package Data::Visitor; # git description: Data-Visitor-0.27-23-g8b10b8a
use Moose;
# ABSTRACT: Visitor style traversal of Perl data structures

our $VERSION = '0.31';
use Scalar::Util qw/blessed refaddr reftype weaken isweak/;
use overload ();
use Symbol ();

use Tie::ToObject;

no warnings 'recursion';

use namespace::clean -except => 'meta';

# the double not makes this no longer undef, so exempt from useless constant warnings in older perls
use constant DEBUG => not not our $DEBUG || $ENV{DATA_VISITOR_DEBUG};

use constant HAS_DATA_ALIAS => eval { +require Data::Alias; 1 };

has tied_as_objects => (
	isa => "Bool",
	is  => "rw",
);

# currently broken
has weaken => (
	isa => "Bool",
	is  => "rw",
	default => 0,
);

sub trace {
	my ( $self, $category, @msg ) = @_;

	our %DEBUG;

	if ( $DEBUG{$category} or !exists($DEBUG{$category}) ) {
		$self->_print_trace("$self: " . join("",
			( "    " x ( $self->{depth} - 1 ) ),
			( join(" ", "$category:", map { overload::StrVal($_) } @msg) ),
		));
	}
}

sub _print_trace {
	my ( $self, @msg ) = @_;
	warn "@msg\n";
}

sub visit {
	my $self = shift;

	local $self->{depth} = (($self->{depth}||0) + 1) if DEBUG;
	my $seen_hash = local $self->{_seen} = ($self->{_seen} || {}); # delete it after we're done with the whole visit

	my @ret;

	foreach my $data ( @_ ) {
		$self->trace( flow => visit => $data ) if DEBUG;

		if ( my $refaddr = ref($data) && refaddr($data) ) { # only references need recursion checks
			$seen_hash->{weak} ||= isweak($data) if $self->weaken;

			if ( exists $seen_hash->{$refaddr} ) {
				$self->trace( mapping => found_mapping => from => $data, to => $seen_hash->{$refaddr} ) if DEBUG;
				push @ret, $self->visit_seen( $data, $seen_hash->{$refaddr} );
				next;
			} else {
				$self->trace( mapping => no_mapping => $data ) if DEBUG;
			}
		}

		if ( defined wantarray ) {
			push @ret, scalar($self->visit_no_rec_check($data));
		} else {
			$self->visit_no_rec_check($data);
		}
	}

	return ( @_ == 1 ? $ret[0] : @ret );
}

sub visit_seen {
	my ( $self, $data, $result ) = @_;
	return $result;
}

sub _get_mapping {
	my ( $self, $data ) = @_;
	$self->{_seen}{ refaddr($data) };
}

sub _register_mapping {
	my ( $self, $data, $new_data ) = @_;
	return $new_data unless ref $data;
	$self->trace( mapping => register_mapping => from => $data, to => $new_data, in => (caller(1))[3] ) if DEBUG;
	$self->{_seen}{ refaddr($data) } = $new_data;
}

sub visit_no_rec_check {
	my ( $self, $data ) = @_;

	if ( blessed($data) ) {
		return $self->visit_object($_[1]);
	} elsif ( ref $data ) {
		return $self->visit_ref($_[1]);
	}

	return $self->visit_value($_[1]);
}

sub visit_object {
	my ( $self, $object ) = @_;
	$self->trace( flow => visit_object => $object ) if DEBUG;

	if ( not defined wantarray ) {
		$self->_register_mapping( $object, $object );
		$self->visit_value($_[1]);
		return;
	} else {
		return $self->_register_mapping( $object, $self->visit_value($_[1]) );
	}
}

sub visit_ref {
	my ( $self, $data ) = @_;

	local $self->{depth} = (($self->{depth}||0) + 1) if DEBUG;

	$self->trace( flow => visit_ref => $data ) if DEBUG;

	my $reftype = reftype $data;

