package ExtUtils::MM_Unix;

require 5.006;

use strict;

use Carp;
use ExtUtils::MakeMaker::Config;
use File::Basename qw(basename dirname);

our %Config_Override;

use ExtUtils::MakeMaker qw($Verbose neatvalue _sprintf562);

# If we make $VERSION an our variable parse_version() breaks
use vars qw($VERSION);
$VERSION = '7.46';
$VERSION =~ tr/_//d;

require ExtUtils::MM_Any;
our @ISA = qw(ExtUtils::MM_Any);

my %Is;
BEGIN {
    $Is{OS2}     = $^O eq 'os2';
    $Is{Win32}   = $^O eq 'MSWin32' || $Config{osname} eq 'NetWare';
    $Is{Dos}     = $^O eq 'dos';
    $Is{VMS}     = $^O eq 'VMS';
    $Is{OSF}     = $^O eq 'dec_osf';
    $Is{IRIX}    = $^O eq 'irix';
    $Is{NetBSD}  = $^O eq 'netbsd';
    $Is{Interix} = $^O eq 'interix';
    $Is{SunOS4}  = $^O eq 'sunos';
    $Is{Solaris} = $^O eq 'solaris';
    $Is{SunOS}   = $Is{SunOS4} || $Is{Solaris};
    $Is{BSD}     = ($^O =~ /^(?:free|net|open)bsd$/ or
                   grep( $^O eq $_, qw(bsdos interix dragonfly) )
                  );
    $Is{Android} = $^O =~ /android/;
    if ( $^O eq 'darwin' && $^X eq '/usr/bin/perl' ) {
      my @osvers = split /\./, $Config{osvers};
      $Is{ApplCor} = ( $osvers[0] >= 18 );
    }
}

BEGIN {
    if( $Is{VMS} ) {
        # For things like vmsify()
        require VMS::Filespec;
        VMS::Filespec->import;
    }
}


=head1 NAME

ExtUtils::MM_Unix - methods used by ExtUtils::MakeMaker

=head1 SYNOPSIS

  require ExtUtils::MM_Unix;

=head1 DESCRIPTION

The methods provided by this package are designed to be used in
conjunction with L<ExtUtils::MakeMaker>. When MakeMaker writes a
Makefile, it creates one or more objects that inherit their methods
from a package L<MM|ExtUtils::MM>. MM itself doesn't provide any methods, but
it ISA ExtUtils::MM_Unix class. The inheritance tree of MM lets operating
specific packages take the responsibility for all the methods provided
by MM_Unix. We are trying to reduce the number of the necessary
overrides by defining rather primitive operations within
ExtUtils::MM_Unix.

If you are going to write a platform specific MM package, please try
to limit the necessary overrides to primitive methods, and if it is not
possible to do so, let's work out how to achieve that gain.

If you are overriding any of these methods in your Makefile.PL (in the
MY class), please report that to the makemaker mailing list. We are
trying to minimize the necessary method overrides and switch to data
driven Makefile.PLs wherever possible. In the long run less methods
will be overridable via the MY class.

=head1 METHODS

The following description of methods is still under
development. Please refer to the code for not suitably documented
sections and complain loudly to the makemaker@perl.org mailing list.
Better yet, provide a patch.

Not all of the methods below are overridable in a
Makefile.PL. Overridable methods are marked as (o). All methods are
overridable by a platform specific MM_*.pm file.

Cross-platform methods are being moved into L<MM_Any|ExtUtils::MM_Any>.
If you can't find something that used to be in here, look in MM_Any.

=cut

# So we don't have to keep calling the methods over and over again,
# we have these globals to cache the values.  Faster and shrtr.
my $Curdir  = __PACKAGE__->curdir;
my $Updir   = __PACKAGE__->updir;


=head2 Methods

=over 4

=item os_flavor

Simply says that we're Unix.

