package Excel::Writer::XLSX;

###############################################################################
#
# Excel::Writer::XLSX - Create a new file in the Excel 2007+ XLSX format.
#
# Copyright 2000-2019, John McNamara, jmcnamara@cpan.org
#
# Documentation after __END__
#

use 5.008002;
use strict;
use warnings;
use Exporter;

use Excel::Writer::XLSX::Workbook;

our @ISA     = qw(Excel::Writer::XLSX::Workbook Exporter);
our $VERSION = '1.00';


###############################################################################
#
# new()
#
sub new {

    my $class = shift;
    my $self  = Excel::Writer::XLSX::Workbook->new( @_ );

    # Check for file creation failures before re-blessing
    bless $self, $class if defined $self;

    return $self;
}


1;


__END__



=head1 NAME

Excel::Writer::XLSX - Create a new file in the Excel 2007+ XLSX format.

=head1 SYNOPSIS

To write a string, a formatted string, a number and a formula to the first worksheet in an Excel workbook called perl.xlsx:

    use Excel::Writer::XLSX;

    # Create a new Excel workbook
    my $workbook = Excel::Writer::XLSX->new( 'perl.xlsx' );

    # Add a worksheet
    $worksheet = $workbook->add_worksheet();

    #  Add and define a format
    $format = $workbook->add_format();
    $format->set_bold();
    $format->set_color( 'red' );
    $format->set_align( 'center' );

    # Write a formatted and unformatted string, row and column notation.
    $col = $row = 0;
    $worksheet->write( $row, $col, 'Hi Excel!', $format );
    $worksheet->write( 1, $col, 'Hi Excel!' );

    # Write a number and a formula using A1 notation
    $worksheet->write( 'A3', 1.2345 );
    $worksheet->write( 'A4', '=SIN(PI()/4)' );

    $workbook->close();



=head1 DESCRIPTION

The C<Excel::Writer::XLSX> module can be used to create an Excel file in the 2007+ XLSX format.

The XLSX format is the Office Open XML (OOXML) format used by Excel 2007 and later.

Multiple worksheets can be added to a workbook and formatting can be applied to cells. Text, numbers, and formulas can be written to the cells.

This module cannot, as yet, be used to write to an existing Excel XLSX file.




=head1 Excel::Writer::XLSX and Spreadsheet::WriteExcel

C<Excel::Writer::XLSX> uses the same interface as the L<Spreadsheet::WriteExcel> module which produces an Excel file in binary XLS format.

Excel::Writer::XLSX supports all of the features of Spreadsheet::WriteExcel and in some cases has more functionality. For more details see L</Compatibility with Spreadsheet::WriteExcel>.

The main advantage of the XLSX format over the XLS format is that it allows a larger number of rows and columns in a worksheet. The XLSX file format also produces much smaller files than the XLS file format.




=head1 QUICK START

Excel::Writer::XLSX tries to provide an interface to as many of Excel's features as possible. As a result there is a lot of documentation to accompany the interface and it can be difficult at first glance to see what it important and what is not. So for those of you who prefer to assemble Ikea furniture first and then read the instructions, here are four easy steps:

1. Create a new Excel I<workbook> (i.e. file) using C<new()>.

2. Add a worksheet to the new workbook using C<add_worksheet()>.

3. Write to the worksheet using C<write()>.

4. C<close()> the file.

Like this:

    use Excel::Writer::XLSX;                                   # Step 0

    my $workbook = Excel::Writer::XLSX->new( 'perl.xlsx' );    # Step 1
    $worksheet = $workbook->add_worksheet();                   # Step 2
    $worksheet->write( 'A1', 'Hi Excel!' );                    # Step 3

    $workbook->close();                                        # Step 4


This will create an Excel file called C<perl.xlsx> with a single worksheet and the text C<'Hi Excel!'> in the relevant cell. And that's it. Okay, so there is actually a zeroth step as well, but C<use module> goes without saying. There are many examples that come with the distribution and which you can use to get you started. See L</EXAMPLES>.

Those of you who read the instructions first and assemble the furniture afterwards will know how to proceed. ;-)




=head1 WORKBOOK METHODS

The Excel::Writer::XLSX module provides an object oriented interface to a new Excel workbook. The following methods are available through a new workbook.

    new()
    add_worksheet()
    add_format()
    add_chart()
    add_shape()
    add_vba_project()
    set_vba_name()
    close()
    set_properties()
    set_custom_property()
    define_name()
    set_tempdir()
    set_custom_color()
    sheets()
    get_worksheet_by_name()
    set_1904()
    set_optimization()
    set_calc_mode()
    get_default_url_format()

If you are unfamiliar with object oriented interfaces or the way that they are implemented in Perl have a look at C<perlobj> and C<perltoot> in the main Perl documentation.




=head2 new()

A new Excel workbook is created using the C<new()> constructor which accepts either a filename or a filehandle as a parameter. The following example creates a new Excel file based on a filename:

    my $workbook  = Excel::Writer::XLSX->new( 'filename.xlsx' );
    my $worksheet = $workbook->add_worksheet();
    $worksheet->write( 0, 0, 'Hi Excel!' );
    $workbook->close();


Here are some other examples of using C<new()> with filenames:

    my $workbook1 = Excel::Writer::XLSX->new( $filename );
    my $workbook2 = Excel::Writer::XLSX->new( '/tmp/filename.xlsx' );
    my $workbook3 = Excel::Writer::XLSX->new( "c:\\tmp\\filename.xlsx" );
    my $workbook4 = Excel::Writer::XLSX->new( 'c:\tmp\filename.xlsx' );

The last two examples demonstrates how to create a file on DOS or Windows where it is necessary to either escape the directory separator C<\> or to use single quotes to ensure that it isn't interpolated. For more information see C<perlfaq5: Why can't I use "C:\temp\foo" in DOS paths?>.

It is recommended that the filename uses the extension C<.xlsx> rather than C<.xls> since the latter causes an Excel warning when used with the XLSX format.

The C<new()> constructor returns a Excel::Writer::XLSX object that you can use to add worksheets and store data. It should be noted that although C<my> is not specifically required it defines the scope of the new workbook variable and, in the majority of cases, ensures that the workbook is closed properly without explicitly calling the C<close()> method.

If the file cannot be created, due to file permissions or some other reason,  C<new> will return C<undef>. Therefore, it is good practice to check the return value of C<new> before proceeding. As usual the Perl variable C<$!> will be set if there is a file creation error. You will also see one of the warning messages detailed in L</DIAGNOSTICS>:

    my $workbook = Excel::Writer::XLSX->new( 'protected.xlsx' );
    die "Problems creating new Excel file: $!" unless defined $workbook;

You can also pass a valid filehandle to the C<new()> constructor. For example in a CGI program you could do something like this:

    binmode( STDOUT );
    my $workbook = Excel::Writer::XLSX->new( \*STDOUT );

The requirement for C<binmode()> is explained below.

See also, the C<cgi.pl> program in the C<examples> directory of the distro.

In C<mod_perl> programs where you will have to do something like the following:

    # mod_perl 1
    ...
    tie *XLSX, 'Apache';
    binmode( XLSX );
    my $workbook = Excel::Writer::XLSX->new( \*XLSX );
    ...

    # mod_perl 2
    ...
    tie *XLSX => $r;    # Tie to the Apache::RequestRec object
    binmode( *XLSX );
    my $workbook = Excel::Writer::XLSX->new( \*XLSX );
    ...

See also, the C<mod_perl1.pl> and C<mod_perl2.pl> programs in the C<examples> directory of the distro.

Filehandles can also be useful if you want to stream an Excel file over a socket or if you want to store an Excel file in a scalar.

For example here is a way to write an Excel file to a scalar:

    #!/usr/bin/perl -w

    use strict;
    use Excel::Writer::XLSX;

    open my $fh, '>', \my $str or die "Failed to open filehandle: $!";

    my $workbook  = Excel::Writer::XLSX->new( $fh );
    my $worksheet = $workbook->add_worksheet();

    $worksheet->write( 0, 0, 'Hi Excel!' );

    $workbook->close();

    # The Excel file in now in $str. Remember to binmode() the output
    # filehandle before printing it.
    binmode STDOUT;
    print $str;

See also the C<write_to_scalar.pl> and C<filehandle.pl> programs in the C<examples> directory of the distro.

B<Note about the requirement for> C<binmode()>. An Excel file is comprised of binary data. Therefore, if you are using a filehandle you should ensure that you C<binmode()> it prior to passing it to C<new()>.You should do this regardless of whether you are on a Windows platform or not.

You don't have to worry about C<binmode()> if you are using filenames instead of filehandles. Excel::Writer::XLSX performs the C<binmode()> internally when it converts the filename to a filehandle. For more information about C<binmode()> see C<perlfunc> and C<perlopentut> in the main Perl documentation.





=head2 add_worksheet( $sheetname )

At least one worksheet should be added to a new workbook. A worksheet is used to write data into cells:

    $worksheet1 = $workbook->add_worksheet();               # Sheet1
    $worksheet2 = $workbook->add_worksheet( 'Foglio2' );    # Foglio2
    $worksheet3 = $workbook->add_worksheet( 'Data' );       # Data
    $worksheet4 = $workbook->add_worksheet();               # Sheet4

If C<$sheetname> is not specified the default Excel convention will be followed, i.e. Sheet1, Sheet2, etc.

The worksheet name must be a valid Excel worksheet name, i.e. it cannot contain any of the following characters, C<[ ] : * ? / \> and it must be less than 32 characters. In addition, you cannot use the same, case insensitive, C<$sheetname> for more than one worksheet.




=head2 add_format( %properties )

The C<add_format()> method can be used to create new Format objects which are used to apply formatting to a cell. You can either define the properties at creation time via a hash of property values or later via method calls.

    $format1 = $workbook->add_format( %props );    # Set properties at creation
    $format2 = $workbook->add_format();            # Set properties later

See the L</CELL FORMATTING> section for more details about Format properties and how to set them.




=head2 add_chart( %properties )

This method is use to create a new chart either as a standalone worksheet (the default) or as an embeddable object that can be inserted into a worksheet via the C<insert_chart()> Worksheet method.

    my $chart = $workbook->add_chart( type => 'column' );

The properties that can be set are:

    type     (required)
    subtype  (optional)
    name     (optional)
    embedded (optional)

=over

=item * C<type>

This is a required parameter. It defines the type of chart that will be created.

    my $chart = $workbook->add_chart( type => 'line' );

The available types are:

    area
    bar
    column
    line
    pie
    doughnut
    scatter
    stock

=item * C<subtype>

Used to define a chart subtype where available.

    my $chart = $workbook->add_chart( type => 'bar', subtype => 'stacked' );

See the L<Excel::Writer::XLSX::Chart> documentation for a list of available chart subtypes.

=item * C<name>

Set the name for the chart sheet. The name property is optional and if it isn't supplied will default to C<Chart1 .. n>. The name must be a valid Excel worksheet name. See C<add_worksheet()> for more details on valid sheet names. The C<name> property can be omitted for embedded charts.

    my $chart = $workbook->add_chart( type => 'line', name => 'Results Chart' );

=item * C<embedded>

Specifies that the Chart object will be inserted in a worksheet via the C<insert_chart()> Worksheet method. It is an error to try insert a Chart that doesn't have this flag set.

    my $chart = $workbook->add_chart( type => 'line', embedded => 1 );

    # Configure the chart.
    ...

    # Insert the chart into the a worksheet.
    $worksheet->insert_chart( 'E2', $chart );

=back

See Excel::Writer::XLSX::Chart for details on how to configure the chart object once it is created. See also the C<chart_*.pl> programs in the examples directory of the distro.



=head2 add_shape( %properties )

The C<add_shape()> method can be used to create new shapes that may be inserted into a worksheet.

You can either define the properties at creation time via a hash of property values or later via method calls.

    # Set properties at creation.
    $plus = $workbook->add_shape(
        type   => 'plus',
        id     => 3,
        width  => $pw,
        height => $ph
    );


    # Default rectangle shape. Set properties later.
    $rect =  $workbook->add_shape();

See L<Excel::Writer::XLSX::Shape> for details on how to configure the shape object once it is created.

See also the C<shape*.pl> programs in the examples directory of the distro.



=head2 add_vba_project( 'vbaProject.bin' )

The C<add_vba_project()> method can be used to add macros or functions to an Excel::Writer::XLSX file using a binary VBA project file that has been extracted from an existing Excel C<xlsm> file.

    my $workbook  = Excel::Writer::XLSX->new( 'file.xlsm' );

    $workbook->add_vba_project( './vbaProject.bin' );

The supplied C<extract_vba> utility can be used to extract the required C<vbaProject.bin> file from an existing Excel file:

    $ extract_vba file.xlsm
    Extracted 'vbaProject.bin' successfully

Macros can be tied to buttons using the worksheet C<insert_button()> method (see the L</WORKSHEET METHODS> section for details):

    $worksheet->insert_button( 'C2', { macro => 'my_macro' } );

Note, Excel uses the file extension C<xlsm> instead of C<xlsx> for files that contain macros. It is advisable to follow the same convention.

See also the C<macros.pl> example file and the L<WORKING WITH VBA MACROS>.



=head2 set_vba_name()

The C<set_vba_name()> method can be used to set the VBA codename for the workbook. This is sometimes required when a C<vbaProject macro> included via C<add_vba_project()> refers to the workbook. The default Excel VBA name of C<ThisWorkbook> is used if a user defined name isn't specified. See also L<WORKING WITH VBA MACROS>.


=head2 close()

In general your Excel file will be closed automatically when your program ends or when the Workbook object goes out of scope. However it is recommended to explicitly call the C<close()> method close the Excel file and avoid the potential issues outlined below. The C<close()> method is called like this:

    $workbook->close();

The return value of C<close()> is the same as that returned by perl when it closes the file created by C<new()>. This allows you to handle error conditions in the usual way:

    $workbook->close() or die "Error closing file: $!";

An explicit C<close()> is required if the file must be closed prior to performing some external action on it such as copying it, reading its size or attaching it to an email.

In addition, C<close()> may be required to prevent perl's garbage collector from disposing of the Workbook, Worksheet and Format objects in the wrong order. Situations where this can occur are:

=over 4

=item *

If C<my()> was not used to declare the scope of a workbook variable created using C<new()>.

=item *

If the C<new()>, C<add_worksheet()> or C<add_format()> methods are called in subroutines.

=back

The reason for this is that Excel::Writer::XLSX relies on Perl's C<DESTROY> mechanism to trigger destructor methods in a specific sequence. This may not happen in cases where the Workbook, Worksheet and Format variables are not lexically scoped or where they have different lexical scopes.

To avoid these issues it is recommended that you always close the Excel::Writer::XLSX filehandle using C<close()>.




=head2 set_size( $width, $height )

The C<set_size()> method can be used to set the size of a workbook window.

    $workbook->set_size(1200, 800);

The Excel window size was used in Excel 2007 to define the width and height of a workbook window within the Multiple Document Interface (MDI). In later versions of Excel for Windows this interface was dropped. This method is currently only useful when setting the window size in Excel for Mac 2011. The units are pixels and the default size is 1073 x 644.

Note, this doesn't equate exactly to the Excel for Mac pixel size since it is based on the original Excel 2007 for Windows sizing.




=head2 set_tab_ratio( $tab_ratio )


The C<set_tab_ratio()> method can be used to set the ratio between worksheet tabs and the horizontal slider at the bottom of a workbook. This can be increased to give more room to the tabs or reduced to increase the size of the horizontal slider:

    $workbook->set_tab_ratio(75);

The default value in Excel is 60.




=head2 set_properties()

The C<set_properties> method can be used to set the document properties of the Excel file created by C<Excel::Writer::XLSX>. These properties are visible when you use the C<< Office Button -> Prepare -> Properties >> option in Excel and are also available to external applications that read or index Windows files.

The properties should be passed in hash format as follows:

    $workbook->set_properties(
        title    => 'This is an example spreadsheet',
        author   => 'John McNamara',
        comments => 'Created with Perl and Excel::Writer::XLSX',
    );

The properties that can be set are:

    title
    subject
    author
    manager
    company
    category
    keywords
    comments
    status
    hyperlink_base
    created - File create date. Such be an aref of gmtime() values.

See also the C<properties.pl> program in the examples directory of the distro.




=head2 set_custom_property( $name, $value, $type)

The C<set_custom_property> method can be used to set one of more custom document properties not covered by the C<set_properties()> method above. These properties are visible when you use the C<< Office Button -> Prepare -> Properties -> Advanced Properties -> Custom >> option in Excel and are also available to external applications that read or index Windows files.

The C<set_custom_property> method takes 3 parameters:

    $workbook-> set_custom_property( $name, $value, $type);

Where the available types are:

    text
    date
    number
    bool

For example:

    $workbook->set_custom_property( 'Checked by',      'Eve',                  'text'   );
    $workbook->set_custom_property( 'Date completed',  '2016-12-12T23:00:00Z', 'date'   );
    $workbook->set_custom_property( 'Document number', '12345' ,               'number' );
    $workbook->set_custom_property( 'Reference',       '1.2345',               'number' );
    $workbook->set_custom_property( 'Has review',      1,                      'bool'   );
    $workbook->set_custom_property( 'Signed off',      0,                      'bool'   );
    $workbook->set_custom_property( 'Department',      $some_string,           'text'   );
    $workbook->set_custom_property( 'Scale',           '1.2345678901234',      'number' );

Dates should by in ISO8601 C<yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.sssZ> date format in Zulu time, as shown above.

The C<text> and C<number> types are optional since they can usually be inferred from the data:

    $workbook->set_custom_property( 'Checked by', 'Eve'    );
    $workbook->set_custom_property( 'Reference',  '1.2345' );


The C<$name> and C<$value> parameters are limited to 255 characters by Excel.




=head2 define_name()

This method is used to defined a name that can be used to represent a value, a single cell or a range of cells in a workbook.

For example to set a global/workbook name:

    # Global/workbook names.
    $workbook->define_name( 'Exchange_rate', '=0.96' );
    $workbook->define_name( 'Sales',         '=Sheet1!$G$1:$H$10' );

It is also possible to define a local/worksheet name by prefixing the name with the sheet name using the syntax C<sheetname!definedname>:

    # Local/worksheet name.
    $workbook->define_name( 'Sheet2!Sales',  '=Sheet2!$G$1:$G$10' );

If the sheet name contains spaces or special characters you must enclose it in single quotes like in Excel:

    $workbook->define_name( "'New Data'!Sales",  '=Sheet2!$G$1:$G$10' );

See the defined_name.pl program in the examples dir of the distro.

Refer to the following to see Excel's syntax rules for defined names: L<http://office.microsoft.com/en-001/excel-help/define-and-use-names-in-formulas-HA010147120.aspx#BMsyntax_rules_for_names>




=head2 set_tempdir()

C<Excel::Writer::XLSX> stores worksheet data in temporary files prior to assembling the final workbook.

The C<File::Temp> module is used to create these temporary files. File::Temp uses C<File::Spec> to determine an appropriate location for these files such as C</tmp> or C<c:\windows\temp>. You can find out which directory is used on your system as follows:

    perl -MFile::Spec -le "print File::Spec->tmpdir()"

If the default temporary file directory isn't accessible to your application, or doesn't contain enough space, you can specify an alternative location using the C<set_tempdir()> method:

    $workbook->set_tempdir( '/tmp/writeexcel' );
    $workbook->set_tempdir( 'c:\windows\temp\writeexcel' );

The directory for the temporary file must exist, C<set_tempdir()> will not create a new directory.





=head2 set_custom_color( $index, $red, $green, $blue )

The method is maintained for backward compatibility with Spreadsheet::WriteExcel. Excel::Writer::XLSX programs don't require this method and colours can be specified using a Html style C<#RRGGBB> value, see L</WORKING WITH COLOURS>.




=head2 sheets( 0, 1, ... )

The C<sheets()> method returns a list, or a sliced list, of the worksheets in a workbook.

If no arguments are passed the method returns a list of all the worksheets in the workbook. This is useful if you want to repeat an operation on each worksheet:

    for $worksheet ( $workbook->sheets() ) {
        print $worksheet->get_name();
    }


You can also specify a slice list to return one or more worksheet objects:

    $worksheet = $workbook->sheets( 0 );
    $worksheet->write( 'A1', 'Hello' );


Or since the return value from C<sheets()> is a reference to a worksheet object you can write the above example as:

    $workbook->sheets( 0 )->write( 'A1', 'Hello' );


The following example returns the first and last worksheet in a workbook:

    for $worksheet ( $workbook->sheets( 0, -1 ) ) {
        # Do something
    }


Array slices are explained in the C<perldata> manpage.




=head2 get_worksheet_by_name()

The C<get_worksheet_by_name()> function return a worksheet or chartsheet object in the workbook using the sheetname:

    $worksheet = $workbook->get_worksheet_by_name('Sheet1');




=head2 set_1904()

Excel stores dates as real numbers where the integer part stores the number of days since the epoch and the fractional part stores the percentage of the day. The epoch can be either 1900 or 1904. Excel for Windows uses 1900 and Excel for Macintosh uses 1904. However, Excel on either platform will convert automatically between one system and the other.

Excel::Writer::XLSX stores dates in the 1900 format by default. If you wish to change this you can call the C<set_1904()> workbook method. You can query the current value by calling the C<get_1904()> workbook method. This returns 0 for 1900 and 1 for 1904.

See also L</DATES AND TIME IN EXCEL> for more information about working with Excel's date system.

In general you probably won't need to use C<set_1904()>.




=head2 set_optimization()

The C<set_optimization()> method is used to turn on optimizations in the Excel::Writer::XLSX module. Currently there is only one optimization available and that is to reduce memory usage.

    $workbook->set_optimization();


See L</SPEED AND MEMORY USAGE> for more background information.

Note, that with this optimization turned on a row of data is written and then discarded when a cell in a new row is added via one of the Worksheet C<write_*()> methods. As such data should be written in sequential row order once the optimization is turned on.

This method must be called before any calls to C<add_worksheet()>.



=head2 set_calc_mode( $mode )

Set the calculation mode for formulas in the workbook. This is mainly of use for workbooks with slow formulas where you want to allow the user to calculate them manually.

The mode parameter can be one of the following strings:

=over

=item C<auto>

The default. Excel will re-calculate formulas when a formula or a value affecting the formula changes.

=item C<manual>

Only re-calculate formulas when the user requires it. Generally by pressing F9.

=item C<auto_except_tables>

Excel will automatically re-calculate formulas except for tables.

=back




=head2 get_default_url_format()

The C<get_default_url_format()> method gets a copy of the default url format used when a user defined format isn't specified with the worksheet C<write_url()> method. The format is the hyperlink style defined by Excel for the default theme:

    my $url_format = $workbook->get_default_url_format();




=head1 WORKSHEET METHODS

A new worksheet is created by calling the C<add_worksheet()> method from a workbook object:

    $worksheet1 = $workbook->add_worksheet();
    $worksheet2 = $workbook->add_worksheet();

The following methods are available through a new worksheet:

    write()
    write_number()
    write_string()
    write_rich_string()
    keep_leading_zeros()
    write_blank()
    write_row()
    write_col()
    write_date_time()
    write_url()
    write_url_range()
    write_formula()
    write_boolean()
    write_comment()
    show_comments()
    set_comments_author()
    add_write_handler()
    insert_image()
    insert_chart()
    insert_shape()
    insert_button()
    data_validation()
    conditional_formatting()
    add_sparkline()
    add_table()
    get_name()
    activate()
    select()
    hide()
    set_first_sheet()
    protect()
    set_selection()
    set_row()
    set_default_row()
    set_column()
    outline_settings()
    freeze_panes()
    split_panes()
    merge_range()
    merge_range_type()
    set_zoom()
    right_to_left()
    hide_zero()
    set_tab_color()
    autofilter()
    filter_column()
    filter_column_list()
    set_vba_name()



=head2 Cell notation

Excel::Writer::XLSX supports two forms of notation to designate the position of cells: Row-column notation and A1 notation.

Row-column notation uses a zero based index for both row and column while A1 notation uses the standard Excel alphanumeric sequence of column letter and 1-based row. For example:

    (0, 0)      # The top left cell in row-column notation.
    ('A1')      # The top left cell in A1 notation.

    (1999, 29)  # Row-column notation.
    ('AD2000')  # The same cell in A1 notation.

Row-column notation is useful if you are referring to cells programmatically:

    for my $i ( 0 .. 9 ) {
        $worksheet->write( $i, 0, 'Hello' );    # Cells A1 to A10
    }

A1 notation is useful for setting up a worksheet manually and for working with formulas:

    $worksheet->write( 'H1', 200 );
    $worksheet->write( 'H2', '=H1+1' );

In formulas and applicable methods you can also use the C<A:A> column notation:

    $worksheet->write( 'A1', '=SUM(B:B)' );

The C<Excel::Writer::XLSX::Utility> module that is included in the distro contains helper functions for dealing with A1 notation, for example:

    use Excel::Writer::XLSX::Utility;

    ( $row, $col ) = xl_cell_to_rowcol( 'C2' );    # (1, 2)
    $str           = xl_rowcol_to_cell( 1, 2 );    # C2

For simplicity, the parameter lists for the worksheet method calls in the following sections are given in terms of row-column notation. In all cases it is also possible to use A1 notation.

Note: in Excel it is also possible to use a R1C1 notation. This is not supported by Excel::Writer::XLSX.




=head2 write( $row, $column, $token, $format )

Excel makes a distinction between data types such as strings, numbers, blanks, formulas and hyperlinks. To simplify the process of writing data the C<write()> method acts as a general alias for several more specific methods:

    write_string()
    write_number()
    write_blank()
    write_formula()
    write_url()
    write_row()
    write_col()

The general rule is that if the data looks like a I<something> then a I<something> is written. Here are some examples in both row-column and A1 notation:

                                                        # Same as:
    $worksheet->write( 0, 0, 'Hello'                 ); # write_string()
    $worksheet->write( 1, 0, 'One'                   ); # write_string()
    $worksheet->write( 2, 0,  2                      ); # write_number()
    $worksheet->write( 3, 0,  3.00001                ); # write_number()
    $worksheet->write( 4, 0,  ""                     ); # write_blank()
    $worksheet->write( 5, 0,  ''                     ); # write_blank()
    $worksheet->write( 6, 0,  undef                  ); # write_blank()
    $worksheet->write( 7, 0                          ); # write_blank()
    $worksheet->write( 8, 0,  'http://www.perl.com/' ); # write_url()
    $worksheet->write( 'A9',  'ftp://ftp.cpan.org/'  ); # write_url()
    $worksheet->write( 'A10', 'internal:Sheet1!A1'   ); # write_url()
    $worksheet->write( 'A11', 'external:c:\foo.xlsx' ); # write_url()
    $worksheet->write( 'A12', '=A3 + 3*A4'           ); # write_formula()
    $worksheet->write( 'A13', '=SIN(PI()/4)'         ); # write_formula()
    $worksheet->write( 'A14', \@array                ); # write_row()
    $worksheet->write( 'A15', [\@array]              ); # write_col()

    # And if the keep_leading_zeros property is set:
    $worksheet->write( 'A16', '2'                    ); # write_number()
    $worksheet->write( 'A17', '02'                   ); # write_string()
    $worksheet->write( 'A18', '00002'                ); # write_string()

    # Write an array formula. Not available in Spreadsheet::WriteExcel.
    $worksheet->write( 'A19', '{=SUM(A1:B1*A2:B2)}'  ); # write_formula()


The "looks like" rule is defined by regular expressions:

C<write_number()> if C<$token> is a number based on the following regex: C<$token =~ /^([+-]?)(?=\d|\.\d)\d*(\.\d*)?([Ee]([+-]?\d+))?$/>.

C<write_string()> if C<keep_leading_zeros()> is set and C<$token> is an integer with leading zeros based on the following regex: C<$token =~ /^0\d+$/>.

C<write_blank()> if C<$token> is undef or a blank string: C<undef>, C<""> or C<''>.

C<write_url()> if C<$token> is a http, https, ftp or mailto URL based on the following regexes: C<$token =~ m|^[fh]tt?ps?://|> or C<$token =~ m|^mailto:|>.

C<write_url()> if C<$token> is an internal or external sheet reference based on the following regex: C<$token =~ m[^(in|ex)ternal:]>.

C<write_formula()> if the first character of C<$token> is C<"=">.

C<write_array_formula()> if the C<$token> matches C</^{=.*}$/>.

C<write_row()> if C<$token> is an array ref.

C<write_col()> if C<$token> is an array ref of array refs.

C<write_string()> if none of the previous conditions apply.

The C<$format> parameter is optional. It should be a valid Format object, see L</CELL FORMATTING>:

    my $format = $workbook->add_format();
    $format->set_bold();
    $format->set_color( 'red' );
    $format->set_align( 'center' );

    $worksheet->write( 4, 0, 'Hello', $format );    # Formatted string

The write() method will ignore empty strings or C<undef> tokens unless a format is also supplied. As such you needn't worry about special handling for empty or C<undef> values in your data. See also the C<write_blank()> method.

One problem with the C<write()> method is that occasionally data looks like a number but you don't want it treated as a number. For example, zip codes or ID numbers often start with a leading zero. If you write this data as a number then the leading zero(s) will be stripped. You can change this default behaviour by using the C<keep_leading_zeros()> method. While this property is in place any integers with leading zeros will be treated as strings and the zeros will be preserved. See the C<keep_leading_zeros()> section for a full discussion of this issue.

You can also add your own data handlers to the C<write()> method using C<add_write_handler()>.

The C<write()> method will also handle Unicode strings in C<UTF-8> format.

The C<write> methods return:

    0 for success.
   -1 for insufficient number of arguments.
   -2 for row or column out of bounds.
   -3 for string too long.




=head2 write_number( $row, $column, $number, $format )

Write an integer or a float to the cell specified by C<$row> and C<$column>:

    $worksheet->write_number( 0, 0, 123456 );
    $worksheet->write_number( 'A2', 2.3451 );

See the note about L</Cell notation>. The C<$format> parameter is optional.

In general it is sufficient to use the C<write()> method.

B<Note>: some versions of Excel 2007 do not display the calculated values of formulas written by Excel::Writer::XLSX. Applying all available Service Packs to Excel should fix this.



