde.christian@gmail.com>

B<mjemmeson>: Michael Jemmeson <michael.jemmeson@gmail.com>

B<mna>: Maya

B<mo>: Moritz Onken <onken@netcubed.de>

B<moltar>: Roman Filippov <romanf@cpan.org>

B<moritz>: Moritz Lenz <moritz@faui2k3.org>

B<mrf>: Mike Francis <ungrim97@gmail.com>

B<mst>: Matt S. Trout <mst@shadowcat.co.uk>

B<mstratman>: Mark A. Stratman <stratman@gmail.com>

B<ned>: Neil de Carteret <n3dst4@gmail.com>

B<nigel>: Nigel Metheringham <nigelm@cpan.org>

B<ningu>: David Kamholz <dkamholz@cpan.org>

B<Nniuq>: Ron "Quinn" Straight" <quinnfazigu@gmail.org>

B<norbi>: Norbert Buchmuller <norbi@nix.hu>

B<nothingmuch>: Yuval Kogman <nothingmuch@woobling.org>

B<nuba>: Nuba Princigalli <nuba@cpan.org>

B<Numa>: Dan Sully <daniel@cpan.org>

B<oalders>: Olaf Alders <olaf@wundersolutions.com>

Olly Betts <olly@survex.com>

B<osfameron>: Hakim Cassimally <osfameron@cpan.org>

B<ovid>: Curtis "Ovid" Poe <ovid@cpan.org>

B<oyse>: Øystein Torget <oystein.torget@dnv.com>

B<paulm>: Paul Makepeace <paulm+pause@paulm.com>

B<penguin>: K J Cheetham <jamie@shadowcatsystems.co.uk>

B<perigrin>: Chris Prather <chris@prather.org>

Peter Siklósi <einon@einon.hu>

Peter Valdemar Mørch <peter@morch.com>

B<peter>: Peter Collingbourne <peter@pcc.me.uk>

B<phaylon>: Robert Sedlacek <phaylon@dunkelheit.at>

B<plu>: Johannes Plunien <plu@cpan.org>

B<pmooney>: Paul Mooney <paul.mooney@net-a-porter.com>

B<Possum>: Daniel LeWarne <possum@cpan.org>

B<pplu>: Jose Luis Martinez <jlmartinez@capside.com>

B<quicksilver>: Jules Bean <jules@jellybean.co.uk>

B<racke>: Stefan Hornburg <racke@linuxia.de>

B<rafl>: Florian Ragwitz <rafl@debian.org>

B<rainboxx>: Matthias Dietrich <perl@rb.ly>

B<rbo>: Robert Bohne <rbo@cpan.org>

B<rbuels>: Robert Buels <rmb32@cornell.edu>

B<rdj>: Ryan D Johnson <ryan@innerfence.com>

B<Relequestual>: Ben Hutton <relequestual@gmail.com>

B<renormalist>: Steffen Schwigon <schwigon@cpan.org>

B<ribasushi>: Peter Rabbitson <ribasushi@leporine.io>

B<rjbs>: Ricardo Signes <rjbs@cpan.org>

Robert Krimen <rkrimen@cpan.org>

Robert Olson <bob@rdolson.org>

B<robkinyon>: Rob Kinyon <rkinyon@cpan.org>

Roman Ardern-Corris <spam_in@3legs.com>

B<ruoso>: Daniel Ruoso <daniel@ruoso.com>

B<Sadrak>: Felix Antonius Wilhelm Ostmann <sadrak@cpan.org>

B<sc_>: Just Another Perl Hacker

B<schwern>: Michael G Schwern <mschwern@cpan.org>

Scott R. Godin <webdragon.net@gmail.com>

B<scotty>: Scotty Allen <scotty@scottyallen.com>

B<semifor>: Marc Mims <marc@questright.com>

Simon Elliott <cpan@browsing.co.uk>

B<SineSwiper>: Brendan Byrd <perl@resonatorsoft.org>

B<skaufman>: Samuel Kaufman <sam@socialflow.com>

B<solomon>: Jared Johnson <jaredj@nmgi.com>

B<spb>: Stephen Bennett <stephen@freenode.net>

Squeeks <squeek@cpan.org>

B<srezic>: Slaven Rezic <slaven@rezic.de>

B<sszabo>: Stephan Szabo <sszabo@bigpanda.com>

Stephen Peters <steve@stephenpeters.me>

B<stonecolddevin>: Devin Austin <dhoss@cpan.org>

B<talexb>: Alex Beamish <talexb@gmail.com>

B<tamias>: Ronald J Kimball <rjk@tamias.net>

B<TBSliver>: Tom Bloor <t.bloor@shadowcat.co.uk>

B<teejay>: Aaron Trevena <teejay@cpan.org>

B<theorbtwo>: James Mastros <james@mastros.biz>

Thomas Kratz <tomk@cpan.org>

B<timbunce>: Tim Bunce <tim.bunce@pobox.com>

B<tinita>: Tina Mueller <cpan2@tinita.de>

Todd Lipcon

Tom Hukins <tom@eborcom.com>

B<tommy>: Tommy Butler <tbutler.cpan.org@internetalias.net>

B<tonvoon>: Ton Voon <ton.voon@opsview.com>

B<triode>: Pete Gamache <gamache@cpan.org>

B<typester>: Daisuke Murase <typester@cpan.org>

B<uree>: Oriol Soriano <oriol.soriano@capside.com>

B<uwe>: Uwe Voelker <uwe@uwevoelker.de>

B<vanstyn>: Henry Van Styn <vanstyn@cpan.org>

B<victori>: Victor Igumnov <victori@cpan.org>

B<wdh>: Will Hawes <wdhawes@gmail.com>

B<wesm>: Wes Malone <wes@mitsi.com>

B<willert>: Sebastian Willert <willert@cpan.org>

B<wintermute>: Toby Corkindale <tjc@cpan.org>

B<wreis>: Wallace Reis <wreis@cpan.org>

B<xenoterracide>: Caleb Cushing <xenoterracide@gmail.com>

B<xmikew>: Mike Wisener <xmikew@32ths.com>

B<yrlnry>: Mark Jason Dominus <mjd@plover.com>

B<zamolxes>: Bogdan Lucaciu <bogdan@wiz.ro>

B<Zefram>: Andrew Main <zefram@fysh.org>

=back



The canonical source of authors and their details is the F<AUTHORS> file at
the root of this distribution (or repository). The canonical source of
per-line authorship is the L<git repository|/HOW TO CONTRIBUTE> history
itself.

=head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

Copyright (c) 2005 by mst, castaway, ribasushi, and other DBIx::Class
L</AUTHORS> as listed above and in F<AUTHORS>.

This library is free software and may be distributed under the same terms
as perl5 itself. See F<LICENSE> for the complete licensing terms.