=cut

sub os_flavor {
    return('Unix');
}


=item c_o (o)

Defines the suffix rules to compile different flavors of C files to
object files.

=cut

sub c_o {
# --- Translation Sections ---

    my($self) = shift;
    return '' unless $self->needs_linking();
    my(@m);

    my $command = '$(CCCMD)';
    my $flags   = '$(CCCDLFLAGS) "-I$(PERL_INC)" $(PASTHRU_DEFINE) $(DEFINE)';

    if ( $Is{ApplCor} ) {
        $flags =~ s/"-I(\$\(PERL_INC\))"/-iwithsysroot "$1"/;
    }

    if (my $cpp = $Config{cpprun}) {
        my $cpp_cmd = $self->const_cccmd;
        $cpp_cmd =~ s/^CCCMD\s*=\s*\$\(CC\)/$cpp/;
        push @m, qq{
.c.i:
	$cpp_cmd $flags \$*.c > \$*.i
};
    }

    my $m_o = $self->{XSMULTI} ? $self->xs_obj_opt('$*.s') : '';
    push @m, sprintf <<'EOF', $command, $flags, $m_o;

.c.s :
	%s -S %s $*.c %s
EOF

    my @exts = qw(c cpp cxx cc);
    push @exts, 'C' if !$Is{OS2} and !$Is{Win32} and !$Is{Dos}; #Case-specific
    $m_o = $self->{XSMULTI} ? $self->xs_obj_opt('$*$(OBJ_EXT)') : '';
    my $dbgout = $self->dbgoutflag;
    for my $ext (@exts) {
	push @m, "\n.$ext\$(OBJ_EXT) :\n\t$command $flags "
            .($dbgout?"$dbgout ":'')
            ."\$*.$ext" . ( $m_o ? " $m_o" : '' ) . "\n";
    }
    return join "", @m;
}


=item xs_obj_opt

Takes the object file as an argument, and returns the portion of compile
command-line that will output to the specified object file.

=cut

sub xs_obj_opt {
    my ($self, $output_file) = @_;
    "-o $output_file";
}

=item dbgoutflag

Returns a CC flag that tells the CC to emit a separate debugging symbol file
when compiling an object file.

=cut

sub dbgoutflag {
    '';
}

=item cflags (o)

Does very much the same as the cflags script in the perl
distribution. It doesn't return the whole compiler command line, but
initializes all of its parts. The const_cccmd method then actually
returns the definition of the CCCMD macro which uses these parts.

=cut

#'

sub cflags {
    my($self,$libperl)=@_;
    return $self->{CFLAGS} if $self->{CFLAGS};
    return '' unless $self->needs_linking();

    my($prog, $uc, $perltype, %cflags);
    $libperl ||= $self->{LIBPERL_A} || "libperl$self->{LIB_EXT}" ;
    $libperl =~ s/\.\$\(A\)$/$self->{LIB_EXT}/;

    @cflags{qw(cc ccflags optimize shellflags)}
	= @Config{qw(cc ccflags optimize shellflags)};

    # Perl 5.21.4 adds the (gcc) warning (-Wall ...) and std (-std=c89)
    # flags to the %Config, and the modules in the core should be built
    # with the warning flags, but NOT the -std=c89 flags (the latter
    # would break using any system header files that are strict C99).
    my @ccextraflags = qw(ccwarnflags);
    if ($ENV{PERL_CORE}) {
      for my $x (@ccextraflags) {
        if (exists $Config{$x}) {
          $cflags{$x} = $Config{$x};
        }
      }
    }

    my($optdebug) = "";