=head2 write_string( $row, $column, $string, $format )

Write a string to the cell specified by C<$row> and C<$column>:

    $worksheet->write_string( 0, 0, 'Your text here' );
    $worksheet->write_string( 'A2', 'or here' );

The maximum string size is 32767 characters. However the maximum string segment that Excel can display in a cell is 1000. All 32767 characters can be displayed in the formula bar.

The C<$format> parameter is optional.

The C<write()> method will also handle strings in C<UTF-8> format. See also the C<unicode_*.pl> programs in the examples directory of the distro.

In general it is sufficient to use the C<write()> method. However, you may sometimes wish to use the C<write_string()> method to write data that looks like a number but that you don't want treated as a number. For example, zip codes or phone numbers:

    # Write as a plain string
    $worksheet->write_string( 'A1', '01209' );

However, if the user edits this string Excel may convert it back to a number. To get around this you can use the Excel text format C<@>:

    # Format as a string. Doesn't change to a number when edited
    my $format1 = $workbook->add_format( num_format => '@' );
    $worksheet->write_string( 'A2', '01209', $format1 );

See also the note about L</Cell notation>.




=head2 write_rich_string( $row, $column, $format, $string, ..., $cell_format )

The C<write_rich_string()> method is used to write strings with multiple formats. For example to write the string "This is B<bold> and this is I<italic>" you would use the following:

    my $bold   = $workbook->add_format( bold   => 1 );
    my $italic = $workbook->add_format( italic => 1 );

    $worksheet->write_rich_string( 'A1',
        'This is ', $bold, 'bold', ' and this is ', $italic, 'italic' );

The basic rule is to break the string into fragments and put a C<$format> object before the fragment that you want to format. For example:

    # Unformatted string.
      'This is an example string'

    # Break it into fragments.
      'This is an ', 'example', ' string'

    # Add formatting before the fragments you want formatted.
      'This is an ', $format, 'example', ' string'

    # In Excel::Writer::XLSX.
    $worksheet->write_rich_string( 'A1',
        'This is an ', $format, 'example', ' string' );

String fragments that don't have a format are given a default format. So for example when writing the string "Some B<bold> text" you would use the first example below but it would be equivalent to the second:

    # With default formatting:
    my $bold    = $workbook->add_format( bold => 1 );

    $worksheet->write_rich_string( 'A1',
        'Some ', $bold, 'bold', ' text' );

    # Or more explicitly:
    my $bold    = $workbook->add_format( bold => 1 );
    my $default = $workbook->add_format();

    $worksheet->write_rich_string( 'A1',
        $default, 'Some ', $bold, 'bold', $default, ' text' );

As with Excel, only the font properties of the format such as font name, style, size, underline, color and effects are applied to the string fragments. Other features such as border, background, text wrap and alignment must be applied to the cell.

The C<write_rich_string()> method allows you to do this by using the last argument as a cell format (if it is a format object). The following example centers a rich string in the cell:

    my $bold   = $workbook->add_format( bold  => 1 );
    my $center = $workbook->add_format( align => 'center' );

    $worksheet->write_rich_string( 'A5',
        'Some ', $bold, 'bold text', ' centered', $center );

See the C<rich_strings.pl> example in the distro for more examples.

    my $bold   = $workbook->add_format( bold        => 1 );
    my $italic = $workbook->add_format( italic      => 1 );
    my $red    = $workbook->add_format( color       => 'red' );
    my $blue   = $workbook->add_format( color       => 'blue' );
    my $center = $workbook->add_format( align       => 'center' );
    my $super  = $workbook->add_format( font_script => 1 );


    # Write some strings with multiple formats.
    $worksheet->write_rich_string( 'A1',
        'This is ', $bold, 'bold', ' and this is ', $italic, 'italic' );

    $worksheet->write_rich_string( 'A3',
        'This is ', $red, 'red', ' and this is ', $blue, 'blue' );

    $worksheet->write_rich_string( 'A5',
        'Some ', $bold, 'bold text', ' centered', $center );

    $worksheet->write_rich_string( 'A7',
        $italic, 'j = k', $super, '(n-1)', $center );

=begin html

<p><center><img src="http://jmcnamara.github.io/excel-writer-xlsx/images/examples/rich_strings.jpg" width="640" height="420" alt="Output from rich_strings.pl" /></center></p>

=end html

As with C<write_sting()> the maximum string size is 32767 characters. See also the note about L</Cell notation>.




=head2 keep_leading_zeros()

This method changes the default handling of integers with leading zeros when using the C<write()> method.

The C<write()> method uses regular expressions to determine what type of data to write to an Excel worksheet. If the data looks like a number it writes a number using C<write_number()>. One problem with this approach is that occasionally data looks like a number but you don't want it treated as a number.

Zip codes and ID numbers, for example, often start with a leading zero. If you write this data as a number then the leading zero(s) will be stripped. This is the also the default behaviour when you enter data manually in Excel.

To get around this you can use one of three options. Write a formatted number, write the number as a string or use the C<keep_leading_zeros()> method to change the default behaviour of C<write()>:

    # Implicitly write a number, the leading zero is removed: 1209
    $worksheet->write( 'A1', '01209' );

    # Write a zero padded number using a format: 01209
    my $format1 = $workbook->add_format( num_format => '00000' );
    $worksheet->write( 'A2', '01209', $format1 );

    # Write explicitly as a string: 01209
    $worksheet->write_string( 'A3', '01209' );

    # Write implicitly as a string: 01209
    $worksheet->keep_leading_zeros();
    $worksheet->write( 'A4', '01209' );


The above code would generate a worksheet that looked like the following:

     -----------------------------------------------------------
    |   |     A     |     B     |     C     |     D     | ...
     -----------------------------------------------------------
    | 1 |      1209 |           |           |           | ...
    | 2 |     01209 |           |           |           | ...
    | 3 | 01209     |           |           |           | ...
    | 4 | 01209     |           |           |           | ...


The examples are on different sides of the cells due to the fact that Excel displays strings with a left justification and numbers with a right justification by default. You can change this by using a format to justify the data, see L</CELL FORMATTING>.

It should be noted that if the user edits the data in examples C<A3> and C<A4> the strings will revert back to numbers. Again this is Excel's default behaviour. To avoid this you can use the text format C<@>:

    # Format as a string (01209)
    my $format2 = $workbook->add_format( num_format => '@' );
    $worksheet->write_string( 'A5', '01209', $format2 );

The C<keep_leading_zeros()> property is off by default. The C<keep_leading_zeros()> method takes 0 or 1 as an argument. It defaults to 1 if an argument isn't specified:

    $worksheet->keep_leading_zeros();       # Set on
    $worksheet->keep_leading_zeros( 1 );    # Set on
    $worksheet->keep_leading_zeros( 0 );    # Set off

See also the C<add_write_handler()> method.


=head2 write_blank( $row, $column, $format )

Write a blank cell specified by C<$row> and C<$column>:

    $worksheet->write_blank( 0, 0, $format );

This method is used to add formatting to a cell which doesn't contain a string or number value.

Excel differentiates between an "Empty" cell and a "Blank" cell. An "Empty" cell is a cell which doesn't contain data whilst a "Blank" cell is a cell which doesn't contain data but does contain formatting. Excel stores "Blank" cells but ignores "Empty" cells.

As such, if you write an empty cell without formatting it is ignored:

    $worksheet->write( 'A1', undef, $format );    # write_blank()
    $worksheet->write( 'A2', undef );             # Ignored

This seemingly uninteresting fact means that you can write arrays of data without special treatment for C<undef> or empty string values.

See the note about L</Cell notation>.




=head2 write_row( $row, $column, $array_ref, $format )

The C<write_row()> method can be used to write a 1D or 2D array of data in one go. This is useful for converting the results of a database query into an Excel worksheet. You must pass a reference to the array of data rather than the array itself. The C<write()> method is then called for each element of the data. For example:

    @array = ( 'awk', 'gawk', 'mawk' );
    $array_ref = \@array;

    $worksheet->write_row( 0, 0, $array_ref );

    # The above example is equivalent to:
    $worksheet->write( 0, 0, $array[0] );
    $worksheet->write( 0, 1, $array[1] );
    $worksheet->write( 0, 2, $array[2] );


Note: For convenience the C<write()> method behaves in the same way as C<write_row()> if it is passed an array reference. Therefore the following two method calls are equivalent:

    $worksheet->write_row( 'A1', $array_ref );    # Write a row of data
    $worksheet->write(     'A1', $array_ref );    # Same thing

As with all of the write methods the C<$format> parameter is optional. If a format is specified it is applied to all the elements of the data array.

Array references within the data will be treated as columns. This allows you to write 2D arrays of data in one go. For example:

    @eec =  (
                ['maggie', 'milly', 'molly', 'may'  ],
                [13,       14,      15,      16     ],
                ['shell',  'star',  'crab',  'stone']
            );

    $worksheet->write_row( 'A1', \@eec );


Would produce a worksheet as follows:

     -----------------------------------------------------------
    |   |    A    |    B    |    C    |    D    |    E    | ...
     -----------------------------------------------------------
    | 1 | maggie  | 13      | shell   | ...     |  ...    | ...
    | 2 | milly   | 14      | star    | ...     |  ...    | ...
    | 3 | molly   | 15      | crab    | ...     |  ...    | ...
    | 4 | may     | 16      | stone   | ...     |  ...    | ...
    | 5 | ...     | ...     | ...     | ...     |  ...    | ...
    | 6 | ...     | ...     | ...     | ...     |  ...    | ...


To write the data in a row-column order refer to the C<write_col()> method below.

Any C<undef> values in the data will be ignored unless a format is applied to the data, in which case a formatted blank cell will be written. In either case the appropriate row or column value will still be incremented.

To find out more about array references refer to C<perlref> and C<perlreftut> in the main Perl documentation. To find out more about 2D arrays or "lists of lists" refer to C<perllol>.

The C<write_row()> method returns the first error encountered when writing the elements of the data or zero if no errors were encountered. See the return values described for the C<write()> method above.

See also the C<write_arrays.pl> program in the C<examples> directory of the distro.

The C<write_row()> method allows the following idiomatic conversion of a text file to an Excel file:

    #!/usr/bin/perl -w

    use strict;
    use Excel::Writer::XLSX;

    my $workbook  = Excel::Writer::XLSX->new( 'file.xlsx' );
    my $worksheet = $workbook->add_worksheet();

    open INPUT, 'file.txt' or die "Couldn't open file: $!";

    $worksheet->write( $. -1, 0, [split] ) while <INPUT>;

    $workbook->close();



=head2 write_col( $row, $column, $array_ref, $format )

The C<write_col()> method can be used to write a 1D or 2D array of data in one go. This is useful for converting the results of a database query into an Excel worksheet. You must pass a reference to the array of data rather than the array itself. The C<write()> method is then called for each element of the data. For example:

    @array = ( 'awk', 'gawk', 'mawk' );
    $array_ref = \@array;

    $worksheet->write_col( 0, 0, $array_ref );

    # The above example is equivalent to:
    $worksheet->write( 0, 0, $array[0] );
    $worksheet->write( 1, 0, $array[1] );
    $worksheet->write( 2, 0, $array[2] );

As with all of the write methods the C<$format> parameter is optional. If a format is specified it is applied to all the elements of the data array.

Array references within the data will be treated as rows. This allows you to write 2D arrays of data in one go. For example:

    @eec =  (
                ['maggie', 'milly', 'molly', 'may'  ],
                [13,       14,      15,      16     ],
                ['shell',  'star',  'crab',  'stone']
            );

    $worksheet->write_col( 'A1', \@eec );


Would produce a worksheet as follows:

     -----------------------------------------------------------
    |   |    A    |    B    |    C    |    D    |    E    | ...
     -----------------------------------------------------------
    | 1 | maggie  | milly   | molly   | may     |  ...    | ...
    | 2 | 13      | 14      | 15      | 16      |  ...    | ...
    | 3 | shell   | star    | crab    | stone   |  ...    | ...
    | 4 | ...     | ...     | ...     | ...     |  ...    | ...
    | 5 | ...     | ...     | ...     | ...     |  ...    | ...
    | 6 | ...     | ...     | ...     | ...     |  ...    | ...


To write the data in a column-row order refer to the C<write_row()> method above.

Any C<undef> values in the data will be ignored unless a format is applied to the data, in which case a formatted blank cell will be written. In either case the appropriate row or column value will still be incremented.

As noted above the C<write()> method can be used as a synonym for C<write_row()> and C<write_row()> handles nested array refs as columns. Therefore, the following two method calls are equivalent although the more explicit call to C<write_col()> would be preferable for maintainability:

    $worksheet->write_col( 'A1', $array_ref     ); # Write a column of data
    $worksheet->write(     'A1', [ $array_ref ] ); # Same thing

To find out more about array references refer to C<perlref> and C<perlreftut> in the main Perl documentation. To find out more about 2D arrays or "lists of lists" refer to C<perllol>.

The C<write_col()> method returns the first error encountered when writing the elements of the data or zero if no errors were encountered. See the return values described for the C<write()> method above.

See also the C<write_arrays.pl> program in the C<examples> directory of the distro.




=head2 write_date_time( $row, $col, $date_string, $format )

The C<write_date_time()> method can be used to write a date or time to the cell specified by C<$row> and C<$column>:

    $worksheet->write_date_time( 'A1', '2004-05-13T23:20', $date_format );

The C<$date_string> should be in the following format:

    yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.sss

This conforms to an ISO8601 date but it should be noted that the full range of ISO8601 formats are not supported.

The following variations on the C<$date_string> parameter are permitted:

    yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.sss         # Standard format
    yyyy-mm-ddT                     # No time
              Thh:mm:ss.sss         # No date
    yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.sssZ        # Additional Z (but not time zones)
    yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss             # No fractional seconds
    yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm                # No seconds

Note that the C<T> is required in all cases.

A date should always have a C<$format>, otherwise it will appear as a number, see L</DATES AND TIME IN EXCEL> and L</CELL FORMATTING>. Here is a typical example:

    my $date_format = $workbook->add_format( num_format => 'mm/dd/yy' );
    $worksheet->write_date_time( 'A1', '2004-05-13T23:20', $date_format );

Valid dates should be in the range 1900-01-01 to 9999-12-31, for the 1900 epoch and 1904-01-01 to 9999-12-31, for the 1904 epoch. As with Excel, dates outside these ranges will be written as a string.

See also the date_time.pl program in the C<examples> directory of the distro.




=head2 write_url( $row, $col, $url, $format, $label )

Write a hyperlink to a URL in the cell specified by C<$row> and C<$column>. The hyperlink is comprised of two elements: the visible label and the invisible link. The visible label is the same as the link unless an alternative label is specified. The C<$label> parameter is optional. The label is written using the C<write()> method. Therefore it is possible to write strings, numbers or formulas as labels.

The C<$format> parameter is also optional and the default Excel hyperlink style will be used if it isn't specified. If required you can access the default url format using the Workbook C<get_default_url_format> method:

    my $url_format = $workbook->get_default_url_format();

There are four web style URI's supported: C<http://>, C<https://>, C<ftp://> and C<mailto:>:

    $worksheet->write_url( 0, 0, 'ftp://www.perl.org/' );
    $worksheet->write_url( 'A3', 'http://www.perl.com/' );
    $worksheet->write_url( 'A4', 'mailto:jmcnamara@cpan.org' );

You can display an alternative string using the C<$label> parameter:

    $worksheet->write_url( 1, 0, 'http://www.perl.com/', undef, 'Perl' );

If you wish to have some other cell data such as a number or a formula you can overwrite the cell using another call to C<write_*()>:

    $worksheet->write_url( 'A1', 'http://www.perl.com/' );

    # Overwrite the URL string with a formula. The cell is still a link.
    # Note the use of the default url format for consistency with other links.
    my $url_format = $workbook->get_default_url_format();
    $worksheet->write_formula( 'A1', '=1+1', $url_format );

There are two local URIs supported: C<internal:> and C<external:>. These are used for hyperlinks to internal worksheet references or external workbook and worksheet references:

    $worksheet->write_url( 'A6',  'internal:Sheet2!A1' );
    $worksheet->write_url( 'A7',  'internal:Sheet2!A1' );
    $worksheet->write_url( 'A8',  'internal:Sheet2!A1:B2' );
    $worksheet->write_url( 'A9',  q{internal:'Sales Data'!A1} );
    $worksheet->write_url( 'A10', 'external:c:\temp\foo.xlsx' );
    $worksheet->write_url( 'A11', 'external:c:\foo.xlsx#Sheet2!A1' );
    $worksheet->write_url( 'A12', 'external:..\foo.xlsx' );
    $worksheet->write_url( 'A13', 'external:..\foo.xlsx#Sheet2!A1' );
    $worksheet->write_url( 'A13', 'external:\\\\NET\share\foo.xlsx' );

All of the these URI types are recognised by the C<write()> method, see above.

Worksheet references are typically of the form C<Sheet1!A1>. You can also refer to a worksheet range using the standard Excel notation: C<Sheet1!A1:B2>.

In external links the workbook and worksheet name must be separated by the C<#> character: C<external:Workbook.xlsx#Sheet1!A1'>.

You can also link to a named range in the target worksheet. For example say you have a named range called C<my_name> in the workbook C<c:\temp\foo.xlsx> you could link to it as follows:

    $worksheet->write_url( 'A14', 'external:c:\temp\foo.xlsx#my_name' );

Excel requires that worksheet names containing spaces or non alphanumeric characters are single quoted as follows C<'Sales Data'!A1>. If you need to do this in a single quoted string then you can either escape the single quotes C<\'> or use the quote operator C<q{}> as described in C<perlop> in the main Perl documentation.

Links to network files are also supported. MS/Novell Network files normally begin with two back slashes as follows C<\\NETWORK\etc>. In order to generate this in a single or double quoted string you will have to escape the backslashes,  C<'\\\\NETWORK\etc'>.

If you are using double quote strings then you should be careful to escape anything that looks like a metacharacter. For more information see C<perlfaq5: Why can't I use "C:\temp\foo" in DOS paths?>.

Finally, you can avoid most of these quoting problems by using forward slashes. These are translated internally to backslashes:

    $worksheet->write_url( 'A14', "external:c:/temp/foo.xlsx" );
    $worksheet->write_url( 'A15', 'external://NETWORK/share/foo.xlsx' );

Note: Excel::Writer::XLSX will escape the following characters in URLs as required by Excel: C<< \s " < > \ [  ] ` ^ { } >> unless the URL already contains C<%xx> style escapes. In which case it is assumed that the URL was escaped correctly by the user and will by passed directly to Excel.

Excel limits hyperlink links and anchor/locations to 255 characters each.

See also, the note about L</Cell notation>.




=head2 write_formula( $row, $column, $formula, $format, $value )

Write a formula or function to the cell specified by C<$row> and C<$column>:

    $worksheet->write_formula( 0, 0, '=$B$3 + B4' );
    $worksheet->write_formula( 1, 0, '=SIN(PI()/4)' );
    $worksheet->write_formula( 2, 0, '=SUM(B1:B5)' );
    $worksheet->write_formula( 'A4', '=IF(A3>1,"Yes", "No")' );
    $worksheet->write_formula( 'A5', '=AVERAGE(1, 2, 3, 4)' );
    $worksheet->write_formula( 'A6', '=DATEVALUE("1-Jan-2001")' );

Array formulas are also supported:

    $worksheet->write_formula( 'A7', '{=SUM(A1:B1*A2:B2)}' );

See also the C<write_array_formula()> method below.

See the note about L</Cell notation>. For more information about writing Excel formulas see L</FORMULAS AND FUNCTIONS IN EXCEL>

If required, it is also possible to specify the calculated value of the formula. This is occasionally necessary when working with non-Excel applications that don't calculate the value of the formula. The calculated C<$value> is added at the end of the argument list:

    $worksheet->write( 'A1', '=2+2', $format, 4 );

However, this probably isn't something that you will ever need to do. If you do use this feature then do so with care.




=head2 write_array_formula($first_row, $first_col, $last_row, $last_col, $formula, $format, $value)

Write an array formula to a cell range. In Excel an array formula is a formula that performs a calculation on a set of values. It can return a single value or a range of values.

An array formula is indicated by a pair of braces around the formula: C<{=SUM(A1:B1*A2:B2)}>.  If the array formula returns a single value then the C<$first_> and C<$last_> parameters should be the same:

    $worksheet->write_array_formula('A1:A1', '{=SUM(B1:C1*B2:C2)}');

It this case however it is easier to just use the C<write_formula()> or C<write()> methods:

    # Same as above but more concise.
    $worksheet->write( 'A1', '{=SUM(B1:C1*B2:C2)}' );
    $worksheet->write_formula( 'A1', '{=SUM(B1:C1*B2:C2)}' );

For array formulas that return a range of values you must specify the range that the return values will be written to:

    $worksheet->write_array_formula( 'A1:A3',    '{=TREND(C1:C3,B1:B3)}' );
    $worksheet->write_array_formula( 0, 0, 2, 0, '{=TREND(C1:C3,B1:B3)}' );

If required, it is also possible to specify the calculated value of the formula. This is occasionally necessary when working with non-Excel applications that don't calculate the value of the formula. However, using this parameter only writes a single value to the upper left cell in the result array. For a multi-cell array formula where the results are required, the other result values can be specified by using C<write_number()> to write to the appropriate cell:

    # Specify the result for a single cell range.
    $worksheet->write_array_formula( 'A1:A3', '{=SUM(B1:C1*B2:C2)}, $format, 2005 );

    # Specify the results for a multi cell range.
    $worksheet->write_array_formula( 'A1:A3', '{=TREND(C1:C3,B1:B3)}', $format, 105 );
    $worksheet->write_number( 'A2', 12, format );
    $worksheet->write_number( 'A3', 14, format );

In addition, some early versions of Excel 2007 don't calculate the values of array formulas when they aren't supplied. Installing the latest Office Service Pack should fix this issue.

See also the C<array_formula.pl> program in the C<examples> directory of the distro.

Note: Array formulas are not supported by Spreadsheet::WriteExcel.




=head2 write_boolean( $row, $column, $value, $format )

Write an Excel boolean value to the cell specified by C<$row> and C<$column>:

    $worksheet->write_boolean( 'A1', 1          );  # TRUE
    $worksheet->write_boolean( 'A2', 0          );  # FALSE
    $worksheet->write_boolean( 'A3', undef      );  # FALSE
    $worksheet->write_boolean( 'A3', 0, $format );  # FALSE, with format.

A C<$value> that is true or false using Perl's rules will be written as an Excel boolean C<TRUE> or C<FALSE> value.

See the note about L</Cell notation>.




=head2 store_formula( $formula )

Deprecated. This is a Spreadsheet::WriteExcel method that is no longer required by Excel::Writer::XLSX. See below.




=head2 repeat_formula( $row, $col, $formula, $format )

Deprecated. This is a Spreadsheet::WriteExcel method that is no longer required by Excel::Writer::XLSX.

In Spreadsheet::WriteExcel it was computationally expensive to write formulas since they were parsed by a recursive descent parser. The C<store_formula()> and C<repeat_formula()> methods were used as a way of avoiding the overhead of repeated formulas by reusing a pre-parsed formula.

In Excel::Writer::XLSX this is no longer necessary since it is just as quick to write a formula as it is to write a string or a number.

The methods remain for backward compatibility but new Excel::Writer::XLSX programs shouldn't use them.





=head2 write_comment( $row, $column, $string, ... )

The C<write_comment()> method is used to add a comment to a cell. A cell comment is indicated in Excel by a small red triangle in the upper right-hand corner of the cell. Moving the cursor over the red triangle will reveal the comment.

The following example shows how to add a comment to a cell:

    $worksheet->write        ( 2, 2, 'Hello' );
    $worksheet->write_comment( 2, 2, 'This is a comment.' );

As usual you can replace the C<$row> and C<$column> parameters with an C<A1> cell reference. See the note about L</Cell notation>.

    $worksheet->write        ( 'C3', 'Hello');
    $worksheet->write_comment( 'C3', 'This is a comment.' );

The C<write_comment()> method will also handle strings in C<UTF-8> format.

    $worksheet->write_comment( 'C3', "\x{263a}" );       # Smiley
    $worksheet->write_comment( 'C4', 'Comment ca va?' );

In addition to the basic 3 argument form of C<write_comment()> you can pass in several optional key/value pairs to control the format of the comment. For example:

    $worksheet->write_comment( 'C3', 'Hello', visible => 1, author => 'Perl' );

Most of these options are quite specific and in general the default comment behaves will be all that you need. However, should you need greater control over the format of the cell comment the following options are available:

    author
    visible
    x_scale
    width
    y_scale
    height
    color
    start_cell
    start_row
    start_col
    x_offset
    y_offset
    font
    font_size


=over 4

=item Option: author

This option is used to indicate who is the author of the cell comment. Excel displays the author of the comment in the status bar at the bottom of the worksheet. This is usually of interest in corporate environments where several people might review and provide comments to a workbook.

    $worksheet->write_comment( 'C3', 'Atonement', author => 'Ian McEwan' );

The default author for all cell comments can be set using the C<set_comments_author()> method (see below).

    $worksheet->set_comments_author( 'Perl' );


=item Option: visible

This option is used to make a cell comment visible when the worksheet is opened. The default behaviour in Excel is that comments are initially hidden. However, it is also possible in Excel to make individual or all comments visible. In Excel::Writer::XLSX individual comments can be made visible as follows:

    $worksheet->write_comment( 'C3', 'Hello', visible => 1 );

It is possible to make all comments in a worksheet visible using the C<show_comments()> worksheet method (see below). Alternatively, if all of the cell comments have been made visible you can hide individual comments:

    $worksheet->write_comment( 'C3', 'Hello', visible => 0 );


=item Option: x_scale

This option is used to set the width of the cell comment box as a factor of the default width.

    $worksheet->write_comment( 'C3', 'Hello', x_scale => 2 );
    $worksheet->write_comment( 'C4', 'Hello', x_scale => 4.2 );


=item Option: width

This option is used to set the width of the cell comment box explicitly in pixels.

    $worksheet->write_comment( 'C3', 'Hello', width => 200 );


=item Option: y_scale

This option is used to set the height of the cell comment box as a factor of the default height.

    $worksheet->write_comment( 'C3', 'Hello', y_scale => 2 );
    $worksheet->write_comment( 'C4', 'Hello', y_scale => 4.2 );


=item Option: height

This option is used to set the height of the cell comment box explicitly in pixels.

    $worksheet->write_comment( 'C3', 'Hello', height => 200 );


=item Option: color

This option is used to set the background colour of cell comment box. You can use one of the named colours recognised by Excel::Writer::XLSX or a Html style C<#RRGGBB> colour. See L</WORKING WITH COLOURS>.

    $worksheet->write_comment( 'C3', 'Hello', color => 'green' );
    $worksheet->write_comment( 'C4', 'Hello', color => '#FF6600' ); # Orange


=item Option: start_cell

This option is used to set the cell in which the comment will appear. By default Excel displays comments one cell to the right and one cell above the cell to which the comment relates. However, you can change this behaviour if you wish. In the following example the comment which would appear by default in cell C<D2> is moved to C<E2>.

    $worksheet->write_comment( 'C3', 'Hello', start_cell => 'E2' );


=item Option: start_row

This option is used to set the row in which the comment will appear. See the C<start_cell> option above. The row is zero indexed.

    $worksheet->write_comment( 'C3', 'Hello', start_row => 0 );


=item Option: start_col

This option is used to set the column in which the comment will appear. See the C<start_cell> option above. The column is zero indexed.

    $worksheet->write_comment( 'C3', 'Hello', start_col => 4 );


=item Option: x_offset

This option is used to change the x offset, in pixels, of a comment within a cell:

    $worksheet->write_comment( 'C3', $comment, x_offset => 30 );


=item Option: y_offset

This option is used to change the y offset, in pixels, of a comment within a cell:

    $worksheet->write_comment('C3', $comment, x_offset => 30);

=item Option: font

This option is used to change the font used in the comment from 'Tahoma' which is the default.

    $worksheet->write_comment('C3', $comment, font => 'Calibri');

=item Option: font_size

This option is used to change the font size used in the comment from 8 which is the default.

    $worksheet->write_comment('C3', $comment, font_size => 20);


=back

You can apply as many of these options as you require.

B<Note about using options that adjust the position of the cell comment such as start_cell, start_row, start_col, x_offset and y_offset>: Excel only displays offset cell comments when they are displayed as "visible". Excel does B<not> display hidden cells as moved when you mouse over them.

B<Note about row height and comments>. If you specify the height of a row that contains a comment then Excel::Writer::XLSX will adjust the height of the comment to maintain the default or user specified dimensions. However, the height of a row can also be adjusted automatically by Excel if the text wrap property is set or large fonts are used in the cell. This means that the height of the row is unknown to the module at run time and thus the comment box is stretched with the row. Use the C<set_row()> method to specify the row height explicitly and avoid this problem.




=head2 show_comments()

This method is used to make all cell comments visible when a worksheet is opened.

    $worksheet->show_comments();

Individual comments can be made visible using the C<visible> parameter of the C<write_comment> method (see above):

    $worksheet->write_comment( 'C3', 'Hello', visible => 1 );

If all of the cell comments have been made visible you can hide individual comments as follows:

    $worksheet->show_comments();
    $worksheet->write_comment( 'C3', 'Hello', visible => 0 );



=head2 set_comments_author()

This method is used to set the default author of all cell comments.

    $worksheet->set_comments_author( 'Perl' );

Individual comment authors can be set using the C<author> parameter of the C<write_comment> method (see above).

The default comment author is an empty string, C<''>, if no author is specified.




=head2 add_write_handler( $re, $code_ref )

This method is used to extend the Excel::Writer::XLSX write() method to handle user defined data.

If you refer to the section on C<write()> above you will see that it acts as an alias for several more specific C<write_*> methods. However, it doesn't always act in exactly the way that you would like it to.

One solution is to filter the input data yourself and call the appropriate C<write_*> method. Another approach is to use the C<add_write_handler()> method to add your own automated behaviour to C<write()>.