	$reftype = "SCALAR" if $reftype =~ /^(?:REF|LVALUE|VSTRING)$/;

	my $method = $self->can(lc "visit_$reftype") || "visit_value";

	return $self->$method($_[1]);
}

sub visit_value {
	my ( $self, $value ) = @_;
	$self->trace( flow => visit_value => $value ) if DEBUG;
	return $value;
}

sub visit_hash {
	my ( $self, $hash ) = @_;

	local $self->{depth} = (($self->{depth}||0) + 1) if DEBUG;

	if ( defined(tied(%$hash)) and $self->tied_as_objects ) {
		return $self->visit_tied_hash(tied(%$hash), $_[1]);
	} else {
		return $self->visit_normal_hash($_[1]);
	}
}

sub visit_normal_hash {
	my ( $self, $hash ) = @_;

	if ( defined wantarray ) {
		my $new_hash = {};
		$self->_register_mapping( $hash, $new_hash );

		%$new_hash = $self->visit_hash_entries($_[1]);

		return $self->retain_magic( $_[1], $new_hash );
	} else {
		$self->_register_mapping($hash, $hash);
		$self->visit_hash_entries($_[1]);
		return;
	}
}

sub visit_tied_hash {
	my ( $self, $tied, $hash ) = @_;

	if ( defined wantarray ) {
		my $new_hash = {};
		$self->_register_mapping( $hash, $new_hash );

		if ( blessed(my $new_tied = $self->visit_tied($_[1], $_[2])) ) {
			$self->trace( data => tying => var => $new_hash, to => $new_tied ) if DEBUG;
			tie %$new_hash, 'Tie::ToObject', $new_tied;
			return $self->retain_magic($_[2], $new_hash);
		} else {
			return $self->visit_normal_hash($_[2]);
		}
	} else {
		$self->_register_mapping($hash, $hash);
		$self->visit_tied($_[1], $_[2]);
		return;
	}
}

sub visit_hash_entries {
	my ( $self, $hash ) = @_;

	if ( not defined wantarray ) {
		$self->visit_hash_entry( $_, $hash->{$_}, $hash ) for keys %$hash;
	} else {
		return map { $self->visit_hash_entry( $_, $hash->{$_}, $hash ) } keys %$hash;
	}
}

sub visit_hash_entry {
	my ( $self, $key, $value, $hash ) = @_;

	$self->trace( flow => visit_hash_entry => key => $key, value => $value ) if DEBUG;

	if ( not defined wantarray ) {
		$self->visit_hash_key($key,$value,$hash);
		$self->visit_hash_value($_[2],$key,$hash);
	} else {
		return (
			$self->visit_hash_key($key,$value,$hash),
			$self->visit_hash_value($_[2],$key,$hash),
		);
	}
}

sub visit_hash_key {
	my ( $self, $key, $value, $hash ) = @_;
	$self->visit($key);
}

sub visit_hash_value {
	my ( $self, $value, $key, $hash ) = @_;
	$self->visit($_[1]);
}

sub visit_array {
	my ( $self, $array ) = @_;

	if ( defined(tied(@$array)) and $self->tied_as_objects ) {
		return $self->visit_tied_array(tied(@$array), $_[1]);
	} else {
		return $self->visit_normal_array($_[1]);
	}
}

sub visit_normal_array {
	my ( $self, $array ) = @_;

	if ( defined wantarray ) {
		my $new_array = [];
		$self->_register_mapping( $array, $new_array );

		@$new_array = $self->visit_array_entries($_[1]);

		return $self->retain_magic( $_[1], $new_array );
	} else {
		$self->_register_mapping( $array, $array );
		$self->visit_array_entries($_[1]);

		return;
	}
}

sub visit_tied_array {
	my ( $self, $tied, $array ) = @_;

	if ( defined wantarray ) {
		my $new_array = [];
		$self->_register_mapping( $array, $new_array );

		if ( blessed(my $new_tied = $self->visit_tied($_[1], $_[2])) ) {
			$self->trace( data => tying => var => $new_array, to => $new_tied ) if DEBUG;
			tie @$new_array, 'Tie::ToObject', $new_tied;
			return $self->retain_magic($_[2], $new_array);
		} else {
			return $self->visit_normal_array($_[2]);
		}
	} else {
		$self->_register_mapping( $array, $array );
		$self->visit_tied($_[1], $_[2]);