The C<add_write_handler()> method take two arguments, C<$re>, a regular expression to match incoming data and C<$code_ref> a callback function to handle the matched data:

    $worksheet->add_write_handler( qr/^\d\d\d\d$/, \&my_write );

(In the these examples the C<qr> operator is used to quote the regular expression strings, see L<perlop> for more details).

The method is used as follows. say you wished to write 7 digit ID numbers as a string so that any leading zeros were preserved*, you could do something like the following:

    $worksheet->add_write_handler( qr/^\d{7}$/, \&write_my_id );


    sub write_my_id {
        my $worksheet = shift;
        return $worksheet->write_string( @_ );
    }

* You could also use the C<keep_leading_zeros()> method for this.

Then if you call C<write()> with an appropriate string it will be handled automatically:

    # Writes 0000000. It would normally be written as a number; 0.
    $worksheet->write( 'A1', '0000000' );

The callback function will receive a reference to the calling worksheet and all of the other arguments that were passed to C<write()>. The callback will see an C<@_> argument list that looks like the following:

    $_[0]   A ref to the calling worksheet. *
    $_[1]   Zero based row number.
    $_[2]   Zero based column number.
    $_[3]   A number or string or token.
    $_[4]   A format ref if any.
    $_[5]   Any other arguments.
    ...

    *  It is good style to shift this off the list so the @_ is the same
       as the argument list seen by write().

Your callback should C<return()> the return value of the C<write_*> method that was called or C<undef> to indicate that you rejected the match and want C<write()> to continue as normal.

So for example if you wished to apply the previous filter only to ID values that occur in the first column you could modify your callback function as follows:


    sub write_my_id {
        my $worksheet = shift;
        my $col       = $_[1];

        if ( $col == 0 ) {
            return $worksheet->write_string( @_ );
        }
        else {
            # Reject the match and return control to write()
            return undef;
        }
    }

Now, you will get different behaviour for the first column and other columns:

    $worksheet->write( 'A1', '0000000' );    # Writes 0000000
    $worksheet->write( 'B1', '0000000' );    # Writes 0


You may add more than one handler in which case they will be called in the order that they were added.

Note, the C<add_write_handler()> method is particularly suited for handling dates.

See the C<write_handler 1-4> programs in the C<examples> directory for further examples.




=head2 insert_image( $row, $col, $filename, $x, $y, $x_scale, $y_scale )

This method can be used to insert a image into a worksheet. The image can be in PNG, JPEG or BMP format. The C<$x>, C<$y>, C<$x_scale> and C<$y_scale> parameters are optional.

    $worksheet1->insert_image( 'A1', 'perl.bmp' );
    $worksheet2->insert_image( 'A1', '../images/perl.bmp' );
    $worksheet3->insert_image( 'A1', '.c:\images\perl.bmp' );

The parameters C<$x> and C<$y> can be used to specify an offset from the top left hand corner of the cell specified by C<$row> and C<$col>. The offset values are in pixels.

    $worksheet1->insert_image('A1', 'perl.bmp', 32, 10);

The offsets can be greater than the width or height of the underlying cell. This can be occasionally useful if you wish to align two or more images relative to the same cell.

The parameters C<$x_scale> and C<$y_scale> can be used to scale the inserted image horizontally and vertically:

    # Scale the inserted image: width x 2.0, height x 0.8
    $worksheet->insert_image( 'A1', 'perl.bmp', 0, 0, 2, 0.8 );

Note: you must call C<set_row()> or C<set_column()> before C<insert_image()> if you wish to change the default dimensions of any of the rows or columns that the image occupies. The height of a row can also change if you use a font that is larger than the default. This in turn will affect the scaling of your image. To avoid this you should explicitly set the height of the row using C<set_row()> if it contains a font size that will change the row height.

BMP images must be 24 bit, true colour, bitmaps. In general it is best to avoid BMP images since they aren't compressed.




=head2 insert_chart( $row, $col, $chart, $x, $y, $x_scale, $y_scale )

This method can be used to insert a Chart object into a worksheet. The Chart must be created by the C<add_chart()> Workbook method and it must have the C<embedded> option set.

    my $chart = $workbook->add_chart( type => 'line', embedded => 1 );

    # Configure the chart.
    ...

    # Insert the chart into the a worksheet.
    $worksheet->insert_chart( 'E2', $chart );

See C<add_chart()> for details on how to create the Chart object and L<Excel::Writer::XLSX::Chart> for details on how to configure it. See also the C<chart_*.pl> programs in the examples directory of the distro.

The C<$x>, C<$y>, C<$x_scale> and C<$y_scale> parameters are optional.

The parameters C<$x> and C<$y> can be used to specify an offset from the top left hand corner of the cell specified by C<$row> and C<$col>. The offset values are in pixels.

    $worksheet1->insert_chart( 'E2', $chart, 3, 3 );

The parameters C<$x_scale> and C<$y_scale> can be used to scale the inserted chart horizontally and vertically:

    # Scale the width by 120% and the height by 150%
    $worksheet->insert_chart( 'E2', $chart, 0, 0, 1.2, 1.5 );

=head2 insert_shape( $row, $col, $shape, $x, $y, $x_scale, $y_scale )

This method can be used to insert a Shape object into a worksheet. The Shape must be created by the C<add_shape()> Workbook method.

    my $shape = $workbook->add_shape( name => 'My Shape', type => 'plus' );

    # Configure the shape.
    $shape->set_text('foo');
    ...

    # Insert the shape into the a worksheet.
    $worksheet->insert_shape( 'E2', $shape );

See C<add_shape()> for details on how to create the Shape object and L<Excel::Writer::XLSX::Shape> for details on how to configure it.

The C<$x>, C<$y>, C<$x_scale> and C<$y_scale> parameters are optional.

The parameters C<$x> and C<$y> can be used to specify an offset from the top left hand corner of the cell specified by C<$row> and C<$col>. The offset values are in pixels.

    $worksheet1->insert_shape( 'E2', $chart, 3, 3 );

The parameters C<$x_scale> and C<$y_scale> can be used to scale the inserted shape horizontally and vertically:

    # Scale the width by 120% and the height by 150%
    $worksheet->insert_shape( 'E2', $shape, 0, 0, 1.2, 1.5 );

See also the C<shape*.pl> programs in the examples directory of the distro.




=head2 insert_button( $row, $col, { %properties })

The C<insert_button()> method can be used to insert an Excel form button into a worksheet.

This method is generally only useful when used in conjunction with the Workbook C<add_vba_project()> method to tie the button to a macro from an embedded VBA project:

    my $workbook  = Excel::Writer::XLSX->new( 'file.xlsm' );
    ...
    $workbook->add_vba_project( './vbaProject.bin' );

    $worksheet->insert_button( 'C2', { macro => 'my_macro' } );

The properties of the button that can be set are:

    macro
    caption
    width
    height
    x_scale
    y_scale
    x_offset
    y_offset


=over

=item Option: macro

This option is used to set the macro that the button will invoke when the user clicks on it. The macro should be included using the Workbook C<add_vba_project()> method shown above.

    $worksheet->insert_button( 'C2', { macro => 'my_macro' } );

The default macro is C<ButtonX_Click> where X is the button number.

=item Option: caption

This option is used to set the caption on the button. The default is C<Button X> where X is the button number.

    $worksheet->insert_button( 'C2', { macro => 'my_macro', caption => 'Hello' } );

=item Option: width

This option is used to set the width of the button in pixels.

    $worksheet->insert_button( 'C2', { macro => 'my_macro', width => 128 } );

The default button width is 64 pixels which is the width of a default cell.

=item Option: height

This option is used to set the height of the button in pixels.

    $worksheet->insert_button( 'C2', { macro => 'my_macro', height => 40 } );

The default button height is 20 pixels which is the height of a default cell.

=item Option: x_scale

This option is used to set the width of the button as a factor of the default width.

    $worksheet->insert_button( 'C2', { macro => 'my_macro', x_scale => 2.0 );

=item Option: y_scale

This option is used to set the height of the button as a factor of the default height.

    $worksheet->insert_button( 'C2', { macro => 'my_macro', y_scale => 2.0 );


=item Option: x_offset

This option is used to change the x offset, in pixels, of a button within a cell:

    $worksheet->insert_button( 'C2', { macro => 'my_macro', x_offset => 2 );

=item Option: y_offset

This option is used to change the y offset, in pixels, of a comment within a cell.

=back


Note: Button is the only Excel form element that is available in Excel::Writer::XLSX. Form elements represent a lot of work to implement and the underlying VML syntax isn't very much fun.




=head2 data_validation()

The C<data_validation()> method is used to construct an Excel data validation or to limit the user input to a dropdown list of values.


    $worksheet->data_validation('B3',
        {
            validate => 'integer',
            criteria => '>',
            value    => 100,
        });

    $worksheet->data_validation('B5:B9',
        {
            validate => 'list',
            value    => ['open', 'high', 'close'],
        });

This method contains a lot of parameters and is described in detail in a separate section L</DATA VALIDATION IN EXCEL>.


See also the C<data_validate.pl> program in the examples directory of the distro




=head2 conditional_formatting()

The C<conditional_formatting()> method is used to add formatting to a cell or range of cells based on user defined criteria.

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:J10',
        {
            type     => 'cell',
            criteria => '>=',
            value    => 50,
            format   => $format1,
        }
    );

This method contains a lot of parameters and is described in detail in a separate section L<CONDITIONAL FORMATTING IN EXCEL>.

See also the C<conditional_format.pl> program in the examples directory of the distro




=head2 add_sparkline()

The C<add_sparkline()> worksheet method is used to add sparklines to a cell or a range of cells.

    $worksheet->add_sparkline(
        {
            location => 'F2',
            range    => 'Sheet1!A2:E2',
            type     => 'column',
            style    => 12,
        }
    );

This method contains a lot of parameters and is described in detail in a separate section L</SPARKLINES IN EXCEL>.

See also the C<sparklines1.pl> and C<sparklines2.pl> example programs in the C<examples> directory of the distro.

B<Note:> Sparklines are a feature of Excel 2010+ only. You can write them to an XLSX file that can be read by Excel 2007 but they won't be displayed.




=head2 add_table()

The C<add_table()> method is used to group a range of cells into an Excel Table.

    $worksheet->add_table( 'B3:F7', { ... } );

This method contains a lot of parameters and is described in detail in a separate section L<TABLES IN EXCEL>.

See also the C<tables.pl> program in the examples directory of the distro



=head2 get_name()

The C<get_name()> method is used to retrieve the name of a worksheet. For example:

    for my $sheet ( $workbook->sheets() ) {
        print $sheet->get_name();
    }

For reasons related to the design of Excel::Writer::XLSX and to the internals of Excel there is no C<set_name()> method. The only way to set the worksheet name is via the C<add_worksheet()> method.




=head2 activate()

The C<activate()> method is used to specify which worksheet is initially visible in a multi-sheet workbook:

    $worksheet1 = $workbook->add_worksheet( 'To' );
    $worksheet2 = $workbook->add_worksheet( 'the' );
    $worksheet3 = $workbook->add_worksheet( 'wind' );

    $worksheet3->activate();

This is similar to the Excel VBA activate method. More than one worksheet can be selected via the C<select()> method, see below, however only one worksheet can be active.

The default active worksheet is the first worksheet.




=head2 select()

The C<select()> method is used to indicate that a worksheet is selected in a multi-sheet workbook:

    $worksheet1->activate();
    $worksheet2->select();
    $worksheet3->select();

A selected worksheet has its tab highlighted. Selecting worksheets is a way of grouping them together so that, for example, several worksheets could be printed in one go. A worksheet that has been activated via the C<activate()> method will also appear as selected.




=head2 hide()

The C<hide()> method is used to hide a worksheet:

    $worksheet2->hide();

You may wish to hide a worksheet in order to avoid confusing a user with intermediate data or calculations.

A hidden worksheet can not be activated or selected so this method is mutually exclusive with the C<activate()> and C<select()> methods. In addition, since the first worksheet will default to being the active worksheet, you cannot hide the first worksheet without activating another sheet:

    $worksheet2->activate();
    $worksheet1->hide();




=head2 set_first_sheet()

The C<activate()> method determines which worksheet is initially selected. However, if there are a large number of worksheets the selected worksheet may not appear on the screen. To avoid this you can select which is the leftmost visible worksheet using C<set_first_sheet()>:

    for ( 1 .. 20 ) {
        $workbook->add_worksheet;
    }

    $worksheet21 = $workbook->add_worksheet();
    $worksheet22 = $workbook->add_worksheet();

    $worksheet21->set_first_sheet();
    $worksheet22->activate();

This method is not required very often. The default value is the first worksheet.




=head2 protect( $password, \%options )

The C<protect()> method is used to protect a worksheet from modification:

    $worksheet->protect();

The C<protect()> method also has the effect of enabling a cell's C<locked> and C<hidden> properties if they have been set. A I<locked> cell cannot be edited and this property is on by default for all cells. A I<hidden> cell will display the results of a formula but not the formula itself.

See the C<protection.pl> program in the examples directory of the distro for an illustrative example and the C<set_locked> and C<set_hidden> format methods in L</CELL FORMATTING>.

You can optionally add a password to the worksheet protection:

    $worksheet->protect( 'drowssap' );

Passing the empty string C<''> is the same as turning on protection without a password.

Note, the worksheet level password in Excel provides very weak protection. It does not encrypt your data and is very easy to deactivate. Full workbook encryption is not supported by C<Excel::Writer::XLSX> since it requires a completely different file format and would take several man months to implement.

You can specify which worksheet elements you wish to protect by passing a hash_ref with any or all of the following keys:

    # Default shown.
    %options = (
        objects               => 0,
        scenarios             => 0,
        format_cells          => 0,
        format_columns        => 0,
        format_rows           => 0,
        insert_columns        => 0,
        insert_rows           => 0,
        insert_hyperlinks     => 0,
        delete_columns        => 0,
        delete_rows           => 0,
        select_locked_cells   => 1,
        sort                  => 0,
        autofilter            => 0,
        pivot_tables          => 0,
        select_unlocked_cells => 1,
    );

The default boolean values are shown above. Individual elements can be protected as follows:

    $worksheet->protect( 'drowssap', { insert_rows => 1 } );

For chartsheets the allowable options and default values are:

    %options = (
        objects               => 1,
        content               => 1,
    );



=head2 set_selection( $first_row, $first_col, $last_row, $last_col )

This method can be used to specify which cell or cells are selected in a worksheet. The most common requirement is to select a single cell, in which case C<$last_row> and C<$last_col> can be omitted. The active cell within a selected range is determined by the order in which C<$first> and C<$last> are specified. It is also possible to specify a cell or a range using A1 notation. See the note about L</Cell notation>.

Examples:

    $worksheet1->set_selection( 3, 3 );          # 1. Cell D4.
    $worksheet2->set_selection( 3, 3, 6, 6 );    # 2. Cells D4 to G7.
    $worksheet3->set_selection( 6, 6, 3, 3 );    # 3. Cells G7 to D4.
    $worksheet4->set_selection( 'D4' );          # Same as 1.
    $worksheet5->set_selection( 'D4:G7' );       # Same as 2.
    $worksheet6->set_selection( 'G7:D4' );       # Same as 3.

The default cell selections is (0, 0), 'A1'.




=head2 set_row( $row, $height, $format, $hidden, $level, $collapsed )

This method can be used to change the default properties of a row. All parameters apart from C<$row> are optional.

The most common use for this method is to change the height of a row:

    $worksheet->set_row( 0, 20 );    # Row 1 height set to 20

If you wish to set the format without changing the height you can pass C<undef> as the height parameter:

    $worksheet->set_row( 0, undef, $format );

The C<$format> parameter will be applied to any cells in the row that don't have a format. For example

    $worksheet->set_row( 0, undef, $format1 );    # Set the format for row 1
    $worksheet->write( 'A1', 'Hello' );           # Defaults to $format1
    $worksheet->write( 'B1', 'Hello', $format2 ); # Keeps $format2

If you wish to define a row format in this way you should call the method before any calls to C<write()>. Calling it afterwards will overwrite any format that was previously specified.

The C<$hidden> parameter should be set to 1 if you wish to hide a row. This can be used, for example, to hide intermediary steps in a complicated calculation:

    $worksheet->set_row( 0, 20,    $format, 1 );
    $worksheet->set_row( 1, undef, undef,   1 );

The C<$level> parameter is used to set the outline level of the row. Outlines are described in L</OUTLINES AND GROUPING IN EXCEL>. Adjacent rows with the same outline level are grouped together into a single outline.

The following example sets an outline level of 1 for rows 2 and 3 (zero-indexed):

    $worksheet->set_row( 1, undef, undef, 0, 1 );
    $worksheet->set_row( 2, undef, undef, 0, 1 );

The C<$hidden> parameter can also be used to hide collapsed outlined rows when used in conjunction with the C<$level> parameter.

    $worksheet->set_row( 1, undef, undef, 1, 1 );
    $worksheet->set_row( 2, undef, undef, 1, 1 );

For collapsed outlines you should also indicate which row has the collapsed C<+> symbol using the optional C<$collapsed> parameter.

    $worksheet->set_row( 3, undef, undef, 0, 0, 1 );

For a more complete example see the C<outline.pl> and C<outline_collapsed.pl> programs in the examples directory of the distro.

Excel allows up to 7 outline levels. Therefore the C<$level> parameter should be in the range C<0 E<lt>= $level E<lt>= 7>.




=head2 set_column( $first_col, $last_col, $width, $format, $hidden, $level, $collapsed )

This method can be used to change the default properties of a single column or a range of columns. All parameters apart from C<$first_col> and C<$last_col> are optional.

If C<set_column()> is applied to a single column the value of C<$first_col> and C<$last_col> should be the same. In the case where C<$last_col> is zero it is set to the same value as C<$first_col>.

It is also possible, and generally clearer, to specify a column range using the form of A1 notation used for columns. See the note about L</Cell notation>.

Examples:

    $worksheet->set_column( 0, 0, 20 );    # Column  A   width set to 20
    $worksheet->set_column( 1, 3, 30 );    # Columns B-D width set to 30
    $worksheet->set_column( 'E:E', 20 );   # Column  E   width set to 20
    $worksheet->set_column( 'F:H', 30 );   # Columns F-H width set to 30

The width corresponds to the column width value that is specified in Excel. It is approximately equal to the length of a string in the default font of Calibri 11. Unfortunately, there is no way to specify "AutoFit" for a column in the Excel file format. This feature is only available at runtime from within Excel.

As usual the C<$format> parameter is optional, for additional information, see L</CELL FORMATTING>. If you wish to set the format without changing the width you can pass C<undef> as the width parameter:

    $worksheet->set_column( 0, 0, undef, $format );

The C<$format> parameter will be applied to any cells in the column that don't have a format. For example

    $worksheet->set_column( 'A:A', undef, $format1 );    # Set format for col 1
    $worksheet->write( 'A1', 'Hello' );                  # Defaults to $format1
    $worksheet->write( 'A2', 'Hello', $format2 );        # Keeps $format2

If you wish to define a column format in this way you should call the method before any calls to C<write()>. If you call it afterwards it won't have any effect.

A default row format takes precedence over a default column format

    $worksheet->set_row( 0, undef, $format1 );           # Set format for row 1
    $worksheet->set_column( 'A:A', undef, $format2 );    # Set format for col 1
    $worksheet->write( 'A1', 'Hello' );                  # Defaults to $format1
    $worksheet->write( 'A2', 'Hello' );                  # Defaults to $format2

The C<$hidden> parameter should be set to 1 if you wish to hide a column. This can be used, for example, to hide intermediary steps in a complicated calculation:

    $worksheet->set_column( 'D:D', 20,    $format, 1 );
    $worksheet->set_column( 'E:E', undef, undef,   1 );

The C<$level> parameter is used to set the outline level of the column. Outlines are described in L</OUTLINES AND GROUPING IN EXCEL>. Adjacent columns with the same outline level are grouped together into a single outline.

The following example sets an outline level of 1 for columns B to G:

    $worksheet->set_column( 'B:G', undef, undef, 0, 1 );

The C<$hidden> parameter can also be used to hide collapsed outlined columns when used in conjunction with the C<$level> parameter.

    $worksheet->set_column( 'B:G', undef, undef, 1, 1 );

For collapsed outlines you should also indicate which row has the collapsed C<+> symbol using the optional C<$collapsed> parameter.

    $worksheet->set_column( 'H:H', undef, undef, 0, 0, 1 );

For a more complete example see the C<outline.pl> and C<outline_collapsed.pl> programs in the examples directory of the distro.

Excel allows up to 7 outline levels. Therefore the C<$level> parameter should be in the range C<0 E<lt>= $level E<lt>= 7>.




=head2 set_default_row( $height, $hide_unused_rows )

The C<set_default_row()> method is used to set the limited number of default row properties allowed by Excel. These are the default height and the option to hide unused rows.

    $worksheet->set_default_row( 24 );  # Set the default row height to 24.

The option to hide unused rows is used by Excel as an optimisation so that the user can hide a large number of rows without generating a very large file with an entry for each hidden row.

    $worksheet->set_default_row( undef, 1 );

See the C<hide_row_col.pl> example program.




=head2 outline_settings( $visible, $symbols_below, $symbols_right, $auto_style )

The C<outline_settings()> method is used to control the appearance of outlines in Excel. Outlines are described in L</OUTLINES AND GROUPING IN EXCEL>.

The C<$visible> parameter is used to control whether or not outlines are visible. Setting this parameter to 0 will cause all outlines on the worksheet to be hidden. They can be unhidden in Excel by means of the "Show Outline Symbols" command button. The default setting is 1 for visible outlines.

    $worksheet->outline_settings( 0 );

The C<$symbols_below> parameter is used to control whether the row outline symbol will appear above or below the outline level bar. The default setting is 1 for symbols to appear below the outline level bar.

The C<$symbols_right> parameter is used to control whether the column outline symbol will appear to the left or the right of the outline level bar. The default setting is 1 for symbols to appear to the right of the outline level bar.

The C<$auto_style> parameter is used to control whether the automatic outline generator in Excel uses automatic styles when creating an outline. This has no effect on a file generated by C<Excel::Writer::XLSX> but it does have an effect on how the worksheet behaves after it is created. The default setting is 0 for "Automatic Styles" to be turned off.

The default settings for all of these parameters correspond to Excel's default parameters.


The worksheet parameters controlled by C<outline_settings()> are rarely used.




=head2 freeze_panes( $row, $col, $top_row, $left_col )

This method can be used to divide a worksheet into horizontal or vertical regions known as panes and to also "freeze" these panes so that the splitter bars are not visible. This is the same as the C<Window-E<gt>Freeze Panes> menu command in Excel

The parameters C<$row> and C<$col> are used to specify the location of the split. It should be noted that the split is specified at the top or left of a cell and that the method uses zero based indexing. Therefore to freeze the first row of a worksheet it is necessary to specify the split at row 2 (which is 1 as the zero-based index). This might lead you to think that you are using a 1 based index but this is not the case.

You can set one of the C<$row> and C<$col> parameters as zero if you do not want either a vertical or horizontal split.

Examples:

    $worksheet->freeze_panes( 1, 0 );    # Freeze the first row
    $worksheet->freeze_panes( 'A2' );    # Same using A1 notation
    $worksheet->freeze_panes( 0, 1 );    # Freeze the first column
    $worksheet->freeze_panes( 'B1' );    # Same using A1 notation
    $worksheet->freeze_panes( 1, 2 );    # Freeze first row and first 2 columns
    $worksheet->freeze_panes( 'C2' );    # Same using A1 notation

The parameters C<$top_row> and C<$left_col> are optional. They are used to specify the top-most or left-most visible row or column in the scrolling region of the panes. For example to freeze the first row and to have the scrolling region begin at row twenty:

    $worksheet->freeze_panes( 1, 0, 20, 0 );

You cannot use A1 notation for the C<$top_row> and C<$left_col> parameters.


See also the C<panes.pl> program in the C<examples> directory of the distribution.




=head2 split_panes( $y, $x, $top_row, $left_col )


This method can be used to divide a worksheet into horizontal or vertical regions known as panes. This method is different from the C<freeze_panes()> method in that the splits between the panes will be visible to the user and each pane will have its own scroll bars.

The parameters C<$y> and C<$x> are used to specify the vertical and horizontal position of the split. The units for C<$y> and C<$x> are the same as those used by Excel to specify row height and column width. However, the vertical and horizontal units are different from each other. Therefore you must specify the C<$y> and C<$x> parameters in terms of the row heights and column widths that you have set or the default values which are C<15> for a row and C<8.43> for a column.

You can set one of the C<$y> and C<$x> parameters as zero if you do not want either a vertical or horizontal split. The parameters C<$top_row> and C<$left_col> are optional. They are used to specify the top-most or left-most visible row or column in the bottom-right pane.

Example:

    $worksheet->split_panes( 15, 0,   );    # First row
    $worksheet->split_panes( 0,  8.43 );    # First column
    $worksheet->split_panes( 15, 8.43 );    # First row and column

You cannot use A1 notation with this method.

See also the C<freeze_panes()> method and the C<panes.pl> program in the C<examples> directory of the distribution.




=head2 merge_range( $first_row, $first_col, $last_row, $last_col, $token, $format )

The C<merge_range()> method allows you to merge cells that contain other types of alignment in addition to the merging:

    my $format = $workbook->add_format(
        border => 6,
        valign => 'vcenter',
        align  => 'center',
    );

    $worksheet->merge_range( 'B3:D4', 'Vertical and horizontal', $format );

C<merge_range()> writes its C<$token> argument using the worksheet C<write()> method. Therefore it will handle numbers, strings, formulas or urls as required. If you need to specify the required C<write_*()> method use the C<merge_range_type()> method, see below.

The full possibilities of this method are shown in the C<merge3.pl> to C<merge6.pl> programs in the C<examples> directory of the distribution.




=head2 merge_range_type( $type, $first_row, $first_col, $last_row, $last_col, ... )

The C<merge_range()> method, see above, uses C<write()> to insert the required data into to a merged range. However, there may be times where this isn't what you require so as an alternative the C<merge_range_type ()> method allows you to specify the type of data you wish to write. For example:

    $worksheet->merge_range_type( 'number',  'B2:C2', 123,    $format1 );
    $worksheet->merge_range_type( 'string',  'B4:C4', 'foo',  $format2 );
    $worksheet->merge_range_type( 'formula', 'B6:C6', '=1+2', $format3 );

The C<$type> must be one of the following, which corresponds to a C<write_*()> method:

    'number'
    'string'
    'formula'
    'array_formula'
    'blank'
    'rich_string'
    'date_time'
    'url'

Any arguments after the range should be whatever the appropriate method accepts:

    $worksheet->merge_range_type( 'rich_string', 'B8:C8',
                                  'This is ', $bold, 'bold', $format4 );

Note, you must always pass a C<$format> object as an argument, even if it is a default format.




=head2 set_zoom( $scale )

Set the worksheet zoom factor in the range C<10 E<lt>= $scale E<lt>= 400>:

    $worksheet1->set_zoom( 50 );
    $worksheet2->set_zoom( 75 );
    $worksheet3->set_zoom( 300 );
    $worksheet4->set_zoom( 400 );

The default zoom factor is 100. You cannot zoom to "Selection" because it is calculated by Excel at run-time.

Note, C<set_zoom()> does not affect the scale of the printed page. For that you should use C<set_print_scale()>.




=head2 right_to_left()

The C<right_to_left()> method is used to change the default direction of the worksheet from left-to-right, with the A1 cell in the top left, to right-to-left, with the A1 cell in the top right.

    $worksheet->right_to_left();

This is useful when creating Arabic, Hebrew or other near or far eastern worksheets that use right-to-left as the default direction.




=head2 hide_zero()

The C<hide_zero()> method is used to hide any zero values that appear in cells.

    $worksheet->hide_zero();

In Excel this option is found under Tools->Options->View.




=head2 set_tab_color()

The C<set_tab_color()> method is used to change the colour of the worksheet tab. You can use one of the standard colour names provided by the Format object or a Html style C<#RRGGBB> colour. See L</WORKING WITH COLOURS>.

    $worksheet1->set_tab_color( 'red' );
    $worksheet2->set_tab_color( '#FF6600' );

See the C<tab_colors.pl> program in the examples directory of the distro.




=head2 autofilter( $first_row, $first_col, $last_row, $last_col )

This method allows an autofilter to be added to a worksheet. An autofilter is a way of adding drop down lists to the headers of a 2D range of worksheet data. This allows users to filter the data based on simple criteria so that some data is shown and some is hidden.

To add an autofilter to a worksheet:

    $worksheet->autofilter( 0, 0, 10, 3 );
    $worksheet->autofilter( 'A1:D11' );    # Same as above in A1 notation.

Filter conditions can be applied using the C<filter_column()> or C<filter_column_list()> method.

See the C<autofilter.pl> program in the examples directory of the distro for a more detailed example.




=head2 filter_column( $column, $expression )

The C<filter_column> method can be used to filter columns in a autofilter range based on simple conditions.

B<NOTE:> It isn't sufficient to just specify the filter condition. You must also hide any rows that don't match the filter condition. Rows are hidden using the C<set_row()> C<visible> parameter. C<Excel::Writer::XLSX> cannot do this automatically since it isn't part of the file format. See the C<autofilter.pl> program in the examples directory of the distro for an example.

The conditions for the filter are specified using simple expressions:

    $worksheet->filter_column( 'A', 'x > 2000' );
    $worksheet->filter_column( 'B', 'x > 2000 and x < 5000' );

The C<$column> parameter can either be a zero indexed column number or a string column name.

The following operators are available:

    Operator        Synonyms
       ==           =   eq  =~
       !=           <>  ne  !=
       >
       <
       >=
       <=

       and          &&
       or           ||

The operator synonyms are just syntactic sugar to make you more comfortable using the expressions. It is important to remember that the expressions will be interpreted by Excel and not by perl.

An expression can comprise a single statement or two statements separated by the C<and> and C<or> operators. For example:

    'x <  2000'
    'x >  2000'
    'x == 2000'
    'x >  2000 and x <  5000'
    'x == 2000 or  x == 5000'

Filtering of blank or non-blank data can be achieved by using a value of C<Blanks> or C<NonBlanks> in the expression:

    'x == Blanks'
    'x == NonBlanks'

Excel also allows some simple string matching operations:

    'x =~ b*'   # begins with b
    'x !~ b*'   # doesn't begin with b
    'x =~ *b'   # ends with b
    'x !~ *b'   # doesn't end with b
    'x =~ *b*'  # contains b
    'x !~ *b*'  # doesn't contains b

You can also use C<*> to match any character or number and C<?> to match any single character or number. No other regular expression quantifier is supported by Excel's filters. Excel's regular expression characters can be escaped using C<~>.

The placeholder variable C<x> in the above examples can be replaced by any simple string. The actual placeholder name is ignored internally so the following are all equivalent:

    'x     < 2000'
    'col   < 2000'
    'Price < 2000'

Also, note that a filter condition can only be applied to a column in a range specified by the C<autofilter()> Worksheet method.

See the C<autofilter.pl> program in the examples directory of the distro for a more detailed example.

B<Note> L<Spreadsheet::WriteExcel> supports Top 10 style filters. These aren't currently supported by Excel::Writer::XLSX but may be added later.


=head2 filter_column_list( $column, @matches )

Prior to Excel 2007 it was only possible to have either 1 or 2 filter conditions such as the ones shown above in the C<filter_column> method.

Excel 2007 introduced a new list style filter where it is possible to specify 1 or more 'or' style criteria. For example if your column contained data for the first six months the initial data would be displayed as all selected as shown on the left. Then if you selected 'March', 'April' and 'May' they would be displayed as shown on the right.

    No criteria selected      Some criteria selected.

    [/] (Select all)          [X] (Select all)
    [/] January               [ ] January
    [/] February              [ ] February
    [/] March                 [/] March
    [/] April                 [/] April
    [/] May                   [/] May
    [/] June                  [ ] June

The C<filter_column_list()> method can be used to represent these types of filters:

    $worksheet->filter_column_list( 'A', 'March', 'April', 'May' );

The C<$column> parameter can either be a zero indexed column number or a string column name.

One or more criteria can be selected:

    $worksheet->filter_column_list( 0, 'March' );
    $worksheet->filter_column_list( 1, 100, 110, 120, 130 );

B<NOTE:> It isn't sufficient to just specify the filter condition. You must also hide any rows that don't match the filter condition. Rows are hidden using the C<set_row()> C<visible> parameter. C<Excel::Writer::XLSX> cannot do this automatically since it isn't part of the file format. See the C<autofilter.pl> program in the examples directory of the distro for an example.




=head2 convert_date_time( $date_string )

The C<convert_date_time()> method is used internally by the C<write_date_time()> method to convert date strings to a number that represents an Excel date and time.

It is exposed as a public method for utility purposes.

The C<$date_string> format is detailed in the C<write_date_time()> method.

=head2 Worksheet set_vba_name()

The Worksheet C<set_vba_name()> method can be used to set the VBA codename for the
worksheet (there is a similar method for the workbook VBA name). This is sometimes required when a C<vbaProject> macro included via C<add_vba_project()> refers to the worksheet. The default Excel VBA name of C<Sheet1>, etc., is used if a user defined name isn't specified.

See also L<WORKING WITH VBA MACROS>.



=head1 PAGE SET-UP METHODS

Page set-up methods affect the way that a worksheet looks when it is printed. They control features such as page headers and footers and margins. These methods are really just standard worksheet methods. They are documented here in a separate section for the sake of clarity.

The following methods are available for page set-up:

    set_landscape()
    set_portrait()
    set_page_view()
    set_paper()
    center_horizontally()
    center_vertically()
    set_margins()
    set_header()
    set_footer()
    repeat_rows()
    repeat_columns()
    hide_gridlines()
    print_row_col_headers()
    print_area()
    print_across()
    fit_to_pages()
    set_start_page()
    set_print_scale()
    print_black_and_white()
    set_h_pagebreaks()
    set_v_pagebreaks()

A common requirement when working with Excel::Writer::XLSX is to apply the same page set-up features to all of the worksheets in a workbook. To do this you can use the C<sheets()> method of the C<workbook> class to access the array of worksheets in a workbook:

    for $worksheet ( $workbook->sheets() ) {
        $worksheet->set_landscape();
    }




=head2 set_landscape()

This method is used to set the orientation of a worksheet's printed page to landscape:

    $worksheet->set_landscape();    # Landscape mode




=head2 set_portrait()

This method is used to set the orientation of a worksheet's printed page to portrait. The default worksheet orientation is portrait, so you won't generally need to call this method.

    $worksheet->set_portrait();    # Portrait mode



=head2 set_page_view()

This method is used to display the worksheet in "Page View/Layout" mode.

    $worksheet->set_page_view();



=head2 set_paper( $index )

This method is used to set the paper format for the printed output of a worksheet. The following paper styles are available:

    Index   Paper format            Paper size
    =====   ============            ==========
      0     Printer default         -
      1     Letter                  8 1/2 x 11 in
      2     Letter Small            8 1/2 x 11 in
      3     Tabloid                 11 x 17 in
      4     Ledger                  17 x 11 in
      5     Legal                   8 1/2 x 14 in
      6     Statement               5 1/2 x 8 1/2 in
      7     Executive               7 1/4 x 10 1/2 in
      8     A3                      297 x 420 mm
      9     A4                      210 x 297 mm
     10     A4 Small                210 x 297 mm
     11     A5                      148 x 210 mm
     12     B4                      250 x 354 mm
     13     B5                      182 x 257 mm
     14     Folio                   8 1/2 x 13 in
     15     Quarto                  215 x 275 mm
     16     -                       10x14 in
     17     -                       11x17 in
     18     Note                    8 1/2 x 11 in
     19     Envelope  9             3 7/8 x 8 7/8
     20     Envelope 10             4 1/8 x 9 1/2
     21     Envelope 11             4 1/2 x 10 3/8
     22     Envelope 12             4 3/4 x 11
     23     Envelope 14             5 x 11 1/2
     24     C size sheet            -
     25     D size sheet            -
     26     E size sheet            -
     27     Envelope DL             110 x 220 mm
     28     Envelope C3             324 x 458 mm
     29     Envelope C4             229 x 324 mm
     30     Envelope C5             162 x 229 mm
     31     Envelope C6             114 x 162 mm
     32     Envelope C65            114 x 229 mm
     33     Envelope B4             250 x 353 mm
     34     Envelope B5             176 x 250 mm
     35     Envelope B6             176 x 125 mm
     36     Envelope                110 x 230 mm
     37     Monarch                 3.875 x 7.5 in
     38     Envelope                3 5/8 x 6 1/2 in
     39     Fanfold                 14 7/8 x 11 in
     40     German Std Fanfold      8 1/2 x 12 in
     41     German Legal Fanfold    8 1/2 x 13 in


Note, it is likely that not all of these paper types will be available to the end user since it will depend on the paper formats that the user's printer supports. Therefore, it is best to stick to standard paper types.

    $worksheet->set_paper( 1 );    # US Letter
    $worksheet->set_paper( 9 );    # A4

If you do not specify a paper type the worksheet will print using the printer's default paper.




=head2 center_horizontally()

Center the worksheet data horizontally between the margins on the printed page:

    $worksheet->center_horizontally();




=head2 center_vertically()

Center the worksheet data vertically between the margins on the printed page:

    $worksheet->center_vertically();




=head2 set_margins( $inches )

There are several methods available for setting the worksheet margins on the printed page:

    set_margins()        # Set all margins to the same value
    set_margins_LR()     # Set left and right margins to the same value
    set_margins_TB()     # Set top and bottom margins to the same value
    set_margin_left();   # Set left margin
    set_margin_right();  # Set right margin
    set_margin_top();    # Set top margin
    set_margin_bottom(); # Set bottom margin

All of these methods take a distance in inches as a parameter. Note: 1 inch = 25.4mm. C<;-)> The default left and right margin is 0.7 inch. The default top and bottom margin is 0.75 inch. Note, these defaults are different from the defaults used in the binary file format by Spreadsheet::WriteExcel.



=head2 set_header( $string, $margin )

Headers and footers are generated using a C<$string> which is a combination of plain text and control characters. The C<$margin> parameter is optional.

The available control character are:

    Control             Category            Description
    =======             ========            ===========
    &L                  Justification       Left
    &C                                      Center
    &R                                      Right

    &P                  Information         Page number
    &N                                      Total number of pages
    &D                                      Date
    &T                                      Time
    &F                                      File name
    &A                                      Worksheet name
    &Z                                      Workbook path

    &fontsize           Font                Font size
    &"font,style"                           Font name and style
    &U                                      Single underline
    &E                                      Double underline
    &S                                      Strikethrough
    &X                                      Superscript
    &Y                                      Subscript

    &[Picture]          Images              Image placeholder
    &G                                      Same as &[Picture]

    &&                  Miscellaneous       Literal ampersand &


Text in headers and footers can be justified (aligned) to the left, center and right by prefixing the text with the control characters C<&L>, C<&C> and C<&R>.

For example (with ASCII art representation of the results):

    $worksheet->set_header('&LHello');

     ---------------------------------------------------------------
    |                                                               |
    | Hello                                                         |
    |                                                               |


    $worksheet->set_header('&CHello');

     ---------------------------------------------------------------
    |                                                               |
    |                          Hello                                |
    |                                                               |


    $worksheet->set_header('&RHello');

     ---------------------------------------------------------------
    |                                                               |
    |                                                         Hello |
    |                                                               |


For simple text, if you do not specify any justification the text will be centred. However, you must prefix the text with C<&C> if you specify a font name or any other formatting:

    $worksheet->set_header('Hello');

     ---------------------------------------------------------------
    |                                                               |
    |                          Hello                                |
    |                                                               |


You can have text in each of the justification regions:

    $worksheet->set_header('&LCiao&CBello&RCielo');

     ---------------------------------------------------------------
    |                                                               |
    | Ciao                     Bello                          Cielo |
    |                                                               |


The information control characters act as variables that Excel will update as the workbook or worksheet changes. Times and dates are in the users default format:

    $worksheet->set_header('&CPage &P of &N');

     ---------------------------------------------------------------
    |                                                               |
    |                        Page 1 of 6                            |
    |                                                               |


    $worksheet->set_header('&CUpdated at &T');

     ---------------------------------------------------------------
    |                                                               |
    |                    Updated at 12:30 PM                        |
    |                                                               |


Images can be inserted using the options shown below. Each image must have a placeholder in header string using the C<&[Picture]> or C<&G> control characters:

    $worksheet->set_header( '&L&G', 0.3, { image_left => 'logo.jpg' });



You can specify the font size of a section of the text by prefixing it with the control character C<&n> where C<n> is the font size:

    $worksheet1->set_header( '&C&30Hello Big' );
    $worksheet2->set_header( '&C&10Hello Small' );

You can specify the font of a section of the text by prefixing it with the control sequence C<&"font,style"> where C<fontname> is a font name such as "Courier New" or "Times New Roman" and C<style> is one of the standard Windows font descriptions: "Regular", "Italic", "Bold" or "Bold Italic":

    $worksheet1->set_header( '&C&"Courier New,Italic"Hello' );
    $worksheet2->set_header( '&C&"Courier New,Bold Italic"Hello' );
    $worksheet3->set_header( '&C&"Times New Roman,Regular"Hello' );

It is possible to combine all of these features together to create sophisticated headers and footers. As an aid to setting up complicated headers and footers you can record a page set-up as a macro in Excel and look at the format strings that VBA produces. Remember however that VBA uses two double quotes C<""> to indicate a single double quote. For the last example above the equivalent VBA code looks like this:

    .LeftHeader   = ""
    .CenterHeader = "&""Times New Roman,Regular""Hello"
    .RightHeader  = ""


To include a single literal ampersand C<&> in a header or footer you should use a double ampersand C<&&>:

    $worksheet1->set_header('&CCuriouser && Curiouser - Attorneys at Law');

As stated above the margin parameter is optional. As with the other margins the value should be in inches. The default header and footer margin is 0.3 inch. Note, the default margin is different from the default used in the binary file format by Spreadsheet::WriteExcel. The header and footer margin size can be set as follows:

    $worksheet->set_header( '&CHello', 0.75 );

The header and footer margins are independent of the top and bottom margins.

The available options are:

=over

=item * C<image_left> The path to the image. Requires a C<&G> or C<&[Picture]> placeholder.

=item * C<image_center> Same as above.

=item * C<image_right> Same as above.

=item * C<scale_with_doc> Scale header with document. Defaults to true.

=item * C<align_with_margins> Align header to margins. Defaults to true.

=back

The image options must have an accompanying C<&[Picture]> or C<&G> control
character in the header string:

    $worksheet->set_header(
        '&L&[Picture]&C&[Picture]&R&[Picture]',
        undef, # If you don't want to change the margin.
        {
            image_left   => 'red.jpg',
            image_center => 'blue.jpg',
            image_right  => 'yellow.jpg'
        }
      );


Note, the header or footer string must be less than 255 characters. Strings longer than this will not be written and a warning will be generated.

The C<set_header()> method can also handle Unicode strings in C<UTF-8> format.

    $worksheet->set_header( "&C\x{263a}" )


See, also the C<headers.pl> program in the C<examples> directory of the distribution.




=head2 set_footer( $string, $margin )

The syntax of the C<set_footer()> method is the same as C<set_header()>,  see above.




=head2 repeat_rows( $first_row, $last_row )

Set the number of rows to repeat at the top of each printed page.

For large Excel documents it is often desirable to have the first row or rows of the worksheet print out at the top of each page. This can be achieved by using the C<repeat_rows()> method. The parameters C<$first_row> and C<$last_row> are zero based. The C<$last_row> parameter is optional if you only wish to specify one row:

    $worksheet1->repeat_rows( 0 );    # Repeat the first row
    $worksheet2->repeat_rows( 0, 1 ); # Repeat the first two rows




=head2 repeat_columns( $first_col, $last_col )

Set the columns to repeat at the left hand side of each printed page.

For large Excel documents it is often desirable to have the first column or columns of the worksheet print out at the left hand side of each page. This can be achieved by using the C<repeat_columns()> method. The parameters C<$first_column> and C<$last_column> are zero based. The C<$last_column> parameter is optional if you only wish to specify one column. You can also specify the columns using A1 column notation, see the note about L</Cell notation>.

    $worksheet1->repeat_columns( 0 );        # Repeat the first column
    $worksheet2->repeat_columns( 0, 1 );     # Repeat the first two columns
    $worksheet3->repeat_columns( 'A:A' );    # Repeat the first column
    $worksheet4->repeat_columns( 'A:B' );    # Repeat the first two columns




=head2 hide_gridlines( $option )

This method is used to hide the gridlines on the screen and printed page. Gridlines are the lines that divide the cells on a worksheet. Screen and printed gridlines are turned on by default in an Excel worksheet. If you have defined your own cell borders you may wish to hide the default gridlines.

    $worksheet->hide_gridlines();

The following values of C<$option> are valid:

    0 : Don't hide gridlines
    1 : Hide printed gridlines only
    2 : Hide screen and printed gridlines

If you don't supply an argument or use C<undef> the default option is 1, i.e. only the printed gridlines are hidden.




=head2 print_row_col_headers()

Set the option to print the row and column headers on the printed page.

An Excel worksheet looks something like the following;

     ------------------------------------------
    |   |   A   |   B   |   C   |   D   |  ...
     ------------------------------------------
    | 1 |       |       |       |       |  ...
    | 2 |       |       |       |       |  ...
    | 3 |       |       |       |       |  ...
    | 4 |       |       |       |       |  ...
    |...|  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  ...

The headers are the letters and numbers at the top and the left of the worksheet. Since these headers serve mainly as a indication of position on the worksheet they generally do not appear on the printed page. If you wish to have them printed you can use the C<print_row_col_headers()> method:

    $worksheet->print_row_col_headers();

Do not confuse these headers with page headers as described in the C<set_header()> section above.




=head2 hide_row_col_headers()

Similar to C<print_row_col_headers()> above but set the option to hide the row and column headers within Excel so that they aren't visible to the user:

    $worksheet->hide_row_col_headers();




=head2 print_area( $first_row, $first_col, $last_row, $last_col )

This method is used to specify the area of the worksheet that will be printed. All four parameters must be specified. You can also use A1 notation, see the note about L</Cell notation>.


    $worksheet1->print_area( 'A1:H20' );    # Cells A1 to H20
    $worksheet2->print_area( 0, 0, 19, 7 ); # The same
    $worksheet2->print_area( 'A:H' );       # Columns A to H if rows have data




=head2 print_across()

The C<print_across> method is used to change the default print direction. This is referred to by Excel as the sheet "page order".

    $worksheet->print_across();

The default page order is shown below for a worksheet that extends over 4 pages. The order is called "down then across":

    [1] [3]
    [2] [4]

However, by using the C<print_across> method the print order will be changed to "across then down":

    [1] [2]
    [3] [4]




=head2 fit_to_pages( $width, $height )

The C<fit_to_pages()> method is used to fit the printed area to a specific number of pages both vertically and horizontally. If the printed area exceeds the specified number of pages it will be scaled down to fit. This guarantees that the printed area will always appear on the specified number of pages even if the page size or margins change.

    $worksheet1->fit_to_pages( 1, 1 );    # Fit to 1x1 pages
    $worksheet2->fit_to_pages( 2, 1 );    # Fit to 2x1 pages
    $worksheet3->fit_to_pages( 1, 2 );    # Fit to 1x2 pages

The print area can be defined using the C<print_area()> method as described above.

A common requirement is to fit the printed output to I<n> pages wide but have the height be as long as necessary. To achieve this set the C<$height> to zero:

    $worksheet1->fit_to_pages( 1, 0 );    # 1 page wide and as long as necessary

Note that although it is valid to use both C<fit_to_pages()> and C<set_print_scale()> on the same worksheet only one of these options can be active at a time. The last method call made will set the active option.

Note that C<fit_to_pages()> will override any manual page breaks that are defined in the worksheet.

Note: When using C<fit_to_pages()> it may also be required to set the printer paper size using C<set_paper()> or else Excel will default to "US Letter".


=head2 set_start_page( $start_page )

The C<set_start_page()> method is used to set the number of the starting page when the worksheet is printed out. The default value is 1.

    $worksheet->set_start_page( 2 );




=head2 set_print_scale( $scale )

Set the scale factor of the printed page. Scale factors in the range C<10 E<lt>= $scale E<lt>= 400> are valid:

    $worksheet1->set_print_scale( 50 );
    $worksheet2->set_print_scale( 75 );
    $worksheet3->set_print_scale( 300 );
    $worksheet4->set_print_scale( 400 );

The default scale factor is 100. Note, C<set_print_scale()> does not affect the scale of the visible page in Excel. For that you should use C<set_zoom()>.

Note also that although it is valid to use both C<fit_to_pages()> and C<set_print_scale()> on the same worksheet only one of these options can be active at a time. The last method call made will set the active option.




=head2 print_black_and_white()

Set the option to print the worksheet in black and white:

    $worksheet->print_black_and_white();




=head2 set_h_pagebreaks( @breaks )

Add horizontal page breaks to a worksheet. A page break causes all the data that follows it to be printed on the next page. Horizontal page breaks act between rows. To create a page break between rows 20 and 21 you must specify the break at row 21. However in zero index notation this is actually row 20. So you can pretend for a small while that you are using 1 index notation:

    $worksheet1->set_h_pagebreaks( 20 );    # Break between row 20 and 21

The C<set_h_pagebreaks()> method will accept a list of page breaks and you can call it more than once:

    $worksheet2->set_h_pagebreaks( 20,  40,  60,  80,  100 );    # Add breaks
    $worksheet2->set_h_pagebreaks( 120, 140, 160, 180, 200 );    # Add some more

Note: If you specify the "fit to page" option via the C<fit_to_pages()> method it will override all manual page breaks.

There is a silent limitation of about 1000 horizontal page breaks per worksheet in line with an Excel internal limitation.




=head2 set_v_pagebreaks( @breaks )

Add vertical page breaks to a worksheet. A page break causes all the data that follows it to be printed on the next page. Vertical page breaks act between columns. To create a page break between columns 20 and 21 you must specify the break at column 21. However in zero index notation this is actually column 20. So you can pretend for a small while that you are using 1 index notation:

    $worksheet1->set_v_pagebreaks(20); # Break between column 20 and 21

The C<set_v_pagebreaks()> method will accept a list of page breaks and you can call it more than once:

    $worksheet2->set_v_pagebreaks( 20,  40,  60,  80,  100 );    # Add breaks
    $worksheet2->set_v_pagebreaks( 120, 140, 160, 180, 200 );    # Add some more

Note: If you specify the "fit to page" option via the C<fit_to_pages()> method it will override all manual page breaks.




=head1 CELL FORMATTING

This section describes the methods and properties that are available for formatting cells in Excel. The properties of a cell that can be formatted include: fonts, colours, patterns, borders, alignment and number formatting.


=head2 Creating and using a Format object

Cell formatting is defined through a Format object. Format objects are created by calling the workbook C<add_format()> method as follows:

    my $format1 = $workbook->add_format();            # Set properties later
    my $format2 = $workbook->add_format( %props );    # Set at creation

The format object holds all the formatting properties that can be applied to a cell, a row or a column. The process of setting these properties is discussed in the next section.

Once a Format object has been constructed and its properties have been set it can be passed as an argument to the worksheet C<write> methods as follows:

    $worksheet->write( 0, 0, 'One', $format );
    $worksheet->write_string( 1, 0, 'Two', $format );
    $worksheet->write_number( 2, 0, 3, $format );
    $worksheet->write_blank( 3, 0, $format );

Formats can also be passed to the worksheet C<set_row()> and C<set_column()> methods to define the default property for a row or column.

    $worksheet->set_row( 0, 15, $format );
    $worksheet->set_column( 0, 0, 15, $format );




=head2 Format methods and Format properties

The following table shows the Excel format categories, the formatting properties that can be applied and the equivalent object method:


    Category   Description       Property        Method Name
    --------   -----------       --------        -----------
    Font       Font type         font            set_font()
               Font size         size            set_size()
               Font color        color           set_color()
               Bold              bold            set_bold()
               Italic            italic          set_italic()
               Underline         underline       set_underline()
               Strikeout         font_strikeout  set_font_strikeout()
               Super/Subscript   font_script     set_font_script()
               Outline           font_outline    set_font_outline()
               Shadow            font_shadow     set_font_shadow()

    Number     Numeric format    num_format      set_num_format()

    Protection Lock cells        locked          set_locked()
               Hide formulas     hidden          set_hidden()

    Alignment  Horizontal align  align           set_align()
               Vertical align    valign          set_align()
               Rotation          rotation        set_rotation()
               Text wrap         text_wrap       set_text_wrap()
               Justify last      text_justlast   set_text_justlast()
               Center across     center_across   set_center_across()
               Indentation       indent          set_indent()
               Shrink to fit     shrink          set_shrink()

    Pattern    Cell pattern      pattern         set_pattern()
               Background color  bg_color        set_bg_color()
               Foreground color  fg_color        set_fg_color()

    Border     Cell border       border          set_border()
               Bottom border     bottom          set_bottom()
               Top border        top             set_top()
               Left border       left            set_left()
               Right border      right           set_right()
               Border color      border_color    set_border_color()
               Bottom color      bottom_color    set_bottom_color()
               Top color         top_color       set_top_color()
               Left color        left_color      set_left_color()
               Right color       right_color     set_right_color()
               Diagonal type     diag_type       set_diag_type()
               Diagonal border   diag_border     set_diag_border()
               Diagonal color    diag_color      set_diag_color()

There are two ways of setting Format properties: by using the object method interface or by setting the property directly. For example, a typical use of the method interface would be as follows:

    my $format = $workbook->add_format();
    $format->set_bold();
    $format->set_color( 'red' );

By comparison the properties can be set directly by passing a hash of properties to the Format constructor:

    my $format = $workbook->add_format( bold => 1, color => 'red' );

or after the Format has been constructed by means of the C<set_format_properties()> method as follows:

    my $format = $workbook->add_format();
    $format->set_format_properties( bold => 1, color => 'red' );

You can also store the properties in one or more named hashes and pass them to the required method:

    my %font = (
        font  => 'Calibri',
        size  => 12,
        color => 'blue',
        bold  => 1,
    );

    my %shading = (
        bg_color => 'green',
        pattern  => 1,
    );


    my $format1 = $workbook->add_format( %font );            # Font only
    my $format2 = $workbook->add_format( %font, %shading );  # Font and shading


The provision of two ways of setting properties might lead you to wonder which is the best way. The method mechanism may be better if you prefer setting properties via method calls (which the author did when the code was first written) otherwise passing properties to the constructor has proved to be a little more flexible and self documenting in practice. An additional advantage of working with property hashes is that it allows you to share formatting between workbook objects as shown in the example above.

The Perl/Tk style of adding properties is also supported:

    my %font = (
        -font  => 'Calibri',
        -size  => 12,
        -color => 'blue',
        -bold  => 1,
    );




=head2 Working with formats

The default format is Calibri 11 with all other properties off.

Each unique format in Excel::Writer::XLSX must have a corresponding Format object. It isn't possible to use a Format with a write() method and then redefine the Format for use at a later stage. This is because a Format is applied to a cell not in its current state but in its final state. Consider the following example:

    my $format = $workbook->add_format();
    $format->set_bold();
    $format->set_color( 'red' );
    $worksheet->write( 'A1', 'Cell A1', $format );
    $format->set_color( 'green' );
    $worksheet->write( 'B1', 'Cell B1', $format );

Cell A1 is assigned the Format C<$format> which is initially set to the colour red. However, the colour is subsequently set to green. When Excel displays Cell A1 it will display the final state of the Format which in this case will be the colour green.

In general a method call without an argument will turn a property on, for example:

    my $format1 = $workbook->add_format();
    $format1->set_bold();       # Turns bold on
    $format1->set_bold( 1 );    # Also turns bold on
    $format1->set_bold( 0 );    # Turns bold off




=head1 FORMAT METHODS

The Format object methods are described in more detail in the following sections. In addition, there is a Perl program called C<formats.pl> in the C<examples> directory of the WriteExcel distribution. This program creates an Excel workbook called C<formats.xlsx> which contains examples of almost all the format types.

The following Format methods are available:

    set_font()
    set_size()
    set_color()
    set_bold()
    set_italic()
    set_underline()
    set_font_strikeout()
    set_font_script()
    set_font_outline()
    set_font_shadow()
    set_num_format()
    set_locked()
    set_hidden()
    set_align()
    set_rotation()
    set_text_wrap()
    set_text_justlast()
    set_center_across()
    set_indent()
    set_shrink()
    set_pattern()
    set_bg_color()
    set_fg_color()
    set_border()
    set_bottom()
    set_top()
    set_left()
    set_right()
    set_border_color()
    set_bottom_color()
    set_top_color()
    set_left_color()
    set_right_color()
    set_diag_type()
    set_diag_border()
    set_diag_color()


The above methods can also be applied directly as properties. For example C<< $format->set_bold() >> is equivalent to C<< $workbook->add_format(bold => 1) >>.


=head2 set_format_properties( %properties )

The properties of an existing Format object can be also be set by means of C<set_format_properties()>:

    my $format = $workbook->add_format();
    $format->set_format_properties( bold => 1, color => 'red' );

However, this method is here mainly for legacy reasons. It is preferable to set the properties in the format constructor:

    my $format = $workbook->add_format( bold => 1, color => 'red' );


=head2 set_font( $fontname )

    Default state:      Font is Calibri
    Default action:     None
    Valid args:         Any valid font name

Specify the font used:

    $format->set_font('Times New Roman');

Excel can only display fonts that are installed on the system that it is running on. Therefore it is best to use the fonts that come as standard such as 'Calibri', 'Times New Roman' and 'Courier New'. See also the Fonts worksheet created by formats.pl




=head2 set_size()

    Default state:      Font size is 10
    Default action:     Set font size to 1
    Valid args:         Integer values from 1 to as big as your screen.


Set the font size. Excel adjusts the height of a row to accommodate the largest font size in the row. You can also explicitly specify the height of a row using the set_row() worksheet method.

    my $format = $workbook->add_format();
    $format->set_size( 30 );





=head2 set_color()

    Default state:      Excels default color, usually black
    Default action:     Set the default color
    Valid args:         Integers from 8..63 or the following strings:
                        'black'
                        'blue'
                        'brown'
                        'cyan'
                        'gray'
                        'green'
                        'lime'
                        'magenta'
                        'navy'
                        'orange'
                        'pink'
                        'purple'
                        'red'
                        'silver'
                        'white'
                        'yellow'

Set the font colour. The C<set_color()> method is used as follows:

    my $format = $workbook->add_format();
    $format->set_color( 'red' );
    $worksheet->write( 0, 0, 'wheelbarrow', $format );

Note: The C<set_color()> method is used to set the colour of the font in a cell. To set the colour of a cell use the C<set_bg_color()> and C<set_pattern()> methods.

For additional examples see the 'Named colors' and 'Standard colors' worksheets created by formats.pl in the examples directory.

See also L</WORKING WITH COLOURS>.




=head2 set_bold()

    Default state:      bold is off
    Default action:     Turn bold on
    Valid args:         0, 1

Set the bold property of the font:

    $format->set_bold();  # Turn bold on




=head2 set_italic()

    Default state:      Italic is off
    Default action:     Turn italic on
    Valid args:         0, 1

Set the italic property of the font:

    $format->set_italic();  # Turn italic on




=head2 set_underline()

    Default state:      Underline is off
    Default action:     Turn on single underline
    Valid args:         0  = No underline
                        1  = Single underline
                        2  = Double underline
                        33 = Single accounting underline
                        34 = Double accounting underline

Set the underline property of the font.

    $format->set_underline();   # Single underline




=head2 set_font_strikeout()

    Default state:      Strikeout is off
    Default action:     Turn strikeout on
    Valid args:         0, 1

Set the strikeout property of the font.




=head2 set_font_script()

    Default state:      Super/Subscript is off
    Default action:     Turn Superscript on
    Valid args:         0  = Normal
                        1  = Superscript
                        2  = Subscript

Set the superscript/subscript property of the font.




=head2 set_font_outline()

    Default state:      Outline is off
    Default action:     Turn outline on
    Valid args:         0, 1

Macintosh only.




=head2 set_font_shadow()

    Default state:      Shadow is off
    Default action:     Turn shadow on
    Valid args:         0, 1

Macintosh only.