		return;
	}
}

sub visit_array_entries {
	my ( $self, $array ) = @_;

	if ( not defined wantarray ) {
		$self->visit_array_entry( $array->[$_], $_, $array ) for 0 .. $#$array;
	} else {
		return map { $self->visit_array_entry( $array->[$_], $_, $array ) } 0 .. $#$array;
	}
}

sub visit_array_entry {
	my ( $self, $value, $index, $array ) = @_;
	$self->visit($_[1]);
}

sub visit_scalar {
	my ( $self, $scalar ) = @_;

	if ( defined(tied($$scalar)) and $self->tied_as_objects ) {
		return $self->visit_tied_scalar(tied($$scalar), $_[1]);
	} else {
		return $self->visit_normal_scalar($_[1]);
	}
}

sub visit_normal_scalar {
	my ( $self, $scalar ) = @_;

	if ( defined wantarray ) {
		my $new_scalar;
		$self->_register_mapping( $scalar, \$new_scalar );

		$new_scalar = $self->visit( $$scalar );

		return $self->retain_magic($_[1], \$new_scalar);
	} else {
		$self->_register_mapping( $scalar, $scalar );
		$self->visit( $$scalar );
		return;
	}

}

sub visit_tied_scalar {
	my ( $self, $tied, $scalar ) = @_;

	if ( defined wantarray ) {
		my $new_scalar;
		$self->_register_mapping( $scalar, \$new_scalar );

		if ( blessed(my $new_tied = $self->visit_tied($_[1], $_[2])) ) {
			$self->trace( data => tying => var => $new_scalar, to => $new_tied ) if DEBUG;
			tie $new_scalar, 'Tie::ToObject', $new_tied;
			return $self->retain_magic($_[2], \$new_scalar);
		} else {
			return $self->visit_normal_scalar($_[2]);
		}
	} else {
		$self->_register_mapping( $scalar, $scalar );
		$self->visit_tied($_[1], $_[2]);
		return;
	}
}

sub visit_code {
	my ( $self, $code ) = @_;
	$self->visit_value($_[1]);
}

sub visit_glob {
	my ( $self, $glob ) = @_;

	if ( defined(tied(*$glob)) and $self->tied_as_objects ) {
		return $self->visit_tied_glob(tied(*$glob), $_[1]);
	} else {
		return $self->visit_normal_glob($_[1]);
	}
}

sub visit_normal_glob {
	my ( $self, $glob ) = @_;

	if ( defined wantarray ) {
		my $new_glob = Symbol::gensym();
		$self->_register_mapping( $glob, $new_glob );

		no warnings 'misc'; # Undefined value assigned to typeglob
		*$new_glob = $self->visit( *$glob{$_} || next ) for qw/SCALAR ARRAY HASH/;

		return $self->retain_magic($_[1], $new_glob);
	} else {
		$self->_register_mapping( $glob, $glob );
		$self->visit( *$glob{$_} || next ) for qw/SCALAR ARRAY HASH/;
		return;
	}
}

sub visit_tied_glob {
	my ( $self, $tied, $glob ) = @_;

	if ( defined wantarray ) {
		my $new_glob = Symbol::gensym();
		$self->_register_mapping( $glob, \$new_glob );

		if ( blessed(my $new_tied = $self->visit_tied($_[1], $_[2])) ) {
			$self->trace( data => tying => var => $new_glob, to => $new_tied ) if DEBUG;
			tie *$new_glob, 'Tie::ToObject', $new_tied;
			return $self->retain_magic($_[2], $new_glob);
		} else {
			return $self->visit_normal_glob($_[2]);
		}
	} else {
		$self->_register_mapping( $glob, $glob );
		$self->visit_tied($_[1], $_[2]);
		return;
	}
}

sub retain_magic {
	my ( $self, $proto, $new ) = @_;