=head2 set_num_format()

    Default state:      General format
    Default action:     Format index 1
    Valid args:         See the following table

This method is used to define the numerical format of a number in Excel. It controls whether a number is displayed as an integer, a floating point number, a date, a currency value or some other user defined format.

The numerical format of a cell can be specified by using a format string or an index to one of Excel's built-in formats:

    my $format1 = $workbook->add_format();
    my $format2 = $workbook->add_format();
    $format1->set_num_format( 'd mmm yyyy' );    # Format string
    $format2->set_num_format( 0x0f );            # Format index

    $worksheet->write( 0, 0, 36892.521, $format1 );    # 1 Jan 2001
    $worksheet->write( 0, 0, 36892.521, $format2 );    # 1-Jan-01


Using format strings you can define very sophisticated formatting of numbers.

    $format01->set_num_format( '0.000' );
    $worksheet->write( 0, 0, 3.1415926, $format01 );    # 3.142

    $format02->set_num_format( '#,##0' );
    $worksheet->write( 1, 0, 1234.56, $format02 );      # 1,235

    $format03->set_num_format( '#,##0.00' );
    $worksheet->write( 2, 0, 1234.56, $format03 );      # 1,234.56

    $format04->set_num_format( '$0.00' );
    $worksheet->write( 3, 0, 49.99, $format04 );        # $49.99

    # Note you can use other currency symbols such as the pound or yen as well.
    # Other currencies may require the use of Unicode.

    $format07->set_num_format( 'mm/dd/yy' );
    $worksheet->write( 6, 0, 36892.521, $format07 );    # 01/01/01

    $format08->set_num_format( 'mmm d yyyy' );
    $worksheet->write( 7, 0, 36892.521, $format08 );    # Jan 1 2001

    $format09->set_num_format( 'd mmmm yyyy' );
    $worksheet->write( 8, 0, 36892.521, $format09 );    # 1 January 2001

    $format10->set_num_format( 'dd/mm/yyyy hh:mm AM/PM' );
    $worksheet->write( 9, 0, 36892.521, $format10 );    # 01/01/2001 12:30 AM

    $format11->set_num_format( '0 "dollar and" .00 "cents"' );
    $worksheet->write( 10, 0, 1.87, $format11 );        # 1 dollar and .87 cents

    # Conditional numerical formatting.
    $format12->set_num_format( '[Green]General;[Red]-General;General' );
    $worksheet->write( 11, 0, 123, $format12 );         # > 0 Green
    $worksheet->write( 12, 0, -45, $format12 );         # < 0 Red
    $worksheet->write( 13, 0, 0,   $format12 );         # = 0 Default colour

    # Zip code
    $format13->set_num_format( '00000' );
    $worksheet->write( 14, 0, '01209', $format13 );


The number system used for dates is described in L</DATES AND TIME IN EXCEL>.

The colour format should have one of the following values:

    [Black] [Blue] [Cyan] [Green] [Magenta] [Red] [White] [Yellow]

Alternatively you can specify the colour based on a colour index as follows: C<[Color n]>, where n is a standard Excel colour index - 7. See the 'Standard colors' worksheet created by formats.pl.

For more information refer to the documentation on formatting in the C<docs> directory of the Excel::Writer::XLSX distro, the Excel on-line help or L<http://office.microsoft.com/en-gb/assistance/HP051995001033.aspx>.

You should ensure that the format string is valid in Excel prior to using it in WriteExcel.

Excel's built-in formats are shown in the following table:

    Index   Index   Format String
    0       0x00    General
    1       0x01    0
    2       0x02    0.00
    3       0x03    #,##0
    4       0x04    #,##0.00
    5       0x05    ($#,##0_);($#,##0)
    6       0x06    ($#,##0_);[Red]($#,##0)
    7       0x07    ($#,##0.00_);($#,##0.00)
    8       0x08    ($#,##0.00_);[Red]($#,##0.00)
    9       0x09    0%
    10      0x0a    0.00%
    11      0x0b    0.00E+00
    12      0x0c    # ?/?
    13      0x0d    # ??/??
    14      0x0e    m/d/yy
    15      0x0f    d-mmm-yy
    16      0x10    d-mmm
    17      0x11    mmm-yy
    18      0x12    h:mm AM/PM
    19      0x13    h:mm:ss AM/PM
    20      0x14    h:mm
    21      0x15    h:mm:ss
    22      0x16    m/d/yy h:mm
    ..      ....    ...........
    37      0x25    (#,##0_);(#,##0)
    38      0x26    (#,##0_);[Red](#,##0)
    39      0x27    (#,##0.00_);(#,##0.00)
    40      0x28    (#,##0.00_);[Red](#,##0.00)
    41      0x29    _(* #,##0_);_(* (#,##0);_(* "-"_);_(@_)
    42      0x2a    _($* #,##0_);_($* (#,##0);_($* "-"_);_(@_)
    43      0x2b    _(* #,##0.00_);_(* (#,##0.00);_(* "-"??_);_(@_)
    44      0x2c    _($* #,##0.00_);_($* (#,##0.00);_($* "-"??_);_(@_)
    45      0x2d    mm:ss
    46      0x2e    [h]:mm:ss
    47      0x2f    mm:ss.0
    48      0x30    ##0.0E+0
    49      0x31    @


For examples of these formatting codes see the 'Numerical formats' worksheet created by formats.pl. See also the number_formats1.html and the number_formats2.html documents in the C<docs> directory of the distro.

Note 1. Numeric formats 23 to 36 are not documented by Microsoft and may differ in international versions.

Note 2. The dollar sign appears as the defined local currency symbol.




=head2 set_locked()

    Default state:      Cell locking is on
    Default action:     Turn locking on
    Valid args:         0, 1

This property can be used to prevent modification of a cells contents. Following Excel's convention, cell locking is turned on by default. However, it only has an effect if the worksheet has been protected, see the worksheet C<protect()> method.

    my $locked = $workbook->add_format();
    $locked->set_locked( 1 );    # A non-op

    my $unlocked = $workbook->add_format();
    $locked->set_locked( 0 );

    # Enable worksheet protection
    $worksheet->protect();

    # This cell cannot be edited.
    $worksheet->write( 'A1', '=1+2', $locked );

    # This cell can be edited.
    $worksheet->write( 'A2', '=1+2', $unlocked );

Note: This offers weak protection even with a password, see the note in relation to the C<protect()> method.




=head2 set_hidden()

    Default state:      Formula hiding is off
    Default action:     Turn hiding on
    Valid args:         0, 1

This property is used to hide a formula while still displaying its result. This is generally used to hide complex calculations from end users who are only interested in the result. It only has an effect if the worksheet has been protected, see the worksheet C<protect()> method.

    my $hidden = $workbook->add_format();
    $hidden->set_hidden();

    # Enable worksheet protection
    $worksheet->protect();

    # The formula in this cell isn't visible
    $worksheet->write( 'A1', '=1+2', $hidden );


Note: This offers weak protection even with a password, see the note in relation to the C<protect()> method.




=head2 set_align()

    Default state:      Alignment is off
    Default action:     Left alignment
    Valid args:         'left'              Horizontal
                        'center'
                        'right'
                        'fill'
                        'justify'
                        'center_across'

                        'top'               Vertical
                        'vcenter'
                        'bottom'
                        'vjustify'

This method is used to set the horizontal and vertical text alignment within a cell. Vertical and horizontal alignments can be combined. The method is used as follows:

    my $format = $workbook->add_format();
    $format->set_align( 'center' );
    $format->set_align( 'vcenter' );
    $worksheet->set_row( 0, 30 );
    $worksheet->write( 0, 0, 'X', $format );

Text can be aligned across two or more adjacent cells using the C<center_across> property. However, for genuine merged cells it is better to use the C<merge_range()> worksheet method.

The C<vjustify> (vertical justify) option can be used to provide automatic text wrapping in a cell. The height of the cell will be adjusted to accommodate the wrapped text. To specify where the text wraps use the C<set_text_wrap()> method.


For further examples see the 'Alignment' worksheet created by formats.pl.




=head2 set_center_across()

    Default state:      Center across selection is off
    Default action:     Turn center across on
    Valid args:         1

Text can be aligned across two or more adjacent cells using the C<set_center_across()> method. This is an alias for the C<set_align('center_across')> method call.

Only one cell should contain the text, the other cells should be blank:

    my $format = $workbook->add_format();
    $format->set_center_across();

    $worksheet->write( 1, 1, 'Center across selection', $format );
    $worksheet->write_blank( 1, 2, $format );

See also the C<merge1.pl> to C<merge6.pl> programs in the C<examples> directory and the C<merge_range()> method.



=head2 set_text_wrap()

    Default state:      Text wrap is off
    Default action:     Turn text wrap on
    Valid args:         0, 1


Here is an example using the text wrap property, the escape character C<\n> is used to indicate the end of line:

    my $format = $workbook->add_format();
    $format->set_text_wrap();
    $worksheet->write( 0, 0, "It's\na bum\nwrap", $format );

Excel will adjust the height of the row to accommodate the wrapped text. A similar effect can be obtained without newlines using the C<set_align('vjustify')> method. See the C<textwrap.pl> program in the C<examples> directory.




=head2 set_rotation()

    Default state:      Text rotation is off
    Default action:     None
    Valid args:         Integers in the range -90 to 90 and 270

Set the rotation of the text in a cell. The rotation can be any angle in the range -90 to 90 degrees.

    my $format = $workbook->add_format();
    $format->set_rotation( 30 );
    $worksheet->write( 0, 0, 'This text is rotated', $format );


The angle 270 is also supported. This indicates text where the letters run from top to bottom.



=head2 set_indent()

    Default state:      Text indentation is off
    Default action:     Indent text 1 level
    Valid args:         Positive integers


This method can be used to indent text. The argument, which should be an integer, is taken as the level of indentation:


    my $format = $workbook->add_format();
    $format->set_indent( 2 );
    $worksheet->write( 0, 0, 'This text is indented', $format );


Indentation is a horizontal alignment property. It will override any other horizontal properties but it can be used in conjunction with vertical properties.




=head2 set_shrink()

    Default state:      Text shrinking is off
    Default action:     Turn "shrink to fit" on
    Valid args:         1


This method can be used to shrink text so that it fits in a cell.


    my $format = $workbook->add_format();
    $format->set_shrink();
    $worksheet->write( 0, 0, 'Honey, I shrunk the text!', $format );




=head2 set_text_justlast()

    Default state:      Justify last is off
    Default action:     Turn justify last on
    Valid args:         0, 1


Only applies to Far Eastern versions of Excel.




=head2 set_pattern()

    Default state:      Pattern is off
    Default action:     Solid fill is on
    Valid args:         0 .. 18

Set the background pattern of a cell.

Examples of the available patterns are shown in the 'Patterns' worksheet created by formats.pl. However, it is unlikely that you will ever need anything other than Pattern 1 which is a solid fill of the background color.




=head2 set_bg_color()

    Default state:      Color is off
    Default action:     Solid fill.
    Valid args:         See set_color()

The C<set_bg_color()> method can be used to set the background colour of a pattern. Patterns are defined via the C<set_pattern()> method. If a pattern hasn't been defined then a solid fill pattern is used as the default.

Here is an example of how to set up a solid fill in a cell:

    my $format = $workbook->add_format();

    $format->set_pattern();    # This is optional when using a solid fill

    $format->set_bg_color( 'green' );
    $worksheet->write( 'A1', 'Ray', $format );

For further examples see the 'Patterns' worksheet created by formats.pl.




=head2 set_fg_color()

    Default state:      Color is off
    Default action:     Solid fill.
    Valid args:         See set_color()


The C<set_fg_color()> method can be used to set the foreground colour of a pattern.

For further examples see the 'Patterns' worksheet created by formats.pl.




=head2 set_border()

    Also applies to:    set_bottom()
                        set_top()
                        set_left()
                        set_right()

    Default state:      Border is off
    Default action:     Set border type 1
    Valid args:         0-13, See below.

A cell border is comprised of a border on the bottom, top, left and right. These can be set to the same value using C<set_border()> or individually using the relevant method calls shown above.

The following shows the border styles sorted by Excel::Writer::XLSX index number:

    Index   Name            Weight   Style
    =====   =============   ======   ===========
    0       None            0
    1       Continuous      1        -----------
    2       Continuous      2        -----------
    3       Dash            1        - - - - - -
    4       Dot             1        . . . . . .
    5       Continuous      3        -----------
    6       Double          3        ===========
    7       Continuous      0        -----------
    8       Dash            2        - - - - - -
    9       Dash Dot        1        - . - . - .
    10      Dash Dot        2        - . - . - .
    11      Dash Dot Dot    1        - . . - . .
    12      Dash Dot Dot    2        - . . - . .
    13      SlantDash Dot   2        / - . / - .


The following shows the borders sorted by style:

    Name            Weight   Style         Index
    =============   ======   ===========   =====
    Continuous      0        -----------   7
    Continuous      1        -----------   1
    Continuous      2        -----------   2
    Continuous      3        -----------   5
    Dash            1        - - - - - -   3
    Dash            2        - - - - - -   8
    Dash Dot        1        - . - . - .   9
    Dash Dot        2        - . - . - .   10
    Dash Dot Dot    1        - . . - . .   11
    Dash Dot Dot    2        - . . - . .   12
    Dot             1        . . . . . .   4
    Double          3        ===========   6
    None            0                      0
    SlantDash Dot   2        / - . / - .   13


The following shows the borders in the order shown in the Excel Dialog.

    Index   Style             Index   Style
    =====   =====             =====   =====
    0       None              12      - . . - . .
    7       -----------       13      / - . / - .
    4       . . . . . .       10      - . - . - .
    11      - . . - . .       8       - - - - - -
    9       - . - . - .       2       -----------
    3       - - - - - -       5       -----------
    1       -----------       6       ===========


Examples of the available border styles are shown in the 'Borders' worksheet created by formats.pl.




=head2 set_border_color()

    Also applies to:    set_bottom_color()
                        set_top_color()
                        set_left_color()
                        set_right_color()

    Default state:      Color is off
    Default action:     Undefined
    Valid args:         See set_color()


Set the colour of the cell borders. A cell border is comprised of a border on the bottom, top, left and right. These can be set to the same colour using C<set_border_color()> or individually using the relevant method calls shown above. Examples of the border styles and colours are shown in the 'Borders' worksheet created by formats.pl.


=head2 set_diag_type()

    Default state:      Diagonal border is off.
    Default action:     None.
    Valid args:         1-3, See below.

Set the diagonal border type for the cell. Three types of diagonal borders are available in Excel:

   1: From bottom left to top right.
   2: From top left to bottom right.
   3: Same as 1 and 2 combined.

For example:

    $format->set_diag_type( 3 );



=head2 set_diag_border()

    Default state:      Border is off
    Default action:     Set border type 1
    Valid args:         0-13, See below.

Set the diagonal border style. Same as the parameter to C<set_border()> above.




=head2 set_diag_color()

    Default state:      Color is off
    Default action:     Undefined
    Valid args:         See set_color()


Set the colour of the diagonal cell border:

    $format->set_diag_type( 3 );
    $format->set_diag_border( 7 );
    $format->set_diag_color( 'red' );



=head2 copy( $format )

This method is used to copy all of the properties from one Format object to another:

    my $lorry1 = $workbook->add_format();
    $lorry1->set_bold();
    $lorry1->set_italic();
    $lorry1->set_color( 'red' );    # lorry1 is bold, italic and red

    my $lorry2 = $workbook->add_format();
    $lorry2->copy( $lorry1 );
    $lorry2->set_color( 'yellow' );    # lorry2 is bold, italic and yellow

The C<copy()> method is only useful if you are using the method interface to Format properties. It generally isn't required if you are setting Format properties directly using hashes.


Note: this is not a copy constructor, both objects must exist prior to copying.




=head1 UNICODE IN EXCEL

The following is a brief introduction to handling Unicode in C<Excel::Writer::XLSX>.

I<For a more general introduction to Unicode handling in Perl see> L<perlunitut> and L<perluniintro>.

Excel::Writer::XLSX writer differs from Spreadsheet::WriteExcel in that it only handles Unicode data in C<UTF-8> format and doesn't try to handle legacy UTF-16 Excel formats.

If the data is in C<UTF-8> format then Excel::Writer::XLSX will handle it automatically.

If you are dealing with non-ASCII characters that aren't in C<UTF-8> then perl provides useful tools in the guise of the C<Encode> module to help you to convert to the required format. For example:

    use Encode 'decode';

    my $string = 'some string with koi8-r characters';
       $string = decode('koi8-r', $string); # koi8-r to utf8

Alternatively you can read data from an encoded file and convert it to C<UTF-8> as you read it in:


    my $file = 'unicode_koi8r.txt';
    open FH, '<:encoding(koi8-r)', $file or die "Couldn't open $file: $!\n";

    my $row = 0;
    while ( <FH> ) {
        # Data read in is now in utf8 format.
        chomp;
        $worksheet->write( $row++, 0, $_ );
    }

These methodologies are explained in more detail in L<perlunitut>, L<perluniintro> and L<perlunicode>.

If the program contains UTF-8 text then you will also need to add C<use utf8> to the includes:

    use utf8;

    ...

    $worksheet->write( 'A1', 'Some UTF-8 string' );


See also the C<unicode_*.pl> programs in the examples directory of the distro.




=head1 WORKING WITH COLOURS

Throughout Excel::Writer::XLSX colours can be specified using a Html style C<#RRGGBB> value. For example with a Format object:

    $format->set_font_color( '#FF0000' );

For backward compatibility a limited number of color names are supported:

    $format->set_font_color( 'red' );

The color names supported are:

    black
    blue
    brown
    cyan
    gray
    green
    lime
    magenta
    navy
    orange
    pink
    purple
    red
    silver
    white
    yellow

See also C<colors.pl> in the C<examples> directory.


=head1 DATES AND TIME IN EXCEL

There are two important things to understand about dates and times in Excel:

=over 4

=item 1 A date/time in Excel is a real number plus an Excel number format.

=item 2 Excel::Writer::XLSX doesn't automatically convert date/time strings in C<write()> to an Excel date/time.

=back

These two points are explained in more detail below along with some suggestions on how to convert times and dates to the required format.


=head2 An Excel date/time is a number plus a format

If you write a date string with C<write()> then all you will get is a string:

    $worksheet->write( 'A1', '02/03/04' );   # !! Writes a string not a date. !!

Dates and times in Excel are represented by real numbers, for example "Jan 1 2001 12:30 AM" is represented by the number 36892.521.

The integer part of the number stores the number of days since the epoch and the fractional part stores the percentage of the day.

A date or time in Excel is just like any other number. To have the number display as a date you must apply an Excel number format to it. Here are some examples.

    #!/usr/bin/perl -w

    use strict;
    use Excel::Writer::XLSX;

    my $workbook  = Excel::Writer::XLSX->new( 'date_examples.xlsx' );
    my $worksheet = $workbook->add_worksheet();

    $worksheet->set_column( 'A:A', 30 );    # For extra visibility.

    my $number = 39506.5;

    $worksheet->write( 'A1', $number );             #   39506.5

    my $format2 = $workbook->add_format( num_format => 'dd/mm/yy' );
    $worksheet->write( 'A2', $number, $format2 );    #  28/02/08

    my $format3 = $workbook->add_format( num_format => 'mm/dd/yy' );
    $worksheet->write( 'A3', $number, $format3 );    #  02/28/08

    my $format4 = $workbook->add_format( num_format => 'd-m-yyyy' );
    $worksheet->write( 'A4', $number, $format4 );    #  28-2-2008

    my $format5 = $workbook->add_format( num_format => 'dd/mm/yy hh:mm' );
    $worksheet->write( 'A5', $number, $format5 );    #  28/02/08 12:00

    my $format6 = $workbook->add_format( num_format => 'd mmm yyyy' );
    $worksheet->write( 'A6', $number, $format6 );    # 28 Feb 2008

    my $format7 = $workbook->add_format( num_format => 'mmm d yyyy hh:mm AM/PM' );
    $worksheet->write('A7', $number , $format7);     #  Feb 28 2008 12:00 PM

    $workbook->close();

=head2 Excel::Writer::XLSX doesn't automatically convert date/time strings

Excel::Writer::XLSX doesn't automatically convert input date strings into Excel's formatted date numbers due to the large number of possible date formats and also due to the possibility of misinterpretation.

For example, does C<02/03/04> mean March 2 2004, February 3 2004 or even March 4 2002.

Therefore, in order to handle dates you will have to convert them to numbers and apply an Excel format. Some methods for converting dates are listed in the next section.

The most direct way is to convert your dates to the ISO8601 C<yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.sss> date format and use the C<write_date_time()> worksheet method:

    $worksheet->write_date_time( 'A2', '2001-01-01T12:20', $format );

See the C<write_date_time()> section of the documentation for more details.

A general methodology for handling date strings with C<write_date_time()> is:

    1. Identify incoming date/time strings with a regex.
    2. Extract the component parts of the date/time using the same regex.
    3. Convert the date/time to the ISO8601 format.
    4. Write the date/time using write_date_time() and a number format.

Here is an example:

    #!/usr/bin/perl -w

    use strict;
    use Excel::Writer::XLSX;

    my $workbook  = Excel::Writer::XLSX->new( 'example.xlsx' );
    my $worksheet = $workbook->add_worksheet();

    # Set the default format for dates.
    my $date_format = $workbook->add_format( num_format => 'mmm d yyyy' );

    # Increase column width to improve visibility of data.
    $worksheet->set_column( 'A:C', 20 );

    # Simulate reading from a data source.
    my $row = 0;

    while ( <DATA> ) {
        chomp;

        my $col  = 0;
        my @data = split ' ';

        for my $item ( @data ) {

            # Match dates in the following formats: d/m/yy, d/m/yyyy
            if ( $item =~ qr[^(\d{1,2})/(\d{1,2})/(\d{4})$] ) {

                # Change to the date format required by write_date_time().
                my $date = sprintf "%4d-%02d-%02dT", $3, $2, $1;

                $worksheet->write_date_time( $row, $col++, $date,
                    $date_format );
            }
            else {

                # Just plain data
                $worksheet->write( $row, $col++, $item );
            }
        }
        $row++;
    }

    $workbook->close();

    __DATA__
    Item    Cost    Date
    Book    10      1/9/2007
    Beer    4       12/9/2007
    Bed     500     5/10/2007

For a slightly more advanced solution you can modify the C<write()> method to handle date formats of your choice via the C<add_write_handler()> method. See the C<add_write_handler()> section of the docs and the write_handler3.pl and write_handler4.pl programs in the examples directory of the distro.


=head2 Converting dates and times to an Excel date or time

The C<write_date_time()> method above is just one way of handling dates and times.

You can also use the C<convert_date_time()> worksheet method to convert from an ISO8601 style date string to an Excel date and time number.

The L<Excel::Writer::XLSX::Utility> module which is included in the distro has date/time handling functions:

    use Excel::Writer::XLSX::Utility;

    $date           = xl_date_list(2002, 1, 1);         # 37257
    $date           = xl_parse_date("11 July 1997");    # 35622
    $time           = xl_parse_time('3:21:36 PM');      # 0.64
    $date           = xl_decode_date_EU("13 May 2002"); # 37389

Note: some of these functions require additional CPAN modules.

For date conversions using the CPAN C<DateTime> framework see L<DateTime::Format::Excel> L<http://search.cpan.org/search?dist=DateTime-Format-Excel>.




=head1 OUTLINES AND GROUPING IN EXCEL


Excel allows you to group rows or columns so that they can be hidden or displayed with a single mouse click. This feature is referred to as outlines.

Outlines can reduce complex data down to a few salient sub-totals or summaries.

This feature is best viewed in Excel but the following is an ASCII representation of what a worksheet with three outlines might look like. Rows 3-4 and rows 7-8 are grouped at level 2. Rows 2-9 are grouped at level 1. The lines at the left hand side are called outline level bars.


            ------------------------------------------
     1 2 3 |   |   A   |   B   |   C   |   D   |  ...
            ------------------------------------------
      _    | 1 |   A   |       |       |       |  ...
     |  _  | 2 |   B   |       |       |       |  ...
     | |   | 3 |  (C)  |       |       |       |  ...
     | |   | 4 |  (D)  |       |       |       |  ...
     | -   | 5 |   E   |       |       |       |  ...
     |  _  | 6 |   F   |       |       |       |  ...
     | |   | 7 |  (G)  |       |       |       |  ...
     | |   | 8 |  (H)  |       |       |       |  ...
     | -   | 9 |   I   |       |       |       |  ...
     -     | . |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  ...


Clicking the minus sign on each of the level 2 outlines will collapse and hide the data as shown in the next figure. The minus sign changes to a plus sign to indicate that the data in the outline is hidden.

            ------------------------------------------
     1 2 3 |   |   A   |   B   |   C   |   D   |  ...
            ------------------------------------------
      _    | 1 |   A   |       |       |       |  ...
     |     | 2 |   B   |       |       |       |  ...
     | +   | 5 |   E   |       |       |       |  ...
     |     | 6 |   F   |       |       |       |  ...
     | +   | 9 |   I   |       |       |       |  ...
     -     | . |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  ...


Clicking on the minus sign on the level 1 outline will collapse the remaining rows as follows:

            ------------------------------------------
     1 2 3 |   |   A   |   B   |   C   |   D   |  ...
            ------------------------------------------
           | 1 |   A   |       |       |       |  ...
     +     | . |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  ...


Grouping in C<Excel::Writer::XLSX> is achieved by setting the outline level via the C<set_row()> and C<set_column()> worksheet methods:

    set_row( $row, $height, $format, $hidden, $level, $collapsed )
    set_column( $first_col, $last_col, $width, $format, $hidden, $level, $collapsed )

The following example sets an outline level of 1 for rows 2 and 3 (zero-indexed) and columns B to G. The parameters C<$height> and C<$XF> are assigned default values since they are undefined:

    $worksheet->set_row( 1, undef, undef, 0, 1 );
    $worksheet->set_row( 2, undef, undef, 0, 1 );
    $worksheet->set_column( 'B:G', undef, undef, 0, 1 );

Excel allows up to 7 outline levels. Therefore the C<$level> parameter should be in the range C<0 E<lt>= $level E<lt>= 7>.

Rows and columns can be collapsed by setting the C<$hidden> flag for the hidden rows/columns and setting the C<$collapsed> flag for the row/column that has the collapsed C<+> symbol:

    $worksheet->set_row( 1, undef, undef, 1, 1 );
    $worksheet->set_row( 2, undef, undef, 1, 1 );
    $worksheet->set_row( 3, undef, undef, 0, 0, 1 );          # Collapsed flag.

    $worksheet->set_column( 'B:G', undef, undef, 1, 1 );
    $worksheet->set_column( 'H:H', undef, undef, 0, 0, 1 );   # Collapsed flag.

Note: Setting the C<$collapsed> flag is particularly important for compatibility with OpenOffice.org and Gnumeric.

For a more complete example see the C<outline.pl> and C<outline_collapsed.pl> programs in the examples directory of the distro.

Some additional outline properties can be set via the C<outline_settings()> worksheet method, see above.




=head1 DATA VALIDATION IN EXCEL

Data validation is a feature of Excel which allows you to restrict the data that a users enters in a cell and to display help and warning messages. It also allows you to restrict input to values in a drop down list.

A typical use case might be to restrict data in a cell to integer values in a certain range, to provide a help message to indicate the required value and to issue a warning if the input data doesn't meet the stated criteria. In Excel::Writer::XLSX we could do that as follows:

    $worksheet->data_validation('B3',
        {
            validate        => 'integer',
            criteria        => 'between',
            minimum         => 1,
            maximum         => 100,
            input_title     => 'Input an integer:',
            input_message   => 'Between 1 and 100',
            error_message   => 'Sorry, try again.',
        });


=begin html

<p><center><img src="http://jmcnamara.github.io/excel-writer-xlsx/images/examples/validation_example.jpg" alt="The output from the above example"/></center></p>

=end html

For more information on data validation see the following Microsoft support article "Description and examples of data validation in Excel": L<http://support.microsoft.com/kb/211485>.

The following sections describe how to use the C<data_validation()> method and its various options.


=head2 data_validation( $row, $col, { parameter => 'value', ... } )

The C<data_validation()> method is used to construct an Excel data validation.

It can be applied to a single cell or a range of cells. You can pass 3 parameters such as C<($row, $col, {...})> or 5 parameters such as C<($first_row, $first_col, $last_row, $last_col, {...})>. You can also use C<A1> style notation. For example:

    $worksheet->data_validation( 0, 0,       {...} );
    $worksheet->data_validation( 0, 0, 4, 1, {...} );

    # Which are the same as:

    $worksheet->data_validation( 'A1',       {...} );
    $worksheet->data_validation( 'A1:B5',    {...} );

See also the note about L</Cell notation> for more information.


The last parameter in C<data_validation()> must be a hash ref containing the parameters that describe the type and style of the data validation. The allowable parameters are:

    validate
    criteria
    value | minimum | source
    maximum
    ignore_blank
    dropdown

    input_title
    input_message
    show_input

    error_title
    error_message
    error_type
    show_error

These parameters are explained in the following sections. Most of the parameters are optional, however, you will generally require the three main options C<validate>, C<criteria> and C<value>.

    $worksheet->data_validation('B3',
        {
            validate => 'integer',
            criteria => '>',
            value    => 100,
        });

The C<data_validation> method returns:

     0 for success.
    -1 for insufficient number of arguments.
    -2 for row or column out of bounds.
    -3 for incorrect parameter or value.


=head2 validate

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to C<data_validation()>.

The C<validate> parameter is used to set the type of data that you wish to validate. It is always required and it has no default value. Allowable values are:

    any
    integer
    decimal
    list
    date
    time
    length
    custom

=over

=item * B<any> is used to specify that the type of data is unrestricted. This is useful to display an input message without restricting the data that can be entered.

=item * B<integer> restricts the cell to integer values. Excel refers to this as 'whole number'.

    validate => 'integer',
    criteria => '>',
    value    => 100,

=item * B<decimal> restricts the cell to decimal values.

    validate => 'decimal',
    criteria => '>',
    value    => 38.6,

=item * B<list> restricts the cell to a set of user specified values. These can be passed in an array ref or as a cell range (named ranges aren't currently supported):

    validate => 'list',
    value    => ['open', 'high', 'close'],
    # Or like this:
    value    => 'B1:B3',

Excel requires that range references are only to cells on the same worksheet.

=item * B<date> restricts the cell to date values. Dates in Excel are expressed as integer values but you can also pass an ISO8601 style string as used in C<write_date_time()>. See also L</DATES AND TIME IN EXCEL> for more information about working with Excel's dates.

    validate => 'date',
    criteria => '>',
    value    => 39653, # 24 July 2008
    # Or like this:
    value    => '2008-07-24T',

=item * B<time> restricts the cell to time values. Times in Excel are expressed as decimal values but you can also pass an ISO8601 style string as used in C<write_date_time()>. See also L</DATES AND TIME IN EXCEL> for more information about working with Excel's times.

    validate => 'time',
    criteria => '>',
    value    => 0.5, # Noon
    # Or like this:
    value    => 'T12:00:00',

=item * B<length> restricts the cell data based on an integer string length. Excel refers to this as 'Text length'.

    validate => 'length',
    criteria => '>',
    value    => 10,

=item * B<custom> restricts the cell based on an external Excel formula that returns a C<TRUE/FALSE> value.

    validate => 'custom',
    value    => '=IF(A10>B10,TRUE,FALSE)',

=back


=head2 criteria

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to C<data_validation()>.

The C<criteria> parameter is used to set the criteria by which the data in the cell is validated. It is almost always required except for the C<list> and C<custom> validate options. It has no default value. Allowable values are:

    'between'
    'not between'
    'equal to'                  |  '=='  |  '='
    'not equal to'              |  '!='  |  '<>'
    'greater than'              |  '>'
    'less than'                 |  '<'
    'greater than or equal to'  |  '>='
    'less than or equal to'     |  '<='

You can either use Excel's textual description strings, in the first column above, or the more common symbolic alternatives. The following are equivalent:

    validate => 'integer',
    criteria => 'greater than',
    value    => 100,

    validate => 'integer',
    criteria => '>',
    value    => 100,

The C<list> and C<custom> validate options don't require a C<criteria>. If you specify one it will be ignored.

    validate => 'list',
    value    => ['open', 'high', 'close'],

    validate => 'custom',
    value    => '=IF(A10>B10,TRUE,FALSE)',


=head2 value | minimum | source

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to C<data_validation()>.

The C<value> parameter is used to set the limiting value to which the C<criteria> is applied. It is always required and it has no default value. You can also use the synonyms C<minimum> or C<source> to make the validation a little clearer and closer to Excel's description of the parameter:

    # Use 'value'
    validate => 'integer',
    criteria => '>',
    value    => 100,

    # Use 'minimum'
    validate => 'integer',
    criteria => 'between',
    minimum  => 1,
    maximum  => 100,

    # Use 'source'
    validate => 'list',
    source   => '$B$1:$B$3',


=head2 maximum

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to C<data_validation()>.

The C<maximum> parameter is used to set the upper limiting value when the C<criteria> is either C<'between'> or C<'not between'>:

    validate => 'integer',
    criteria => 'between',
    minimum  => 1,
    maximum  => 100,


=head2 ignore_blank

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to C<data_validation()>.

The C<ignore_blank> parameter is used to toggle on and off the 'Ignore blank' option in the Excel data validation dialog. When the option is on the data validation is not applied to blank data in the cell. It is on by default.

    ignore_blank => 0,  # Turn the option off


=head2 dropdown

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to C<data_validation()>.

The C<dropdown> parameter is used to toggle on and off the 'In-cell dropdown' option in the Excel data validation dialog. When the option is on a dropdown list will be shown for C<list> validations. It is on by default.

    dropdown => 0,      # Turn the option off


=head2 input_title

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to C<data_validation()>.

The C<input_title> parameter is used to set the title of the input message that is displayed when a cell is entered. It has no default value and is only displayed if the input message is displayed. See the C<input_message> parameter below.

    input_title   => 'This is the input title',

The maximum title length is 32 characters.


=head2 input_message

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to C<data_validation()>.

The C<input_message> parameter is used to set the input message that is displayed when a cell is entered. It has no default value.

    validate      => 'integer',
    criteria      => 'between',
    minimum       => 1,
    maximum       => 100,
    input_title   => 'Enter the applied discount:',
    input_message => 'between 1 and 100',

The message can be split over several lines using newlines, C<"\n"> in double quoted strings.

    input_message => "This is\na test.",

The maximum message length is 255 characters.


=head2 show_input

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to C<data_validation()>.

The C<show_input> parameter is used to toggle on and off the 'Show input message when cell is selected' option in the Excel data validation dialog. When the option is off an input message is not displayed even if it has been set using C<input_message>. It is on by default.

    show_input => 0,      # Turn the option off


=head2 error_title

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to C<data_validation()>.

The C<error_title> parameter is used to set the title of the error message that is displayed when the data validation criteria is not met. The default error title is 'Microsoft Excel'.

    error_title   => 'Input value is not valid',

The maximum title length is 32 characters.


=head2 error_message

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to C<data_validation()>.

The C<error_message> parameter is used to set the error message that is displayed when a cell is entered. The default error message is "The value you entered is not valid.\nA user has restricted values that can be entered into the cell.".

    validate      => 'integer',
    criteria      => 'between',
    minimum       => 1,
    maximum       => 100,
    error_title   => 'Input value is not valid',
    error_message => 'It should be an integer between 1 and 100',

The message can be split over several lines using newlines, C<"\n"> in double quoted strings.

    input_message => "This is\na test.",

The maximum message length is 255 characters.


=head2 error_type

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to C<data_validation()>.

The C<error_type> parameter is used to specify the type of error dialog that is displayed. There are 3 options:

    'stop'
    'warning'
    'information'

The default is C<'stop'>.


=head2 show_error

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to C<data_validation()>.

The C<show_error> parameter is used to toggle on and off the 'Show error alert after invalid data is entered' option in the Excel data validation dialog. When the option is off an error message is not displayed even if it has been set using C<error_message>. It is on by default.

    show_error => 0,      # Turn the option off

=head2 Data Validation Examples

Example 1. Limiting input to an integer greater than a fixed value.

    $worksheet->data_validation('A1',
        {
            validate        => 'integer',
            criteria        => '>',
            value           => 0,
        });

Example 2. Limiting input to an integer greater than a fixed value where the value is referenced from a cell.

    $worksheet->data_validation('A2',
        {
            validate        => 'integer',
            criteria        => '>',
            value           => '=E3',
        });

Example 3. Limiting input to a decimal in a fixed range.

    $worksheet->data_validation('A3',
        {
            validate        => 'decimal',
            criteria        => 'between',
            minimum         => 0.1,
            maximum         => 0.5,
        });

Example 4. Limiting input to a value in a dropdown list.

    $worksheet->data_validation('A4',
        {
            validate        => 'list',
            source          => ['open', 'high', 'close'],
        });

Example 5. Limiting input to a value in a dropdown list where the list is specified as a cell range.

    $worksheet->data_validation('A5',
        {
            validate        => 'list',
            source          => '=$E$4:$G$4',
        });

Example 6. Limiting input to a date in a fixed range.

    $worksheet->data_validation('A6',
        {
            validate        => 'date',
            criteria        => 'between',
            minimum         => '2008-01-01T',
            maximum         => '2008-12-12T',
        });

Example 7. Displaying a message when the cell is selected.

    $worksheet->data_validation('A7',
        {
            validate      => 'integer',
            criteria      => 'between',
            minimum       => 1,
            maximum       => 100,
            input_title   => 'Enter an integer:',
            input_message => 'between 1 and 100',
        });

See also the C<data_validate.pl> program in the examples directory of the distro.




=head1 CONDITIONAL FORMATTING IN EXCEL

Conditional formatting is a feature of Excel which allows you to apply a format to a cell or a range of cells based on a certain criteria.

For example the following criteria is used to highlight cells >= 50 in red in the C<conditional_format.pl> example from the distro:

    # Write a conditional format over a range.
    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'B3:K12',
        {
            type     => 'cell',
            criteria => '>=',
            value    => 50,
            format   => $format1,
        }
    );

=begin html

<p><center><img src="http://jmcnamara.github.io/excel-writer-xlsx/images/examples/conditional_example.jpg" alt="The output from the above example"/></center></p>

=end html



=head2 conditional_formatting( $row, $col, { parameter => 'value', ... } )

The C<conditional_formatting()> method is used to apply formatting  based on user defined criteria to an Excel::Writer::XLSX file.

It can be applied to a single cell or a range of cells. You can pass 3 parameters such as C<($row, $col, {...})> or 5 parameters such as C<($first_row, $first_col, $last_row, $last_col, {...})>. You can also use C<A1> style notation. For example:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 0, 0,       {...} );
    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 0, 0, 4, 1, {...} );

    # Which are the same as:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1',       {...} );
    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:B5',    {...} );

See also the note about L</Cell notation> for more information.

Using C<A1> style notation is also possible to specify non-contiguous ranges, separated by a comma. For example:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:D5,A8:D12', {...} );

The last parameter in C<conditional_formatting()> must be a hash ref containing the parameters that describe the type and style of the data validation. The main parameters are:

    type
    format
    criteria
    value
    minimum
    maximum

Other, less commonly used parameters are:

    min_type
    mid_type
    max_type
    min_value
    mid_value
    max_value
    min_color
    mid_color
    max_color
    bar_color
    bar_only
    bar_solid
    bar_negative_color
    bar_border_color
    bar_negative_border_color
    bar_negative_color_same
    bar_negative_border_color_same
    bar_no_border
    bar_direction
    bar_axis_position
    bar_axis_color
    data_bar_2010
    icon_style
    icons
    reverse_icons
    icons_only
    stop_if_true
    multi_range

Additional parameters which are used for specific conditional format types are shown in the relevant sections below.

=head2 type

This parameter is passed in a hash ref to C<conditional_formatting()>.

The C<type> parameter is used to set the type of conditional formatting that you wish to apply. It is always required and it has no default value. Allowable C<type> values and their associated parameters are:

    Type            Parameters
    ====            ==========
    cell            criteria
                    value
                    minimum
                    maximum
                    format

    date            criteria
                    value
                    minimum
                    maximum
                    format

    time_period     criteria
                    format

    text            criteria
                    value
                    format

    average         criteria
                    format

    duplicate       format

    unique          format

    top             criteria
                    value
                    format

    bottom          criteria
                    value
                    format

    blanks          format

    no_blanks       format

    errors          format

    no_errors       format

    formula         criteria
                    format

    2_color_scale   min_type
                    max_type
                    min_value
                    max_value
                    min_color
                    max_color

    3_color_scale   min_type
                    mid_type
                    max_type
                    min_value
                    mid_value
                    max_value
                    min_color
                    mid_color
                    max_color

    data_bar        min_type
                    max_type
                    min_value
                    max_value
                    bar_only
                    bar_color
                    bar_solid*
                    bar_negative_color*
                    bar_border_color*
                    bar_negative_border_color*
                    bar_negative_color_same*
                    bar_negative_border_color_same*
                    bar_no_border*
                    bar_direction*
                    bar_axis_position*
                    bar_axis_color*
                    data_bar_2010*

    icon_set        icon_style
                    reverse_icons
                    icons
                    icons_only

Data bar parameters marked with (*) are only available in Excel 2010 and later. Files that use these properties can still be opened in Excel 2007 but the data bars will be displayed without them.


=head2 type => 'cell'

This is the most common conditional formatting type. It is used when a format is applied to a cell based on a simple criterion. For example:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1',
        {
            type     => 'cell',
            criteria => 'greater than',
            value    => 5,
            format   => $red_format,
        }
    );

Or, using the C<between> criteria:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'C1:C4',
        {
            type     => 'cell',
            criteria => 'between',
            minimum  => 20,
            maximum  => 30,
            format   => $green_format,
        }
    );


=head2 criteria

The C<criteria> parameter is used to set the criteria by which the cell data will be evaluated. It has no default value. The most common criteria as applied to C<< { type => 'cell' } >> are:

    'between'
    'not between'
    'equal to'                  |  '=='  |  '='
    'not equal to'              |  '!='  |  '<>'
    'greater than'              |  '>'
    'less than'                 |  '<'
    'greater than or equal to'  |  '>='
    'less than or equal to'     |  '<='

You can either use Excel's textual description strings, in the first column above, or the more common symbolic alternatives.

Additional criteria which are specific to other conditional format types are shown in the relevant sections below.


=head2 value

The C<value> is generally used along with the C<criteria> parameter to set the rule by which the cell data  will be evaluated.

    type     => 'cell',
    criteria => '>',
    value    => 5
    format   => $format,

The C<value> property can also be an cell reference.

    type     => 'cell',
    criteria => '>',
    value    => '$C$1',
    format   => $format,


=head2 format

The C<format> parameter is used to specify the format that will be applied to the cell when the conditional formatting criterion is met. The format is created using the C<add_format()> method in the same way as cell formats:

    $format = $workbook->add_format( bold => 1, italic => 1 );

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1',
        {
            type     => 'cell',
            criteria => '>',
            value    => 5
            format   => $format,
        }
    );

The conditional format follows the same rules as in Excel: it is superimposed over the existing cell format and not all font and border properties can be modified. Font properties that can't be modified are font name, font size, superscript and subscript. The border property that cannot be modified is diagonal borders.

Excel specifies some default formats to be used with conditional formatting. You can replicate them using the following Excel::Writer::XLSX formats:

    # Light red fill with dark red text.

    my $format1 = $workbook->add_format(
        bg_color => '#FFC7CE',
        color    => '#9C0006',
    );

    # Light yellow fill with dark yellow text.

    my $format2 = $workbook->add_format(
        bg_color => '#FFEB9C',
        color    => '#9C6500',
    );

    # Green fill with dark green text.

    my $format3 = $workbook->add_format(
        bg_color => '#C6EFCE',
        color    => '#006100',
    );


=head2 minimum

The C<minimum> parameter is used to set the lower limiting value when the C<criteria> is either C<'between'> or C<'not between'>:

    validate => 'integer',
    criteria => 'between',
    minimum  => 1,
    maximum  => 100,


=head2 maximum

The C<maximum> parameter is used to set the upper limiting value when the C<criteria> is either C<'between'> or C<'not between'>. See the previous example.


=head2 type => 'date'

The C<date> type is the same as the C<cell> type and uses the same criteria and values. However it allows the C<value>, C<minimum> and C<maximum> properties to be specified in the ISO8601 C<yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.sss> date format which is detailed in the C<write_date_time()> method.

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:A4',
        {
            type     => 'date',
            criteria => 'greater than',
            value    => '2011-01-01T',
            format   => $format,
        }
    );


=head2 type => 'time_period'

The C<time_period> type is used to specify Excel's "Dates Occurring" style conditional format.

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:A4',
        {
            type     => 'time_period',
            criteria => 'yesterday',
            format   => $format,
        }
    );

The period is set in the C<criteria> and can have one of the following values:

        criteria => 'yesterday',
        criteria => 'today',
        criteria => 'last 7 days',
        criteria => 'last week',
        criteria => 'this week',
        criteria => 'next week',
        criteria => 'last month',
        criteria => 'this month',
        criteria => 'next month'


=head2 type => 'text'

The C<text> type is used to specify Excel's "Specific Text" style conditional format. It is used to do simple string matching using the C<criteria> and C<value> parameters:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:A4',
        {
            type     => 'text',
            criteria => 'containing',
            value    => 'foo',
            format   => $format,
        }
    );

The C<criteria> can have one of the following values:

    criteria => 'containing',
    criteria => 'not containing',
    criteria => 'begins with',
    criteria => 'ends with',

The C<value> parameter should be a string or single character.


=head2 type => 'average'

The C<average> type is used to specify Excel's "Average" style conditional format.

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:A4',
        {
            type     => 'average',
            criteria => 'above',
            format   => $format,
        }
    );

The type of average for the conditional format range is specified by the C<criteria>:

    criteria => 'above',
    criteria => 'below',
    criteria => 'equal or above',
    criteria => 'equal or below',
    criteria => '1 std dev above',
    criteria => '1 std dev below',
    criteria => '2 std dev above',
    criteria => '2 std dev below',
    criteria => '3 std dev above',
    criteria => '3 std dev below',



=head2 type => 'duplicate'

The C<duplicate> type is used to highlight duplicate cells in a range:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:A4',
        {
            type     => 'duplicate',
            format   => $format,
        }
    );


=head2 type => 'unique'

The C<unique> type is used to highlight unique cells in a range:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:A4',
        {
            type     => 'unique',
            format   => $format,
        }
    );


=head2 type => 'top'

The C<top> type is used to specify the top C<n> values by number or percentage in a range:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:A4',
        {
            type     => 'top',
            value    => 10,
            format   => $format,
        }
    );

The C<criteria> can be used to indicate that a percentage condition is required:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:A4',
        {
            type     => 'top',
            value    => 10,
            criteria => '%',
            format   => $format,
        }
    );


=head2 type => 'bottom'

The C<bottom> type is used to specify the bottom C<n> values by number or percentage in a range.

It takes the same parameters as C<top>, see above.


=head2 type => 'blanks'

The C<blanks> type is used to highlight blank cells in a range:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:A4',
        {
            type     => 'blanks',
            format   => $format,
        }
    );


=head2 type => 'no_blanks'

The C<no_blanks> type is used to highlight non blank cells in a range:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:A4',
        {
            type     => 'no_blanks',
            format   => $format,
        }
    );


=head2 type => 'errors'

The C<errors> type is used to highlight error cells in a range:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:A4',
        {
            type     => 'errors',
            format   => $format,
        }
    );


=head2 type => 'no_errors'

The C<no_errors> type is used to highlight non error cells in a range:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:A4',
        {
            type     => 'no_errors',
            format   => $format,
        }
    );



=head2 type => 'formula'

The C<formula> type is used to specify a conditional format based on a user defined formula:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:A4',
        {
            type     => 'formula',
            criteria => '=$A$1 > 5',
            format   => $format,
        }
    );

The formula is specified in the C<criteria>.


=head2 type => '2_color_scale'

The C<2_color_scale> type is used to specify Excel's "2 Color Scale" style conditional format.

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:A12',
        {
            type  => '2_color_scale',
        }
    );

This conditional type can be modified with C<min_type>, C<max_type>, C<min_value>, C<max_value>, C<min_color> and C<max_color>, see below.


=head2 type => '3_color_scale'

The C<3_color_scale> type is used to specify Excel's "3 Color Scale" style conditional format.

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:A12',
        {
            type  => '3_color_scale',
        }
    );

This conditional type can be modified with C<min_type>, C<mid_type>, C<max_type>, C<min_value>, C<mid_value>, C<max_value>, C<min_color>, C<mid_color> and C<max_color>, see below.


=head2 type => 'data_bar'

The C<data_bar> type is used to specify Excel's "Data Bar" style conditional format.

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:A12',
        {
            type  => 'data_bar',
        }
    );

This data bar conditional type can be modified with the following parameters, which are explained in the sections below. These properties were available in the original xlsx file specification used in Excel 2007::

    min_type
    max_type
    min_value
    max_value
    bar_color
    bar_only

In Excel 2010 additional data bar properties were added such as solid (non-gradient) bars and control over how negative values are displayed. These properties can be set using the following parameters:

    bar_solid
    bar_negative_color
    bar_border_color
    bar_negative_border_color
    bar_negative_color_same
    bar_negative_border_color_same
    bar_no_border
    bar_direction
    bar_axis_position
    bar_axis_color
    data_bar_2010

Files that use these Excel 2010 properties can still be opened in Excel 2007 but the data bars will be displayed without them.



=head2 type => 'icon_set'

The C<icon_set> type is used to specify a conditional format with a set of icons such as traffic lights or arrows:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:C1',
        {
            type         => 'icon_set',
            icon_style   => '3_traffic_lights',
        }
    );

The icon set style is specified by the C<icon_style> parameter. Valid options are:

    3_arrows
    3_arrows_gray
    3_flags
    3_signs
    3_symbols
    3_symbols_circled
    3_traffic_lights
    3_traffic_lights_rimmed

    4_arrows
    4_arrows_gray
    4_ratings
    4_red_to_black
    4_traffic_lights

    5_arrows
    5_arrows_gray
    5_quarters
    5_ratings

The criteria, type and value of each icon can be specified using the C<icon> array of hash refs with optional C<criteria>, C<type> and C<value> parameters:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:D1',
        {
            type         => 'icon_set',
            icon_style   => '4_red_to_black',
            icons        => [ {criteria => '>',  type => 'number',     value => 90},
                              {criteria => '>=', type => 'percentile', value => 50},
                              {criteria => '>',  type => 'percent',    value => 25},
                            ],
        }
    );


The C<icons criteria> parameter should be either C<< >= >> or C<< > >>. The default C<criteria> is C<< >= >>.

The C<icons type> parameter should be one of the following values:

    number
    percentile
    percent
    formula

The default C<type> is C<percent>.

The C<icons value> parameter can be a value or formula:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:D1',
        {
            type         => 'icon_set',
            icon_style   => '4_red_to_black',
            icons        => [ {value => 90},
                              {value => 50},
                              {value => 25},
                            ],
        }
    );

Note: The C<icons> parameters should start with the highest value and with each subsequent one being lower. The default C<value> is C<(n * 100) / number_of_icons>. The lowest number icon in an icon set has properties defined by Excel. Therefore in a C<n> icon set, there is no C<n-1> hash of parameters.

The order of the icons can be reversed using the C<reverse_icons> parameter:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:C1',
        {
            type          => 'icon_set',
            icon_style    => '3_arrows',
            reverse_icons => 1,
        }
    );

The icons can be displayed without the cell value using the C<icons_only> parameter:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:C1',
        {
            type         => 'icon_set',
            icon_style   => '3_flags',
            icons_only   => 1,
        }
    );




=head2 min_type, mid_type, max_type

The C<min_type> and C<max_type> properties are available when the conditional formatting type is C<2_color_scale>, C<3_color_scale> or C<data_bar>. The C<mid_type> is available for C<3_color_scale>. The properties are used as follows:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:A12',
        {
            type      => '2_color_scale',
            min_type  => 'percent',
            max_type  => 'percent',
        }
    );

The available min/mid/max types are:

    min        (for min_type only)
    num
    percent
    percentile
    formula
    max        (for max_type only)


=head2 min_value, mid_value, max_value

The C<min_value> and C<max_value> properties are available when the conditional formatting type is C<2_color_scale>, C<3_color_scale> or C<data_bar>. The C<mid_value> is available for C<3_color_scale>. The properties are used as follows:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:A12',
        {
            type       => '2_color_scale',
            min_value  => 10,
            max_value  => 90,
        }
    );

=head2 min_color, mid_color,  max_color, bar_color

The C<min_color> and C<max_color> properties are available when the conditional formatting type is C<2_color_scale>, C<3_color_scale> or C<data_bar>. The C<mid_color> is available for C<3_color_scale>. The properties are used as follows:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:A12',
        {
            type      => '2_color_scale',
            min_color => "#C5D9F1",
            max_color => "#538ED5",
        }
    );

The color can be specified as an Excel::Writer::XLSX color index or, more usefully, as a HTML style RGB hex number, as shown above.


=head2 bar_only

The C<bar_only> parameter property displays a bar data but not the data in the cells:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'D3:D14',
        {
            type     => 'data_bar',
            bar_only => 1
        }
    );


=head2 bar_solid

The C<bar_solid> parameter turns on a solid (non-gradient) fill for data bars:


    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'H3:H14',
        {
            type      => 'data_bar',
            bar_solid => 1
        }
    );

Note, this property is only visible in Excel 2010 and later.


=head2 bar_negative_color

The C<bar_negative_color> parameter is used to set the color fill for the negative portion of a data bar.

The color can be specified as an Excel::Writer::XLSX color index or as a HTML style RGB hex number, as shown in the other examples.

Note, this property is only visible in Excel 2010 and later.


=head2 bar_border_color

The C<bar_border_color> parameter is used to set the border color of a data bar.

The color can be specified as an Excel::Writer::XLSX color index or as a HTML style RGB hex number, as shown in the other examples.

Note, this property is only visible in Excel 2010 and later.


=head2 bar_negative_border_color

The C<bar_negative_border_color> parameter is used to set the border color of the negative portion of a data bar.

The color can be specified as an Excel::Writer::XLSX color index or as a HTML style RGB hex number, as shown in the other examples.

Note, this property is only visible in Excel 2010 and later.


=head2 bar_negative_color_same

The C<bar_negative_color_same> parameter sets the fill color for the negative portion of a data bar to be the same as the fill color for the positive portion of the data bar:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'N3:N14',
        {
            type                           => 'data_bar',
            bar_negative_color_same        => 1,
            bar_negative_border_color_same => 1
        }
    );

Note, this property is only visible in Excel 2010 and later.


=head2 bar_negative_border_color_same

The C<bar_negative_border_color_same> parameter sets the border color for the negative portion of a data bar to be the same as the border color for the positive portion of the data bar.

Note, this property is only visible in Excel 2010 and later.


=head2 bar_no_border

The C<bar_no_border> parameter turns off the border of a data bar.


Note, this property is only visible in Excel 2010 and later, however the default in Excel 2007 is not to have a border.


=head2 bar_direction

The C<bar_direction> parameter sets the direction for data bars. This property can be either C<left> for left-to-right or C<right> for right-to-left. If the property isn't set then Excel will adjust the position automatically based on the context:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'J3:J14',
        {
            type          => 'data_bar',
            bar_direction => 'right'
        }
    );

Note, this property is only visible in Excel 2010 and later.


=head2 bar_axis_position

The C<bar_axis_position> parameter sets the position within the cells for the axis that is shown in data bars when there are negative values to display. The property can be either C<middle> or C<none>. If the property isn't set then Excel will position the axis based on the range of positive and negative values.

Note, this property is only visible in Excel 2010 and later.


=head2 bar_axis_color

The C<bar_axis_color> parameter sets the color for the axis that is shown in data bars when there are negative values to display.

The color can be specified as an Excel::Writer::XLSX color index or as a HTML style RGB hex number, as shown in the other examples.

Note, this property is only visible in Excel 2010 and later.


=head2 data_bar_2010

The C<data_bar_2010> parameter sets Excel 2010 style data bars even when Excel 2010 specific properties aren't used. This can be used to create consistency across all the data bar formatting in a worksheet:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'L3:L14',
        {
            type          => 'data_bar',
            data_bar_2010 => 1
        }
    );

Note, this property is only visible in Excel 2010 and later.


=head2 stop_if_true

The C<stop_if_true> parameter, if set to a true value, will enable the "stop if true" feature on the conditional formatting rule, so that subsequent rules are not examined for any cell on which the conditions for this rule are met.


=head2 Conditional Formatting Examples

Example 1. Highlight cells greater than an integer value.

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:F10',
        {
            type     => 'cell',
            criteria => 'greater than',
            value    => 5,
            format   => $format,
        }
    );

Example 2. Highlight cells greater than a value in a reference cell.

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:F10',
        {
            type     => 'cell',
            criteria => 'greater than',
            value    => '$H$1',
            format   => $format,
        }
    );

Example 3. Highlight cells greater than a certain date:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:F10',
        {
            type     => 'date',
            criteria => 'greater than',
            value    => '2011-01-01T',
            format   => $format,
        }
    );

Example 4. Highlight cells with a date in the last seven days:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:F10',
        {
            type     => 'time_period',
            criteria => 'last 7 days',
            format   => $format,
        }
    );

Example 5. Highlight cells with strings starting with the letter C<b>:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:F10',
        {
            type     => 'text',
            criteria => 'begins with',
            value    => 'b',
            format   => $format,
        }
    );

Example 6. Highlight cells that are 1 std deviation above the average for the range:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:F10',
        {
            type     => 'average',
            format   => $format,
        }
    );

Example 7. Highlight duplicate cells in a range:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:F10',
        {
            type     => 'duplicate',
            format   => $format,
        }
    );

Example 8. Highlight unique cells in a range.

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:F10',
        {
            type     => 'unique',
            format   => $format,
        }
    );

Example 9. Highlight the top 10 cells.

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:F10',
        {
            type     => 'top',
            value    => 10,
            format   => $format,
        }
    );


Example 10. Highlight blank cells.

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:F10',
        {
            type     => 'blanks',
            format   => $format,
        }
    );

Example 11. Set traffic light icons in 3 cells:

    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'A1:C1',
        {
            type         => 'icon_set',
            icon_style   => '3_traffic_lights',
        }
    );


See also the C<conditional_format.pl> example program in C<EXAMPLES>.




=head1 SPARKLINES IN EXCEL

Sparklines are a feature of Excel 2010+ which allows you to add small charts to worksheet cells. These are useful for showing visual trends in data in a compact format.

In Excel::Writer::XLSX Sparklines can be added to cells using the C<add_sparkline()> worksheet method:

    $worksheet->add_sparkline(
        {
            location => 'F2',
            range    => 'Sheet1!A2:E2',
            type     => 'column',
            style    => 12,
        }
    );

=begin html

<p><center><img src="http://jmcnamara.github.io/excel-writer-xlsx/images/examples/sparklines1.jpg" alt="Sparklines example."/></center></p>

=end html

B<Note:> Sparklines are a feature of Excel 2010+ only. You can write them to an XLSX file that can be read by Excel 2007 but they won't be displayed.


=head2 add_sparkline( { parameter => 'value', ... } )

The C<add_sparkline()> worksheet method is used to add sparklines to a cell or a range of cells.

The parameters to C<add_sparkline()> must be passed in a hash ref. The main sparkline parameters are:

    location        (required)
    range           (required)
    type
    style

    markers
    negative_points
    axis
    reverse

Other, less commonly used parameters are:

    high_point
    low_point
    first_point
    last_point
    max
    min
    empty_cells
    show_hidden
    date_axis
    weight

    series_color
    negative_color
    markers_color
    first_color
    last_color
    high_color
    low_color

These parameters are explained in the sections below:

=head2 location

This is the cell where the sparkline will be displayed:

    location => 'F1'

The C<location> should be a single cell. (For multiple cells see L<Grouped Sparklines> below).