	if ( blessed($proto) and !blessed($new) ) {
		$self->trace( data => blessing => $new, ref $proto ) if DEBUG;
		bless $new, ref $proto;
	}

	my $seen_hash = $self->{_seen};
	if ( $seen_hash->{weak} ) {
		#if ("$]" >= '5.022') {
		#  TODO: Data::Alias does not work on recent perls, but there is built-in aliasing support now.
		#  e.g. see what Var::Pairs 0.003004 did.
		#}
		if (HAS_DATA_ALIAS) {
			my @weak_refs;
			foreach my $value ( Data::Alias::deref($proto) ) {
				if ( ref $value and isweak($value) ) {
					push @weak_refs, refaddr $value;
				}
			}

			if ( @weak_refs ) {
				my %targets = map { refaddr($_) => 1 } @{ $self->{_seen} }{@weak_refs};
				foreach my $value ( Data::Alias::deref($new) ) {
					if ( ref $value and $targets{refaddr($value)}) {
						push @{ $seen_hash->{weakened} ||= [] }, $value; # keep a ref around
						weaken($value);
					}
				}
			}
		}
		else {
			die "Found a weak reference, but Data::Alias is not installed. You must install Data::Alias in order for this to work.";
		}
	}

	# FIXME real magic, too

	return $new;
}

sub visit_tied {
	my ( $self, $tied, $var ) = @_;
	$self->trace( flow => visit_tied => $tied ) if DEBUG;
	$self->visit($_[1]); # as an object eventually
}

__PACKAGE__->meta->make_immutable if __PACKAGE__->meta->can("make_immutable");

__PACKAGE__;

__END__

=pod

=encoding UTF-8

=head1 NAME

Data::Visitor - Visitor style traversal of Perl data structures

=head1 VERSION

version 0.31

=head1 SYNOPSIS

	# NOTE
	# You probably want to use Data::Visitor::Callback for trivial things

	package FooCounter;
	use Moose;

	extends qw(Data::Visitor);

	has number_of_foos => (
		isa => "Int",
		is  => "rw",
		default => 0,
	);

	sub visit_value {
		my ( $self, $data ) = @_;

		if ( defined $data and $data eq "foo" ) {
			$self->number_of_foos( $self->number_of_foos + 1 );
		}

		return $data;
	}

	my $counter = FooCounter->new;

	$counter->visit( {
		this => "that",
		some_foos => [ qw/foo foo bar foo/ ],
		the_other => "foo",
	});

	$counter->number_of_foos; # this is now 4

=head1 DESCRIPTION

This module is a simple visitor implementation for Perl values.

It has a main dispatcher method, C<visit>, which takes a single perl value and
then calls the methods appropriate for that value.

It can recursively map (cloning as necessary) or just traverse most structures,
with support for per object behavior, circular structures, visiting tied
structures, and all ref types (hashes, arrays, scalars, code, globs).

L<Data::Visitor> is meant to be subclassed, but also ships with a callback
driven subclass, L<Data::Visitor::Callback>.

=head1 METHODS

=over 4

=item visit $data

This method takes any Perl value as its only argument, and dispatches to the
various other visiting methods using C<visit_no_rec_check>, based on the data's
type.

If the value is a reference and has already been seen then C<visit_seen> is
called.

=item visit_seen $data, $first_result

When an already seen value is encountered again, it is typically replaced with
the result of the first visitation of that value. The value and the result of
the first visitation are passed as arguments.

Returns C<$first_result>.

=item visit_no_rec_check $data

Called for any value that has not yet been seen. Does the actual type based
dispatch for C<visit>.

Should not be called directly unless forcing a circular structure to be
unfolded. Use with caution as this may cause infinite recursion.

=item visit_object $object

If the value is a blessed object, C<visit> calls this method. The base
implementation will just forward to C<visit_value>.

=item visit_ref $value

Generic recursive visitor. All non blessed values are given to this.

C<visit_object> can delegate to this method in order to visit the object
anyway.

This will check if the visitor can handle C<visit_$reftype> (lowercase), and if
not delegate to C<visit_value> instead.