To specify the location in row-column notation use the C<xl_rowcol_to_cell()> function from the L<Excel::Writer::XLSX::Utility> module.

    use Excel::Writer::XLSX::Utility ':rowcol';
    ...
    location => xl_rowcol_to_cell( 0, 5 ), # F1


=head2 range

This specifies the cell data range that the sparkline will plot:

    $worksheet->add_sparkline(
        {
            location => 'F1',
            range    => 'A1:E1',
        }
    );

The C<range> should be a 2D array. (For 3D arrays of cells see L<Grouped Sparklines> below).

If C<range> is not on the same worksheet you can specify its location using the usual Excel notation:

            range => 'Sheet1!A1:E1',

If the worksheet contains spaces or special characters you should quote the worksheet name in the same way that Excel does:

            range => q('Monthly Data'!A1:E1),

To specify the location in row-column notation use the C<xl_range()> or C<xl_range_formula()> functions from the L<Excel::Writer::XLSX::Utility> module.

    use Excel::Writer::XLSX::Utility ':rowcol';
    ...
    range => xl_range( 1, 1,  0, 4 ),                   # 'A1:E1'
    range => xl_range_formula( 'Sheet1', 0, 0,  0, 4 ), # 'Sheet1!A2:E2'

=head2 type

Specifies the type of sparkline. There are 3 available sparkline types:

    line    (default)
    column
    win_loss

For example:

    {
        location => 'F1',
        range    => 'A1:E1',
        type     => 'column',
    }


=head2 style

Excel provides 36 built-in Sparkline styles in 6 groups of 6. The C<style> parameter can be used to replicate these and should be a corresponding number from 1 .. 36.

    {
        location => 'A14',
        range    => 'Sheet2!A2:J2',
        style    => 3,
    }

The style number starts in the top left of the style grid and runs left to right. The default style is 1. It is possible to override colour elements of the sparklines using the C<*_color> parameters below.

=head2 markers

Turn on the markers for C<line> style sparklines.

    {
        location => 'A6',
        range    => 'Sheet2!A1:J1',
        markers  => 1,
    }

Markers aren't shown in Excel for C<column> and C<win_loss> sparklines.

=head2 negative_points

Highlight negative values in a sparkline range. This is usually required with C<win_loss> sparklines.

    {
        location        => 'A21',
        range           => 'Sheet2!A3:J3',
        type            => 'win_loss',
        negative_points => 1,
    }

=head2 axis

Display a horizontal axis in the sparkline:

    {
        location => 'A10',
        range    => 'Sheet2!A1:J1',
        axis     => 1,
    }

=head2 reverse

Plot the data from right-to-left instead of the default left-to-right:

    {
        location => 'A24',
        range    => 'Sheet2!A4:J4',
        type     => 'column',
        reverse  => 1,
    }

=head2 weight

Adjust the default line weight (thickness) for C<line> style sparklines.

     weight => 0.25,

The weight value should be one of the following values allowed by Excel:

    0.25  0.5   0.75
    1     1.25
    2.25
    3
    4.25
    6

=head2 high_point, low_point, first_point, last_point

Highlight points in a sparkline range.

        high_point  => 1,
        low_point   => 1,
        first_point => 1,
        last_point  => 1,


=head2 max, min

Specify the maximum and minimum vertical axis values:

        max         => 0.5,
        min         => -0.5,

As a special case you can set the maximum and minimum to be for a group of sparklines rather than one:

        max         => 'group',

See L<Grouped Sparklines> below.

=head2 empty_cells

Define how empty cells are handled in a sparkline.

    empty_cells => 'zero',

The available options are:

    gaps   : show empty cells as gaps (the default).
    zero   : plot empty cells as 0.
    connect: Connect points with a line ("line" type  sparklines only).

=head2 show_hidden

Plot data in hidden rows and columns:

    show_hidden => 1,

Note, this option is off by default.

=head2 date_axis

Specify an alternative date axis for the sparkline. This is useful if the data being plotted isn't at fixed width intervals:

    {
        location  => 'F3',
        range     => 'A3:E3',
        date_axis => 'A4:E4',
    }

The number of cells in the date range should correspond to the number of cells in the data range.


=head2 series_color

It is possible to override the colour of a sparkline style using the following parameters:

    series_color
    negative_color
    markers_color
    first_color
    last_color
    high_color
    low_color

The color should be specified as a HTML style C<#rrggbb> hex value:

    {
        location     => 'A18',
        range        => 'Sheet2!A2:J2',
        type         => 'column',
        series_color => '#E965E0',
    }

=head2 Grouped Sparklines

The C<add_sparkline()> worksheet method can be used multiple times to write as many sparklines as are required in a worksheet.

However, it is sometimes necessary to group contiguous sparklines so that changes that are applied to one are applied to all. In Excel this is achieved by selecting a 3D range of cells for the data C<range> and a 2D range of cells for the C<location>.

In Excel::Writer::XLSX, you can simulate this by passing an array refs of values to C<location> and C<range>:

    {
        location => [ 'A27',          'A28',          'A29'          ],
        range    => [ 'Sheet2!A5:J5', 'Sheet2!A6:J6', 'Sheet2!A7:J7' ],
        markers  => 1,
    }

=head2 Sparkline examples

See the C<sparklines1.pl> and C<sparklines2.pl> example programs in the C<examples> directory of the distro.




=head1 TABLES IN EXCEL

Tables in Excel are a way of grouping a range of cells into a single entity that has common formatting or that can be referenced from formulas. Tables can have column headers, autofilters, total rows, column formulas and default formatting.

=begin html

<p><center><img src="http://jmcnamara.github.io/excel-writer-xlsx/images/examples/tables.jpg" width="640" height="420" alt="Output from tables.pl" /></center></p>

=end html


For more information see "An Overview of Excel Tables" L<http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/excel-help/overview-of-excel-tables-HA010048546.aspx>.

Note, tables don't work in Excel::Writer::XLSX when C<set_optimization()> mode in on.


=head2 add_table( $row1, $col1, $row2, $col2, { parameter => 'value', ... })

Tables are added to a worksheet using the C<add_table()> method:

    $worksheet->add_table( 'B3:F7', { %parameters } );

The data range can be specified in 'A1' or 'row/col' notation (see also the note about L</Cell notation> for more information):


    $worksheet->add_table( 'B3:F7' );
    # Same as:
    $worksheet->add_table(  2, 1, 6, 5 );

The last parameter in C<add_table()> should be a hash ref containing the parameters that describe the table options and data. The available parameters are:

        data
        autofilter
        header_row
        banded_columns
        banded_rows
        first_column
        last_column
        style
        total_row
        columns
        name

The table parameters are detailed below. There are no required parameters and the hash ref isn't required if no options are specified.



=head2 data

The C<data> parameter can be used to specify the data in the cells of the table.

    my $data = [
        [ 'Apples',  10000, 5000, 8000, 6000 ],
        [ 'Pears',   2000,  3000, 4000, 5000 ],
        [ 'Bananas', 6000,  6000, 6500, 6000 ],
        [ 'Oranges', 500,   300,  200,  700 ],

    ];

    $worksheet->add_table( 'B3:F7', { data => $data } );

Table data can also be written separately, as an array or individual cells.

    # These two statements are the same as the single statement above.
    $worksheet->add_table( 'B3:F7' );
    $worksheet->write_col( 'B4', $data );

Writing the cell data separately is occasionally required when you need to control the C<write_*()> method used to populate the cells or if you wish to tweak the cell formatting.

The C<data> structure should be an array ref of array refs holding row data as shown above.

=head2 header_row

The C<header_row> parameter can be used to turn on or off the header row in the table. It is on by default.

    $worksheet->add_table( 'B4:F7', { header_row => 0 } ); # Turn header off.

The header row will contain default captions such as C<Column 1>, C<Column 2>,  etc. These captions can be overridden using the C<columns> parameter below.


=head2 autofilter

The C<autofilter> parameter can be used to turn on or off the autofilter in the header row. It is on by default.

    $worksheet->add_table( 'B3:F7', { autofilter => 0 } ); # Turn autofilter off.

The C<autofilter> is only shown if the C<header_row> is on. Filters within the table are not supported.


=head2 banded_rows

The C<banded_rows> parameter can be used to used to create rows of alternating colour in the table. It is on by default.

    $worksheet->add_table( 'B3:F7', { banded_rows => 0 } );


=head2 banded_columns

The C<banded_columns> parameter can be used to used to create columns of alternating colour in the table. It is off by default.

    $worksheet->add_table( 'B3:F7', { banded_columns => 1 } );


=head2 first_column

The C<first_column> parameter can be used to highlight the first column of the table. The type of highlighting will depend on the C<style> of the table. It may be bold text or a different colour. It is off by default.

    $worksheet->add_table( 'B3:F7', { first_column => 1 } );


=head2 last_column

The C<last_column> parameter can be used to highlight the last column of the table. The type of highlighting will depend on the C<style> of the table. It may be bold text or a different colour. It is off by default.

    $worksheet->add_table( 'B3:F7', { last_column => 1 } );


=head2 style

The C<style> parameter can be used to set the style of the table. Standard Excel table format names should be used (with matching capitalisation):

    $worksheet11->add_table(
        'B3:F7',
        {
            data      => $data,
            style     => 'Table Style Light 11',
        }
    );

The default table style is 'Table Style Medium 9'.


=head2 name

By default tables are named C<Table1>, C<Table2>, etc. The C<name> parameter can be used to set the name of the table:

    $worksheet->add_table( 'B3:F7', { name => 'SalesData' } );

If you override the table name you must ensure that it doesn't clash with an existing table name and that it follows Excel's requirements for table names L<http://office.microsoft.com/en-001/excel-help/define-and-use-names-in-formulas-HA010147120.aspx#BMsyntax_rules_for_names>.

If you need to know the name of the table, for example to use it in a formula, you can get it as follows:

    my $table      = $worksheet2->add_table( 'B3:F7' );
    my $table_name = $table->{_name};


=head2 total_row

The C<total_row> parameter can be used to turn on the total row in the last row of a table. It is distinguished from the other rows by a different formatting and also with dropdown C<SUBTOTAL> functions.

    $worksheet->add_table( 'B3:F7', { total_row => 1 } );

The default total row doesn't have any captions or functions. These must by specified via the C<columns> parameter below.

=head2 columns

The C<columns> parameter can be used to set properties for columns within the table.

The sub-properties that can be set are:

    header
    formula
    total_string
    total_function
    total_value
    format
    header_format

The column data must be specified as an array ref of hash refs. For example to override the default 'Column n' style table headers:

    $worksheet->add_table(
        'B3:F7',
        {
            data    => $data,
            columns => [
                { header => 'Product' },
                { header => 'Quarter 1' },
                { header => 'Quarter 2' },
                { header => 'Quarter 3' },
                { header => 'Quarter 4' },
            ]
        }
    );

If you don't wish to specify properties for a specific column you pass an empty hash ref and the defaults will be applied:

            ...
            columns => [
                { header => 'Product' },
                { header => 'Quarter 1' },
                { },                        # Defaults to 'Column 3'.
                { header => 'Quarter 3' },
                { header => 'Quarter 4' },
            ]
            ...


Column formulas can by applied using the C<formula> column property:

    $worksheet8->add_table(
        'B3:G7',
        {
            data    => $data,
            columns => [
                { header => 'Product' },
                { header => 'Quarter 1' },
                { header => 'Quarter 2' },
                { header => 'Quarter 3' },
                { header => 'Quarter 4' },
                {
                    header  => 'Year',
                    formula => '=SUM(Table8[@[Quarter 1]:[Quarter 4]])'
                },
            ]
        }
    );

The Excel 2007 C<[#This Row]> and Excel 2010 C<@> structural references are supported within the formula.

As stated above the C<total_row> table parameter turns on the "Total" row in the table but it doesn't populate it with any defaults. Total captions and functions must be specified via the C<columns> property and the C<total_string>, C<total_function> and C<total_value> sub properties:

    $worksheet10->add_table(
        'B3:F8',
        {
            data      => $data,
            total_row => 1,
            columns   => [
                { header => 'Product',   total_string   => 'Totals' },
                { header => 'Quarter 1', total_function => 'sum' },
                { header => 'Quarter 2', total_function => 'sum' },
                { header => 'Quarter 3', total_function => 'sum' },
                { header => 'Quarter 4', total_function => 'sum' },
            ]
        }
    );

The supported totals row C<SUBTOTAL> functions are:

        average
        count_nums
        count
        max
        min
        std_dev
        sum
        var

User defined functions or formulas aren't supported.

It is also possible to set a calculated value for the C<total_function> using the C<total_value> sub property. This is only necessary when creating workbooks for applications that cannot calculate the value of formulas automatically. This is similar to setting the C<value> optional property in C<write_formula()>:

    $worksheet10->add_table(
        'B3:F8',
        {
            data      => $data,
            total_row => 1,
            columns   => [
                { total_string   => 'Totals' },
                { total_function => 'sum', total_value => 100 },
                { total_function => 'sum', total_value => 200 },
                { total_function => 'sum', total_value => 100 },
                { total_function => 'sum', total_value => 400 },
            ]
        }
    );




Formatting can also be applied to columns, to the column data using C<format> and to the header using C<header_format>:

    my $currency_format = $workbook->add_format( num_format => '$#,##0' );

    $worksheet->add_table(
        'B3:D8',
        {
            data      => $data,
            total_row => 1,
            columns   => [
                { header => 'Product', total_string => 'Totals' },
                {
                    header         => 'Quarter 1',
                    total_function => 'sum',
                    format         => $currency_format,
                },
                {
                    header         => 'Quarter 2',
                    header_format  => $bold,
                    total_function => 'sum',
                    format         => $currency_format,
                },
            ]
        }
    );

Standard Excel::Writer::XLSX format objects can be used. However, they should be limited to numerical formats for the columns and simple formatting like text wrap for the headers. Overriding other table formatting may produce inconsistent results.



=head1 FORMULAS AND FUNCTIONS IN EXCEL




=head2 Introduction

The following is a brief introduction to formulas and functions in Excel and Excel::Writer::XLSX.

A formula is a string that begins with an equals sign:

    '=A1+B1'
    '=AVERAGE(1, 2, 3)'

The formula can contain numbers, strings, boolean values, cell references, cell ranges and functions. Named ranges are not supported. Formulas should be written as they appear in Excel, that is cells and functions must be in uppercase.

Cells in Excel are referenced using the A1 notation system where the column is designated by a letter and the row by a number. Columns range from A to XFD i.e. 0 to 16384, rows range from 1 to 1048576. The C<Excel::Writer::XLSX::Utility> module that is included in the distro contains helper functions for dealing with A1 notation, for example:

    use Excel::Writer::XLSX::Utility;

    ( $row, $col ) = xl_cell_to_rowcol( 'C2' );    # (1, 2)
    $str = xl_rowcol_to_cell( 1, 2 );              # C2

The Excel C<$> notation in cell references is also supported. This allows you to specify whether a row or column is relative or absolute. This only has an effect if the cell is copied. The following examples show relative and absolute values.

    '=A1'   # Column and row are relative
    '=$A1'  # Column is absolute and row is relative
    '=A$1'  # Column is relative and row is absolute
    '=$A$1' # Column and row are absolute

Formulas can also refer to cells in other worksheets of the current workbook. For example:

    '=Sheet2!A1'
    '=Sheet2!A1:A5'
    '=Sheet2:Sheet3!A1'
    '=Sheet2:Sheet3!A1:A5'
    q{='Test Data'!A1}
    q{='Test Data1:Test Data2'!A1}

The sheet reference and the cell reference are separated by C<!> the exclamation mark symbol. If worksheet names contain spaces, commas or parentheses then Excel requires that the name is enclosed in single quotes as shown in the last two examples above. In order to avoid using a lot of escape characters you can use the quote operator C<q{}> to protect the quotes. See C<perlop> in the main Perl documentation. Only valid sheet names that have been added using the C<add_worksheet()> method can be used in formulas. You cannot reference external workbooks.


The following table lists the operators that are available in Excel's formulas. The majority of the operators are the same as Perl's, differences are indicated:

    Arithmetic operators:
    =====================
    Operator  Meaning                   Example
       +      Addition                  1+2
       -      Subtraction               2-1
       *      Multiplication            2*3
       /      Division                  1/4
       ^      Exponentiation            2^3      # Equivalent to **
       -      Unary minus               -(1+2)
       %      Percent (Not modulus)     13%


    Comparison operators:
    =====================
    Operator  Meaning                   Example
        =     Equal to                  A1 =  B1 # Equivalent to ==
        <>    Not equal to              A1 <> B1 # Equivalent to !=
        >     Greater than              A1 >  B1
        <     Less than                 A1 <  B1
        >=    Greater than or equal to  A1 >= B1
        <=    Less than or equal to     A1 <= B1


    String operator:
    ================
    Operator  Meaning                   Example
        &     Concatenation             "Hello " & "World!" # [1]


    Reference operators:
    ====================
    Operator  Meaning                   Example
        :     Range operator            A1:A4               # [2]
        ,     Union operator            SUM(1, 2+2, B3)     # [3]


    Notes:
    [1]: Equivalent to "Hello " . "World!" in Perl.
    [2]: This range is equivalent to cells A1, A2, A3 and A4.
    [3]: The comma behaves like the list separator in Perl.

The range and comma operators can have different symbols in non-English versions of Excel, see below.

For a general introduction to Excel's formulas and an explanation of the syntax of the function refer to the Excel help files or the following: L<http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/assistance/CH062528031033.aspx>.

In most cases a formula in Excel can be used directly in the C<write_formula> method. However, there are a few potential issues and differences that the user should be aware of. These are explained in the following sections.


=head2 Non US Excel functions and syntax


Excel stores formulas in the format of the US English version, regardless of the language or locale of the end-user's version of Excel. Therefore all formula function names written using Excel::Writer::XLSX must be in English:

    worksheet->write_formula('A1', '=SUM(1, 2, 3)');   # OK
    worksheet->write_formula('A2', '=SOMME(1, 2, 3)'); # French. Error on load.

Also, formulas must be written with the US style separator/range operator which is a comma (not semi-colon). Therefore a formula with multiple values should be written as follows:

    worksheet->write_formula('A1', '=SUM(1, 2, 3)'); # OK
    worksheet->write_formula('A2', '=SUM(1; 2; 3)'); # Semi-colon. Error on load.

If you have a non-English version of Excel you can use the following multi-lingual Formula Translator (L<http://en.excel-translator.de/language/>) to help you convert the formula. It can also replace semi-colons with commas.


=head2 Formulas added in Excel 2010 and later

Excel 2010 and later added functions which weren't defined in the original file specification. These functions are referred to by Microsoft as I<future> functions. Examples of these functions are C<ACOT>, C<CHISQ.DIST.RT> , C<CONFIDENCE.NORM>, C<STDEV.P>, C<STDEV.S> and C<WORKDAY.INTL>.

When written using C<write_formula()> these functions need to be fully qualified with a C<_xlfn.> (or other) prefix as they are shown the list below. For example:

    worksheet->write_formula('A1', '=_xlfn.STDEV.S(B1:B10)')

They will appear without the prefix in Excel.

The following list is taken from the MS XLSX extensions documentation on future functions: L<http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd907480%28v=office.12%29.aspx>:

    _xlfn.ACOT
    _xlfn.ACOTH
    _xlfn.AGGREGATE
    _xlfn.ARABIC
    _xlfn.BASE
    _xlfn.BETA.DIST
    _xlfn.BETA.INV
    _xlfn.BINOM.DIST
    _xlfn.BINOM.DIST.RANGE
    _xlfn.BINOM.INV
    _xlfn.BITAND
    _xlfn.BITLSHIFT
    _xlfn.BITOR
    _xlfn.BITRSHIFT
    _xlfn.BITXOR
    _xlfn.CEILING.MATH
    _xlfn.CEILING.PRECISE
    _xlfn.CHISQ.DIST
    _xlfn.CHISQ.DIST.RT
    _xlfn.CHISQ.INV
    _xlfn.CHISQ.INV.RT
    _xlfn.CHISQ.TEST
    _xlfn.COMBINA
    _xlfn.CONFIDENCE.NORM
    _xlfn.CONFIDENCE.T
    _xlfn.COT
    _xlfn.COTH
    _xlfn.COVARIANCE.P
    _xlfn.COVARIANCE.S
    _xlfn.CSC
    _xlfn.CSCH
    _xlfn.DAYS
    _xlfn.DECIMAL
    ECMA.CEILING
    _xlfn.ERF.PRECISE
    _xlfn.ERFC.PRECISE
    _xlfn.EXPON.DIST
    _xlfn.F.DIST
    _xlfn.F.DIST.RT
    _xlfn.F.INV
    _xlfn.F.INV.RT
    _xlfn.F.TEST
    _xlfn.FILTERXML
    _xlfn.FLOOR.MATH
    _xlfn.FLOOR.PRECISE
    _xlfn.FORECAST.ETS
    _xlfn.FORECAST.ETS.CONFINT
    _xlfn.FORECAST.ETS.SEASONALITY
    _xlfn.FORECAST.ETS.STAT
    _xlfn.FORECAST.LINEAR
    _xlfn.FORMULATEXT
    _xlfn.GAMMA
    _xlfn.GAMMA.DIST
    _xlfn.GAMMA.INV
    _xlfn.GAMMALN.PRECISE
    _xlfn.GAUSS
    _xlfn.HYPGEOM.DIST
    _xlfn.IFNA
    _xlfn.IMCOSH
    _xlfn.IMCOT
    _xlfn.IMCSC
    _xlfn.IMCSCH
    _xlfn.IMSEC
    _xlfn.IMSECH
    _xlfn.IMSINH
    _xlfn.IMTAN
    _xlfn.ISFORMULA
    ISO.CEILING
    _xlfn.ISOWEEKNUM
    _xlfn.LOGNORM.DIST
    _xlfn.LOGNORM.INV
    _xlfn.MODE.MULT
    _xlfn.MODE.SNGL
    _xlfn.MUNIT
    _xlfn.NEGBINOM.DIST
    NETWORKDAYS.INTL
    _xlfn.NORM.DIST
    _xlfn.NORM.INV
    _xlfn.NORM.S.DIST
    _xlfn.NORM.S.INV
    _xlfn.NUMBERVALUE
    _xlfn.PDURATION
    _xlfn.PERCENTILE.EXC
    _xlfn.PERCENTILE.INC
    _xlfn.PERCENTRANK.EXC
    _xlfn.PERCENTRANK.INC
    _xlfn.PERMUTATIONA
    _xlfn.PHI
    _xlfn.POISSON.DIST
    _xlfn.QUARTILE.EXC
    _xlfn.QUARTILE.INC
    _xlfn.QUERYSTRING
    _xlfn.RANK.AVG
    _xlfn.RANK.EQ
    _xlfn.RRI
    _xlfn.SEC
    _xlfn.SECH
    _xlfn.SHEET
    _xlfn.SHEETS
    _xlfn.SKEW.P
    _xlfn.STDEV.P
    _xlfn.STDEV.S
    _xlfn.T.DIST
    _xlfn.T.DIST.2T
    _xlfn.T.DIST.RT
    _xlfn.T.INV
    _xlfn.T.INV.2T
    _xlfn.T.TEST
    _xlfn.UNICHAR
    _xlfn.UNICODE
    _xlfn.VAR.P
    _xlfn.VAR.S
    _xlfn.WEBSERVICE
    _xlfn.WEIBULL.DIST
    WORKDAY.INTL
    _xlfn.XOR
    _xlfn.Z.TEST


=head2 Using Tables in Formulas

Worksheet tables can be added with Excel::Writer::XLSX using the C<add_table()> method:

    worksheet->add_table('B3:F7', {options});

By default tables are named C<Table1>, C<Table2>, etc., in the order that they are added. However it can also be set by the user using the C<name> parameter:

    worksheet->add_table('B3:F7', {'name': 'SalesData'});

If you need to know the name of the table, for example to use it in a formula,
you can get it as follows:

    table = worksheet->add_table('B3:F7');
    table_name = table->{_name};

When used in a formula a table name such as C<TableX> should be referred to as C<TableX[]> (like a Perl array):

    worksheet->write_formula('A5', '=VLOOKUP("Sales", Table1[], 2, FALSE');


=head2 Dealing with #NAME? errors

If there is an error in the syntax of a formula it is usually displayed in
Excel as C<#NAME?>. If you encounter an error like this you can debug it as
follows:

=over

=item 1. Ensure the formula is valid in Excel by copying and pasting it into a cell. Note, this should be done in Excel and not other applications such as OpenOffice or LibreOffice since they may have slightly different syntax.

=item 2. Ensure the formula is using comma separators instead of semi-colons, see L<Non US Excel functions and syntax> above.

=item 3. Ensure the formula is in English, see L<Non US Excel functions and syntax> above.

=item 4. Ensure that the formula doesn't contain an Excel 2010+ future function as listed in L<Formulas added in Excel 2010 and later> above. If it does then ensure that the correct prefix is used.

=back

Finally if you have completed all the previous steps and still get a C<#NAME?> error you can examine a valid Excel file to see what the correct syntax should be. To do this you should create a valid formula in Excel and save the file. You can then examine the XML in the unzipped file.

The following shows how to do that using Linux C<unzip> and libxml's xmllint
L<http://xmlsoft.org/xmllint.html> to format the XML for clarity:

    $ unzip myfile.xlsx -d myfile
    $ xmllint --format myfile/xl/worksheets/sheet1.xml | grep '<f>'

            <f>SUM(1, 2, 3)</f>


=head2 Formula Results

Excel::Writer::XLSX doesn't calculate the result of a formula and instead stores the value 0 as the formula result. It then sets a global flag in the XLSX file to say that all formulas and functions should be recalculated when the file is opened.

This is the method recommended in the Excel documentation and in general it works fine with spreadsheet applications. However, applications that don't have a facility to calculate formulas will only display the 0 results. Examples of such applications are Excel Viewer, PDF Converters, and some mobile device applications.

If required, it is also possible to specify the calculated result of the
formula using the optional last C<value> parameter in C<write_formula>:

    worksheet->write_formula('A1', '=2+2', num_format, 4);

The C<value> parameter can be a number, a string, a boolean sting (C<'TRUE'> or C<'FALSE'>) or one of the following Excel error codes:

    #DIV/0!
    #N/A
    #NAME?
    #NULL!
    #NUM!
    #REF!
    #VALUE!

It is also possible to specify the calculated result of an array formula created with C<write_array_formula>:

    # Specify the result for a single cell range.
    worksheet->write_array_formula('A1:A1', '{=SUM(B1:C1*B2:C2)}', format, 2005);

However, using this parameter only writes a single value to the upper left cell in the result array. For a multi-cell array formula where the results are required, the other result values can be specified by using C<write_number()> to write to the appropriate cell:

    # Specify the results for a multi cell range.
    worksheet->write_array_formula('A1:A3', '{=TREND(C1:C3,B1:B3)}', format, 15);
    worksheet->write_number('A2', 12, format);
    worksheet->write_number('A3', 14, format);




=head1 WORKING WITH VBA MACROS

An Excel C<xlsm> file is exactly the same as a C<xlsx> file except that is includes an additional C<vbaProject.bin> file which contains functions and/or macros. Excel uses a different extension to differentiate between the two file formats since files containing macros are usually subject to additional security checks.

The C<vbaProject.bin> file is a binary OLE COM container. This was the format used in older C<xls> versions of Excel prior to Excel 2007. Unlike all of the other components of an xlsx/xlsm file the data isn't stored in XML format. Instead the functions and macros as stored as pre-parsed binary format. As such it wouldn't be feasible to define macros and create a C<vbaProject.bin> file from scratch (at least not in the remaining lifespan and interest levels of the author).

Instead a workaround is used to extract C<vbaProject.bin> files from existing xlsm files and then add these to Excel::Writer::XLSX files.


=head2 The extract_vba utility

The C<extract_vba> utility is used to extract the C<vbaProject.bin> binary from an Excel 2007+ xlsm file. The utility is included in the Excel::Writer::XLSX bin directory and is also installed as a standalone executable file:

    $ extract_vba macro_file.xlsm
    Extracted: vbaProject.bin


=head2 Adding the VBA macros to a Excel::Writer::XLSX file

Once the C<vbaProject.bin> file has been extracted it can be added to the Excel::Writer::XLSX workbook using the C<add_vba_project()> method:

    $workbook->add_vba_project( './vbaProject.bin' );

If the VBA file contains functions you can then refer to them in calculations using C<write_formula>:

    $worksheet->write_formula( 'A1', '=MyMortgageCalc(200000, 25)' );

Excel files that contain functions and macros should use an C<xlsm> extension or else Excel will complain and possibly not open the file:

    my $workbook  = Excel::Writer::XLSX->new( 'file.xlsm' );

It is also possible to assign a macro to a button that is inserted into a
worksheet using the C<insert_button()> method:

    my $workbook  = Excel::Writer::XLSX->new( 'file.xlsm' );
    ...
    $workbook->add_vba_project( './vbaProject.bin' );

    $worksheet->insert_button( 'C2', { macro => 'my_macro' } );


It may be necessary to specify a more explicit macro name prefixed by the workbook VBA name as follows:

    $worksheet->insert_button( 'C2', { macro => 'ThisWorkbook.my_macro' } );

See the C<macros.pl> from the examples directory for a working example.

Note: Button is the only VBA Control supported by Excel::Writer::XLSX. Due to the large effort in implementation (1+ man months) it is unlikely that any other form elements will be added in the future.


=head2 Setting the VBA codenames

VBA macros generally refer to workbook and worksheet objects. If the VBA codenames aren't specified then Excel::Writer::XLSX will use the Excel defaults of C<ThisWorkbook> and C<Sheet1>, C<Sheet2> etc.

If the macro uses other codenames you can set them using the workbook and worksheet C<set_vba_name()> methods as follows:

      $workbook->set_vba_name( 'MyWorkbook' );
      $worksheet->set_vba_name( 'MySheet' );

You can find the names that are used in the VBA editor or by unzipping the C<xlsm> file and grepping the files. The following shows how to do that using libxml's xmllint L<http://xmlsoft.org/xmllint.html> to format the XML for clarity:

    $ unzip myfile.xlsm -d myfile
    $ xmllint --format `find myfile -name "*.xml" | xargs` | grep "Pr.*codeName"

      <workbookPr codeName="MyWorkbook" defaultThemeVersion="124226"/>
      <sheetPr codeName="MySheet"/>


Note: This step is particularly important for macros created with non-English versions of Excel.



=head2 What to do if it doesn't work

This feature should be considered experimental and there is no guarantee that it will work in all cases. Some effort may be required and some knowledge of VBA will certainly help. If things don't work out here are some things to try:

=over

=item *

Start with a simple macro file, ensure that it works and then add complexity.

=item *

Try to extract the macros from an Excel 2007 file. The method should work with macros from later versions (it was also tested with Excel 2010 macros). However there may be features in the macro files of more recent version of Excel that aren't backward compatible.

=item *

Check the code names that macros use to refer to the workbook and worksheets (see the previous section above). In general VBA uses a code name of C<ThisWorkbook> to refer to the current workbook and the sheet name (such as C<Sheet1>) to refer to the worksheets. These are the defaults used by Excel::Writer::XLSX. If the macro uses other names then you can specify these using the workbook and worksheet C<set_vba_name()> methods:

      $workbook>set_vba_name( 'MyWorkbook' );
      $worksheet->set_vba_name( 'MySheet' );

=back


=head1 EXAMPLES

See L<Excel::Writer::XLSX::Examples> for a full list of examples.


=head2 Example 1

The following example shows some of the basic features of Excel::Writer::XLSX.


    #!/usr/bin/perl -w

    use strict;
    use Excel::Writer::XLSX;

    # Create a new workbook called simple.xlsx and add a worksheet
    my $workbook  = Excel::Writer::XLSX->new( 'simple.xlsx' );
    my $worksheet = $workbook->add_worksheet();

    # The general syntax is write($row, $column, $token). Note that row and
    # column are zero indexed

    # Write some text
    $worksheet->write( 0, 0, 'Hi Excel!' );


    # Write some numbers
    $worksheet->write( 2, 0, 3 );
    $worksheet->write( 3, 0, 3.00000 );
    $worksheet->write( 4, 0, 3.00001 );
    $worksheet->write( 5, 0, 3.14159 );


    # Write some formulas
    $worksheet->write( 7, 0, '=A3 + A6' );
    $worksheet->write( 8, 0, '=IF(A5>3,"Yes", "No")' );


    # Write a hyperlink
    my $hyperlink_format = $workbook->add_format(
        color     => 'blue',
        underline => 1,
    );

    $worksheet->write( 10, 0, 'http://www.perl.com/', $hyperlink_format );

    $workbook->close();

=begin html

<p><center><img src="http://jmcnamara.github.io/excel-writer-xlsx/images/examples/a_simple.jpg" width="640" height="420" alt="Output from a_simple.pl" /></center></p>

=end html




=head2 Example 2

The following is a general example which demonstrates some features of working with multiple worksheets.

    #!/usr/bin/perl -w

    use strict;
    use Excel::Writer::XLSX;

    # Create a new Excel workbook
    my $workbook = Excel::Writer::XLSX->new( 'regions.xlsx' );

    # Add some worksheets
    my $north = $workbook->add_worksheet( 'North' );
    my $south = $workbook->add_worksheet( 'South' );
    my $east  = $workbook->add_worksheet( 'East' );
    my $west  = $workbook->add_worksheet( 'West' );

    # Add a Format
    my $format = $workbook->add_format();
    $format->set_bold();
    $format->set_color( 'blue' );

    # Add a caption to each worksheet
    for my $worksheet ( $workbook->sheets() ) {
        $worksheet->write( 0, 0, 'Sales', $format );
    }

    # Write some data
    $north->write( 0, 1, 200000 );
    $south->write( 0, 1, 100000 );
    $east->write( 0, 1, 150000 );
    $west->write( 0, 1, 100000 );

    # Set the active worksheet
    $south->activate();

    # Set the width of the first column
    $south->set_column( 0, 0, 20 );

    # Set the active cell
    $south->set_selection( 0, 1 );

    $workbook->close();

=begin html

<p><center><img src="http://jmcnamara.github.io/excel-writer-xlsx/images/examples/regions.jpg" width="640" height="420" alt="Output from regions.pl" /></center></p>

=end html




=head2 Example 3

Example of how to add conditional formatting to an Excel::Writer::XLSX file. The example below highlights cells that have a value greater than or equal to 50 in red and cells below that value in green.

    #!/usr/bin/perl

    use strict;
    use warnings;
    use Excel::Writer::XLSX;

    my $workbook  = Excel::Writer::XLSX->new( 'conditional_format.xlsx' );
    my $worksheet = $workbook->add_worksheet();


    # This example below highlights cells that have a value greater than or
    # equal to 50 in red and cells below that value in green.

    # Light red fill with dark red text.
    my $format1 = $workbook->add_format(
        bg_color => '#FFC7CE',
        color    => '#9C0006',

    );

    # Green fill with dark green text.
    my $format2 = $workbook->add_format(
        bg_color => '#C6EFCE',
        color    => '#006100',

    );

    # Some sample data to run the conditional formatting against.
    my $data = [
        [ 34, 72,  38, 30, 75, 48, 75, 66, 84, 86 ],
        [ 6,  24,  1,  84, 54, 62, 60, 3,  26, 59 ],
        [ 28, 79,  97, 13, 85, 93, 93, 22, 5,  14 ],
        [ 27, 71,  40, 17, 18, 79, 90, 93, 29, 47 ],
        [ 88, 25,  33, 23, 67, 1,  59, 79, 47, 36 ],
        [ 24, 100, 20, 88, 29, 33, 38, 54, 54, 88 ],
        [ 6,  57,  88, 28, 10, 26, 37, 7,  41, 48 ],
        [ 52, 78,  1,  96, 26, 45, 47, 33, 96, 36 ],
        [ 60, 54,  81, 66, 81, 90, 80, 93, 12, 55 ],
        [ 70, 5,   46, 14, 71, 19, 66, 36, 41, 21 ],
    ];

    my $caption = 'Cells with values >= 50 are in light red. '
      . 'Values < 50 are in light green';

    # Write the data.
    $worksheet->write( 'A1', $caption );
    $worksheet->write_col( 'B3', $data );

    # Write a conditional format over a range.
    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'B3:K12',
        {
            type     => 'cell',
            criteria => '>=',
            value    => 50,
            format   => $format1,
        }
    );

    # Write another conditional format over the same range.
    $worksheet->conditional_formatting( 'B3:K12',
        {
            type     => 'cell',
            criteria => '<',
            value    => 50,
            format   => $format2,
        }
    );

    $workbook->close();

=begin html


<p><center><img src="http://jmcnamara.github.io/excel-writer-xlsx/images/examples/conditional_format.jpg" width="640" height="420" alt="Output from conditional_format.pl" /></center></p>


=end html




=head2 Example 4

The following is a simple example of using functions.

    #!/usr/bin/perl -w

    use strict;
    use Excel::Writer::XLSX;

    # Create a new workbook and add a worksheet
    my $workbook  = Excel::Writer::XLSX->new( 'stats.xlsx' );
    my $worksheet = $workbook->add_worksheet( 'Test data' );

    # Set the column width for columns 1
    $worksheet->set_column( 0, 0, 20 );


    # Create a format for the headings
    my $format = $workbook->add_format();
    $format->set_bold();


    # Write the sample data
    $worksheet->write( 0, 0, 'Sample', $format );
    $worksheet->write( 0, 1, 1 );
    $worksheet->write( 0, 2, 2 );
    $worksheet->write( 0, 3, 3 );
    $worksheet->write( 0, 4, 4 );
    $worksheet->write( 0, 5, 5 );
    $worksheet->write( 0, 6, 6 );
    $worksheet->write( 0, 7, 7 );
    $worksheet->write( 0, 8, 8 );

    $worksheet->write( 1, 0, 'Length', $format );
    $worksheet->write( 1, 1, 25.4 );
    $worksheet->write( 1, 2, 25.4 );
    $worksheet->write( 1, 3, 24.8 );
    $worksheet->write( 1, 4, 25.0 );
    $worksheet->write( 1, 5, 25.3 );
    $worksheet->write( 1, 6, 24.9 );
    $worksheet->write( 1, 7, 25.2 );
    $worksheet->write( 1, 8, 24.8 );

    # Write some statistical functions
    $worksheet->write( 4, 0, 'Count', $format );
    $worksheet->write( 4, 1, '=COUNT(B1:I1)' );

    $worksheet->write( 5, 0, 'Sum', $format );
    $worksheet->write( 5, 1, '=SUM(B2:I2)' );

    $worksheet->write( 6, 0, 'Average', $format );
    $worksheet->write( 6, 1, '=AVERAGE(B2:I2)' );

    $worksheet->write( 7, 0, 'Min', $format );
    $worksheet->write( 7, 1, '=MIN(B2:I2)' );

    $worksheet->write( 8, 0, 'Max', $format );
    $worksheet->write( 8, 1, '=MAX(B2:I2)' );

    $worksheet->write( 9, 0, 'Standard Deviation', $format );
    $worksheet->write( 9, 1, '=STDEV(B2:I2)' );

    $worksheet->write( 10, 0, 'Kurtosis', $format );
    $worksheet->write( 10, 1, '=KURT(B2:I2)' );

    $workbook->close();

=begin html

<p><center><img src="http://jmcnamara.github.io/excel-writer-xlsx/images/examples/stats.jpg" width="640" height="420" alt="Output from stats.pl" /></center></p>

=end html




=head2 Example 5

The following example converts a tab separated file called C<tab.txt> into an Excel file called C<tab.xlsx>.

    #!/usr/bin/perl -w

    use strict;
    use Excel::Writer::XLSX;

    open( TABFILE, 'tab.txt' ) or die "tab.txt: $!";

    my $workbook  = Excel::Writer::XLSX->new( 'tab.xlsx' );
    my $worksheet = $workbook->add_worksheet();

    # Row and column are zero indexed
    my $row = 0;

    while ( <TABFILE> ) {
        chomp;

        # Split on single tab
        my @fields = split( '\t', $_ );

        my $col = 0;
        for my $token ( @fields ) {
            $worksheet->write( $row, $col, $token );
            $col++;
        }
        $row++;
    }

    $workbook->close();

NOTE: This is a simple conversion program for illustrative purposes only. For converting a CSV or Tab separated or any other type of delimited text file to Excel I recommend the more rigorous csv2xls program that is part of H.Merijn Brand's L<Text::CSV_XS> module distro.

See the examples/csv2xls link here: L<http://search.cpan.org/~hmbrand/Text-CSV_XS/MANIFEST>.




=head2 Additional Examples

The following is a description of the example files that are provided
in the standard Excel::Writer::XLSX distribution. They demonstrate the
different features and options of the module. See L<Excel::Writer::XLSX::Examples> for more details.

    Getting started
    ===============
    a_simple.pl             A simple demo of some of the features.
    bug_report.pl           A template for submitting bug reports.
    demo.pl                 A demo of some of the available features.
    formats.pl              All the available formatting on several worksheets.
    regions.pl              A simple example of multiple worksheets.
    stats.pl                Basic formulas and functions.


    Intermediate
    ============
    autofilter.pl           Examples of worksheet autofilters.
    array_formula.pl        Examples of how to write array formulas.
    cgi.pl                  A simple CGI program.
    chart_area.pl           A demo of area style charts.
    chart_bar.pl            A demo of bar (vertical histogram) style charts.
    chart_column.pl         A demo of column (histogram) style charts.
    chart_line.pl           A demo of line style charts.
    chart_pie.pl            A demo of pie style charts.
    chart_doughnut.pl       A demo of doughnut style charts.
    chart_radar.pl          A demo of radar style charts.
    chart_scatter.pl        A demo of scatter style charts.
    chart_secondary_axis.pl A demo of a line chart with a secondary axis.
    chart_combined.pl       A demo of a combined column and line chart.
    chart_pareto.pl         A demo of a combined Pareto chart.
    chart_stock.pl          A demo of stock style charts.
    chart_data_table.pl     A demo of a chart with a data table on the axis.
    chart_data_tools.pl     A demo of charts with data highlighting options.
    chart_clustered.pl      A demo of a chart with a clustered axis.
    chart_styles.pl         A demo of the available chart styles.
    colors.pl               A demo of the colour palette and named colours.
    comments1.pl            Add comments to worksheet cells.
    comments2.pl            Add comments with advanced options.
    conditional_format.pl   Add conditional formats to a range of cells.
    data_validate.pl        An example of data validation and dropdown lists.
    date_time.pl            Write dates and times with write_date_time().
    defined_name.pl         Example of how to create defined names.
    diag_border.pl          A simple example of diagonal cell borders.
    filehandle.pl           Examples of working with filehandles.
    headers.pl              Examples of worksheet headers and footers.
    hide_row_col.pl         Example of hiding rows and columns.
    hide_sheet.pl           Simple example of hiding a worksheet.
    hyperlink1.pl           Shows how to create web hyperlinks.
    hyperlink2.pl           Examples of internal and external hyperlinks.
    indent.pl               An example of cell indentation.
    macros.pl               An example of adding macros from an existing file.
    merge1.pl               A simple example of cell merging.
    merge2.pl               A simple example of cell merging with formatting.
    merge3.pl               Add hyperlinks to merged cells.
    merge4.pl               An advanced example of merging with formatting.
    merge5.pl               An advanced example of merging with formatting.
    merge6.pl               An example of merging with Unicode strings.
    mod_perl1.pl            A simple mod_perl 1 program.
    mod_perl2.pl            A simple mod_perl 2 program.
    panes.pl                An examples of how to create panes.
    outline.pl              An example of outlines and grouping.
    outline_collapsed.pl    An example of collapsed outlines.
    protection.pl           Example of cell locking and formula hiding.
    rich_strings.pl         Example of strings with multiple formats.
    right_to_left.pl        Change default sheet direction to right to left.
    sales.pl                An example of a simple sales spreadsheet.
    shape1.pl               Insert shapes in worksheet.
    shape2.pl               Insert shapes in worksheet. With properties.
    shape3.pl               Insert shapes in worksheet. Scaled.
    shape4.pl               Insert shapes in worksheet. With modification.
    shape5.pl               Insert shapes in worksheet. With connections.
    shape6.pl               Insert shapes in worksheet. With connections.
    shape7.pl               Insert shapes in worksheet. One to many connections.
    shape8.pl               Insert shapes in worksheet. One to many connections.
    shape_all.pl            Demo of all the available shape and connector types.
    sparklines1.pl          Simple sparklines demo.
    sparklines2.pl          Sparklines demo showing formatting options.
    stats_ext.pl            Same as stats.pl with external references.
    stocks.pl               Demonstrates conditional formatting.
    tab_colors.pl           Example of how to set worksheet tab colours.
    tables.pl               Add Excel tables to a worksheet.
    write_handler1.pl       Example of extending the write() method. Step 1.
    write_handler2.pl       Example of extending the write() method. Step 2.
    write_handler3.pl       Example of extending the write() method. Step 3.
    write_handler4.pl       Example of extending the write() method. Step 4.
    write_to_scalar.pl      Example of writing an Excel file to a Perl scalar.

    Unicode
    =======
    unicode_2022_jp.pl      Japanese: ISO-2022-JP.
    unicode_8859_11.pl      Thai:     ISO-8859_11.
    unicode_8859_7.pl       Greek:    ISO-8859_7.
    unicode_big5.pl         Chinese:  BIG5.
    unicode_cp1251.pl       Russian:  CP1251.
    unicode_cp1256.pl       Arabic:   CP1256.
    unicode_cyrillic.pl     Russian:  Cyrillic.
    unicode_koi8r.pl        Russian:  KOI8-R.
    unicode_polish_utf8.pl  Polish :  UTF8.
    unicode_shift_jis.pl    Japanese: Shift JIS.




=head1 LIMITATIONS

The following limits are imposed by Excel 2007+:

    Description                             Limit
    --------------------------------------  ------
    Maximum number of chars in a string     32,767
    Maximum number of columns               16,384
    Maximum number of rows                  1,048,576
    Maximum chars in a sheet name           31
    Maximum chars in a header/footer        254

    Maximum characters in hyperlink url     255
    Maximum characters in hyperlink anchor  255
    Maximum number of unique hyperlinks*    65,530

* Per worksheet. Excel allows a greater number of non-unique hyperlinks if they are contiguous and can be grouped into a single range. This will be supported in a later version of Excel::Writer::XLSX if possible.




=head1 Compatibility with Spreadsheet::WriteExcel

The C<Excel::Writer::XLSX> module is a drop-in replacement for C<Spreadsheet::WriteExcel>.

It supports all of the features of Spreadsheet::WriteExcel with some minor differences noted below.

    Workbook Methods            Support
    ================            ======
    new()                       Yes
    add_worksheet()             Yes
    add_format()                Yes
    add_chart()                 Yes
    add_shape()                 Yes. Not in Spreadsheet::WriteExcel.
    add_vba_project()           Yes. Not in Spreadsheet::WriteExcel.
    close()                     Yes
    set_properties()            Yes
    define_name()               Yes
    set_tempdir()               Yes
    set_custom_color()          Yes
    sheets()                    Yes
    set_1904()                  Yes
    set_optimization()          Yes. Not required in Spreadsheet::WriteExcel.
    add_chart_ext()             Not supported. Not required in Excel::Writer::XLSX.
    compatibility_mode()        Deprecated. Not required in Excel::Writer::XLSX.
    set_codepage()              Deprecated. Not required in Excel::Writer::XLSX.


    Worksheet Methods           Support
    =================           =======
    write()                     Yes
    write_number()              Yes
    write_string()              Yes
    write_rich_string()         Yes. Not in Spreadsheet::WriteExcel.
    write_blank()               Yes
    write_row()                 Yes
    write_col()                 Yes
    write_date_time()           Yes
    write_url()                 Yes
    write_formula()             Yes
    write_array_formula()       Yes. Not in Spreadsheet::WriteExcel.
    keep_leading_zeros()        Yes
    write_comment()             Yes
    show_comments()             Yes
    set_comments_author()       Yes
    add_write_handler()         Yes
    insert_image()              Yes.
    insert_chart()              Yes
    insert_shape()              Yes. Not in Spreadsheet::WriteExcel.
    insert_button()             Yes. Not in Spreadsheet::WriteExcel.
    data_validation()           Yes
    conditional_formatting()    Yes. Not in Spreadsheet::WriteExcel.
    add_sparkline()             Yes. Not in Spreadsheet::WriteExcel.
    add_table()                 Yes. Not in Spreadsheet::WriteExcel.
    get_name()                  Yes
    activate()                  Yes
    select()                    Yes
    hide()                      Yes
    set_first_sheet()           Yes
    protect()                   Yes
    set_selection()             Yes
    set_row()                   Yes.
    set_column()                Yes.
    set_default_row()           Yes. Not in Spreadsheet::WriteExcel.
    outline_settings()          Yes
    freeze_panes()              Yes
    split_panes()               Yes
    merge_range()               Yes
    merge_range_type()          Yes. Not in Spreadsheet::WriteExcel.
    set_zoom()                  Yes
    right_to_left()             Yes
    hide_zero()                 Yes
    set_tab_color()             Yes
    autofilter()                Yes
    filter_column()             Yes
    filter_column_list()        Yes. Not in Spreadsheet::WriteExcel.
    write_utf16be_string()      Deprecated. Use Perl utf8 strings instead.
    write_utf16le_string()      Deprecated. Use Perl utf8 strings instead.
    store_formula()             Deprecated. See docs.
    repeat_formula()            Deprecated. See docs.
    write_url_range()           Not supported. Not required in Excel::Writer::XLSX.

    Page Set-up Methods         Support
    ===================         =======
    set_landscape()             Yes
    set_portrait()              Yes
    set_page_view()             Yes
    set_paper()                 Yes
    center_horizontally()       Yes
    center_vertically()         Yes
    set_margins()               Yes
    set_header()                Yes
    set_footer()                Yes
    repeat_rows()               Yes
    repeat_columns()            Yes
    hide_gridlines()            Yes
    print_row_col_headers()     Yes
    print_area()                Yes
    print_across()              Yes
    fit_to_pages()              Yes
    set_start_page()            Yes
    set_print_scale()           Yes
    set_h_pagebreaks()          Yes
    set_v_pagebreaks()          Yes

    Format Methods              Support
    ==============              =======
    set_font()                  Yes
    set_size()                  Yes
    set_color()                 Yes
    set_bold()                  Yes
    set_italic()                Yes
    set_underline()             Yes
    set_font_strikeout()        Yes
    set_font_script()           Yes
    set_font_outline()          Yes
    set_font_shadow()           Yes
    set_num_format()            Yes
    set_locked()                Yes
    set_hidden()                Yes
    set_align()                 Yes
    set_rotation()              Yes
    set_text_wrap()             Yes
    set_text_justlast()         Yes
    set_center_across()         Yes
    set_indent()                Yes
    set_shrink()                Yes
    set_pattern()               Yes
    set_bg_color()              Yes
    set_fg_color()              Yes
    set_border()                Yes
    set_bottom()                Yes
    set_top()                   Yes
    set_left()                  Yes
    set_right()                 Yes
    set_border_color()          Yes
    set_bottom_color()          Yes
    set_top_color()             Yes
    set_left_color()            Yes
    set_right_color()           Yes




=head1 REQUIREMENTS

L<http://search.cpan.org/search?dist=Archive-Zip/>.

Perl 5.8.2.




=head1 SPEED AND MEMORY USAGE

C<Spreadsheet::WriteExcel> was written to optimise speed and reduce memory usage. However, these design goals meant that it wasn't easy to implement features that many users requested such as writing formatting and data separately.

As a result C<Excel::Writer::XLSX> takes a different design approach and holds a lot more data in memory so that it is functionally more flexible.

The effect of this is that Excel::Writer::XLSX is about 30% slower than Spreadsheet::WriteExcel and uses 5 times more memory.

In addition the extended row and column ranges in Excel 2007+ mean that it is possible to run out of memory creating large files. This was almost never an issue with Spreadsheet::WriteExcel.

This memory usage can be reduced almost completely by using the Workbook C<set_optimization()> method:

    $workbook->set_optimization();

This also gives an increase in performance to within 1-10% of Spreadsheet::WriteExcel, see below.

The trade-off is that you won't be able to take advantage of any new features that manipulate cell data after it is written. One such feature is Tables.


=head2 Performance figures

The performance figures below show execution speed and memory usage for 60 columns x N rows for a 50/50 mixture of strings and numbers. Percentage speeds are relative to Spreadsheet::WriteExcel.

    Excel::Writer::XLSX
         Rows  Time (s)    Memory (bytes)  Rel. Time
          400      0.66         6,586,254       129%
          800      1.26        13,099,422       125%
         1600      2.55        26,126,361       123%
         3200      5.16        52,211,284       125%
         6400     10.47       104,401,428       128%
        12800     21.48       208,784,519       131%
        25600     43.90       417,700,746       126%
        51200     88.52       835,900,298       126%

    Excel::Writer::XLSX + set_optimisation()
         Rows  Time (s)    Memory (bytes)  Rel. Time
          400      0.70            63,059       135%
          800      1.10            63,059       110%
         1600      2.30            63,062       111%
         3200      4.44            63,062       107%
         6400      8.91            63,062       109%
        12800     17.69            63,065       108%
        25600     35.15            63,065       101%
        51200     70.67            63,065       101%

    Spreadsheet::WriteExcel
         Rows  Time (s)    Memory (bytes)
          400      0.51         1,265,583
          800      1.01         2,424,855
         1600      2.07         4,743,400
         3200      4.14         9,411,139
         6400      8.20        18,766,915
        12800     16.39        37,478,468
        25600     34.72        75,044,423
        51200     70.21       150,543,431


=head1 DOWNLOADING

The latest version of this module is always available at: L<http://search.cpan.org/search?dist=Excel-Writer-XLSX/>.




=head1 INSTALLATION

The module can be installed using the standard Perl procedure:

            perl Makefile.PL
            make
            make test
            make install    # You may need to be sudo/root




=head1 DIAGNOSTICS


=over 4

=item Filename required by Excel::Writer::XLSX->new()

A filename must be given in the constructor.

=item Can't open filename. It may be in use or protected.

The file cannot be opened for writing. The directory that you are writing to may be protected or the file may be in use by another program.


=item Can't call method "XXX" on an undefined value at someprogram.pl.

On Windows this is usually caused by the file that you are trying to create clashing with a version that is already open and locked by Excel.

=item The file you are trying to open 'file.xls' is in a different format than specified by the file extension.

This warning occurs when you create an XLSX file but give it an xls extension.

=back




=head1 WRITING EXCEL FILES

Depending on your requirements, background and general sensibilities you may prefer one of the following methods of getting data into Excel:

=over 4

=item * Spreadsheet::WriteExcel

This module is the precursor to Excel::Writer::XLSX and uses the same interface. It produces files in the Excel Biff xls format that was used in Excel versions 97-2003. These files can still be read by Excel 2007 but have some limitations in relation to the number of rows and columns that the format supports.

L<Spreadsheet::WriteExcel>.

=item * Win32::OLE module and office automation

This requires a Windows platform and an installed copy of Excel. This is the most powerful and complete method for interfacing with Excel.

L<Win32::OLE>

=item * CSV, comma separated variables or text

Excel will open and automatically convert files with a C<csv> extension.

To create CSV files refer to the L<Text::CSV_XS> module.


=item * DBI with DBD::ADO or DBD::ODBC

Excel files contain an internal index table that allows them to act like a database file. Using one of the standard Perl database modules you can connect to an Excel file as a database.


=back

For other Perl-Excel modules try the following search: L<http://search.cpan.org/search?mode=module&query=excel>.




=head1 READING EXCEL FILES

To read data from Excel files try:

=over 4

=item * Spreadsheet::XLSX

A module for reading formatted or unformatted data form XLSX files.

L<Spreadsheet::XLSX>

=item * SimpleXlsx

A lightweight module for reading data from XLSX files.

L<SimpleXlsx>

=item * Spreadsheet::ParseExcel

This module can read  data from an Excel XLS file but it doesn't support the XLSX format.

L<Spreadsheet::ParseExcel>

=item * Win32::OLE module and office automation (reading)

See above.

=item * DBI with DBD::ADO or DBD::ODBC.

See above.

=back


For other Perl-Excel modules try the following search: L<http://search.cpan.org/search?mode=module&query=excel>.


=head1 BUGS

=over

=item * Memory usage is very high for large worksheets.

If you run out of memory creating large worksheets use the C<set_optimization()> method. See L</SPEED AND MEMORY USAGE> for more information.

=item * Perl packaging programs can't find chart modules.

When using Excel::Writer::XLSX charts with Perl packagers such as PAR or Cava you should explicitly include the chart that you are trying to create in your C<use> statements. This isn't a bug as such but it might help someone from banging their head off a wall:

    ...
    use Excel::Writer::XLSX;
    use Excel::Writer::XLSX::Chart::Column;
    ...

=back


If you wish to submit a bug report run the C<bug_report.pl> program in the C<examples> directory of the distro.




The bug tracker is on Github: L<https://github.com/jmcnamara/excel-writer-xlsx/issues>.


=head1 TO DO

The roadmap is as follows:

=over 4

=item * New separated data/formatting API to allow cells to be formatted after data is added.

=item * More charting features.

=back





=head1 REPOSITORY

The Excel::Writer::XLSX source code in host on github: L<http://github.com/jmcnamara/excel-writer-xlsx>.




=head1 MAILING LIST

There is a Google group for discussing and asking questions about Excel::Writer::XLSX. This is a good place to search to see if your question has been asked before:  L<http://groups.google.com/group/spreadsheet-writeexcel>.




=head1 DONATIONS and SPONSORSHIP

If you'd care to donate to the Excel::Writer::XLSX project or sponsor a new feature, you can do so via PayPal: L<http://tinyurl.com/7ayes>.




=head1 SEE ALSO

Spreadsheet::WriteExcel: L<http://search.cpan.org/dist/Spreadsheet-WriteExcel>.

Spreadsheet::ParseExcel: L<http://search.cpan.org/dist/Spreadsheet-ParseExcel>.

Spreadsheet::XLSX: L<http://search.cpan.org/dist/Spreadsheet-XLSX>.



=head1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The following people contributed to the debugging, testing or enhancement of Excel::Writer::XLSX:

Rob Messer of IntelliSurvey gave me the initial prompt to port Spreadsheet::WriteExcel to the XLSX format. IntelliSurvey (L<http://www.intellisurvey.com>) also sponsored large files optimisations and the charting feature.

Bariatric Advantage (L<http://www.bariatricadvantage.com>) sponsored work on chart formatting.

Eric Johnson provided the ability to use secondary axes with charts.  Thanks to Foxtons (L<http://foxtons.co.uk>) for sponsoring this work.

BuildFax (L<http://www.buildfax.com>) sponsored the Tables feature and the Chart point formatting feature.




=head1 DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY

Because this software is licensed free of charge, there is no warranty for the software, to the extent permitted by applicable law. Except when otherwise stated in writing the copyright holders and/or other parties provide the software "as is" without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. The entire risk as to the quality and performance of the software is with you. Should the software prove defective, you assume the cost of all necessary servicing, repair, or correction.

In no event unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing will any copyright holder, or any other party who may modify and/or redistribute the software as permitted by the above licence, be liable to you for damages, including any general, special, incidental, or consequential damages arising out of the use or inability to use the software (including but not limited to loss of data or data being rendered inaccurate or losses sustained by you or third parties or a failure of the software to operate with any other software), even if such holder or other party has been advised of the possibility of such damages.




=head1 LICENSE

Either the Perl Artistic Licence L<http://dev.perl.org/licenses/artistic.html> or the GPL L<http://www.opensource.org/licenses/gpl-license.php>.




=head1 AUTHOR

John McNamara jmcnamara@cpan.org

    Wilderness for miles, eyes so mild and wise
    Oasis child, born and so wild
    Don't I know you better than the rest
    All deception, all deception from you

    Any way you run, you run before us
    Black and white horse arching among us
    Any way you run, you run before us
    Black and white horse arching among us

      -- Beach House




=head1 COPYRIGHT

Copyright MM-MMXIX, John McNamara.

All Rights Reserved. This module is free software. It may be used, redistributed and/or modified under the same terms as Perl itself.