=item visit_array $array_ref

=item visit_hash $hash_ref

=item visit_glob $glob_ref

=item visit_code $code_ref

=item visit_scalar $scalar_ref

These methods are called for the corresponding container type.

=item visit_value $value

If the value is anything else, this method is called. The base implementation
will return $value.

=item visit_hash_entries $hash

=item visit_hash_entry $key, $value, $hash

Delegates to C<visit_hash_key> and C<visit_hash_value>. The value is passed as
C<$_[2]> so that it is aliased.

=item visit_hash_key $key, $value, $hash

Calls C<visit> on the key and returns it.

=item visit_hash_value $value, $key, $hash

The value will be aliased (passed as C<$_[1]>).

=item visit_array_entries $array

=item visit_array_entry $value, $index, $array

Delegates to C<visit> on value. The value is passed as C<$_[1]> to retain
aliasing.

=item visit_tied $object, $var

When C<tied_as_objects> is enabled and a tied variable (hash, array, glob or
scalar) is encountered this method will be called on the tied object. If a
valid mapped value is returned, the newly constructed result container will be
tied to the return value and no iteration of the contents of the data will be
made (since all storage is delegated to the tied object).

If a non blessed value is returned from C<visit_tied> then the structure will
be iterated normally, and the result container will not be tied at all.

This is because tying to the same class and performing the tie operations will
not yield the same results in many cases.

=item retain_magic $orig, $copy

Copies over magic from C<$orig> to C<$copy>.

Currently only handles C<bless>. In the future this might be expanded using
L<Variable::Magic> but it isn't clear what the correct semantics for magic
copying should be.

=item trace

Called if the C<DEBUG> constant is set with a trace message.

=back

=head1 RETURN VALUE

This object can be used as an C<fmap> of sorts - providing an ad-hoc functor
interface for Perl data structures.

In void context this functionality is ignored, but in any other context the
default methods will all try to return a value of similar structure, with its
children also fmapped.

=head1 SUBCLASSING

Data::Visitor is a L<Moose> class, so it should be subclassed using Moose.

Then override the callback methods in any way you like. To retain visitor
behavior, make sure to retain the functionality of C<visit_array> and
C<visit_hash>.

=head1 TODO

=over 4

=item *

Add support for "natural" visiting of trees.

=item *

Expand C<retain_magic> to support tying at the very least, or even more with
L<Variable::Magic> if possible.

=back

=head1 SEE ALSO

L<Data::Rmap>, L<Tree::Simple::VisitorFactory>, L<Data::Traverse>

L<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visitor_pattern>,
L<http://www.ninebynine.org/Software/Learning-Haskell-Notes.html#functors>,
L<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functor>

=for Pod::Coverage HAS_DATA_ALIAS
visit_normal_array
visit_normal_glob
visit_normal_hash
visit_normal_scalar
visit_tied_array
visit_tied_glob
visit_tied_hash
visit_tied_scalar

=head1 SUPPORT

Bugs may be submitted through L<the RT bug tracker|https://rt.cpan.org/Public/Dist/Display.html?Name=Data-Visitor>
(or L<bug-Data-Visitor@rt.cpan.org|mailto:bug-Data-Visitor@rt.cpan.org>).

=head1 AUTHORS

=over 4

=item *

Yuval Kogman <nothingmuch@woobling.org>

=item *

Marcel Grünauer <marcel@cpan.org>

=back

=head1 CONTRIBUTORS

=for stopwords Jesse Luehrs Florian Ragwitz Karen Etheridge David Steinbrunner Robin Smidsrød

=over 4

=item *

Jesse Luehrs <doy@tozt.net>

=item *

Florian Ragwitz <rafl@debian.org>

=item *

Karen Etheridge <ether@cpan.org>

=item *

David Steinbrunner <dsteinbrunner@pobox.com>

=item *

Robin Smidsrød <robin@smidsrod.no>

=back

=head1 COPYRIGHT AND LICENCE

This software is copyright (c) 2020 by Yuval Kogman.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.

=cut