    $cflags{shellflags} ||= '';

    my(%map) =  (
		D =>   '-DDEBUGGING',
		E =>   '-DEMBED',
		DE =>  '-DDEBUGGING -DEMBED',
		M =>   '-DEMBED -DMULTIPLICITY',
		DM =>  '-DDEBUGGING -DEMBED -DMULTIPLICITY',
		);

    if ($libperl =~ /libperl(\w*)\Q$self->{LIB_EXT}/){
	$uc = uc($1);
    } else {
	$uc = ""; # avoid warning
    }
    $perltype = $map{$uc} ? $map{$uc} : "";

    if ($uc =~ /^D/) {
	$optdebug = "-g";
    }


    my($name);
    ( $name = $self->{NAME} . "_cflags" ) =~ s/:/_/g ;
    if ($prog = $Config{$name}) {
	# Expand hints for this extension via the shell
	print "Processing $name hint:\n" if $Verbose;
	my(@o)=`cc=\"$cflags{cc}\"
	  ccflags=\"$cflags{ccflags}\"
	  optimize=\"$cflags{optimize}\"
	  perltype=\"$cflags{perltype}\"
	  optdebug=\"$cflags{optdebug}\"
	  eval '$prog'
	  echo cc=\$cc
	  echo ccflags=\$ccflags
	  echo optimize=\$optimize
	  echo perltype=\$perltype
	  echo optdebug=\$optdebug
	  `;
	foreach my $line (@o){
	    chomp $line;
	    if ($line =~ /(.*?)=\s*(.*)\s*$/){
		$cflags{$1} = $2;
		print "	$1 = $2\n" if $Verbose;
	    } else {
		print "Unrecognised result from hint: '$line'\n";
	    }
	}
    }

    if ($optdebug) {
	$cflags{optimize} = $optdebug;
    }

    for (qw(ccflags optimize perltype)) {
        $cflags{$_} ||= '';
	$cflags{$_} =~ s/^\s+//;
	$cflags{$_} =~ s/\s+/ /g;
	$cflags{$_} =~ s/\s+$//;
	$self->{uc $_} ||= $cflags{$_};
    }

    if ($self->{POLLUTE}) {
	$self->{CCFLAGS} .= ' -DPERL_POLLUTE ';
    }

    for my $x (@ccextraflags) {
      next unless exists $cflags{$x};
      $self->{CCFLAGS} .= $cflags{$x} =~ m!^\s! ? $cflags{$x} : ' ' . $cflags{$x};
    }

    my $pollute = '';
    if ($Config{usemymalloc} and not $Config{bincompat5005}
	and not $Config{ccflags} =~ /-DPERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC\b/
	and $self->{PERL_MALLOC_OK}) {
	$pollute = '$(PERL_MALLOC_DEF)';
    }

    return $self->{CFLAGS} = qq{
CCFLAGS = $self->{CCFLAGS}
OPTIMIZE = $self->{OPTIMIZE}
PERLTYPE = $self->{PERLTYPE}
MPOLLUTE = $pollute
};

}


=item const_cccmd (o)

Returns the full compiler call for C programs and stores the
definition in CONST_CCCMD.

=cut

sub const_cccmd {
    my($self,$libperl)=@_;
    return $self->{CONST_CCCMD} if $self->{CONST_CCCMD};
    return '' unless $self->needs_linking();
    return $self->{CONST_CCCMD} =
	q{CCCMD = $(CC) -c $(PASTHRU_INC) $(INC) \\
	$(CCFLAGS) $(OPTIMIZE) \\
	$(PERLTYPE) $(MPOLLUTE) $(DEFINE_VERSION) \\
	$(XS_DEFINE_VERSION)};
}

=item const_config (o)

Sets SHELL if needed, then defines a couple of constants in the Makefile
that are imported from %Config.

=cut

sub const_config {
# --- Constants Sections ---

    my($self) = shift;
    my @m = $self->specify_shell(); # Usually returns empty string
    push @m, <<"END";

# These definitions are from config.sh (via $INC{'Config.pm'}).
# They may have been overridden via Makefile.PL or on the command line.
END

    my(%once_only);
    foreach my $key (@{$self->{CONFIG}}){
        # SITE*EXP macros are defined in &constants; avoid duplicates here
        next if $once_only{$key};
        push @m, uc($key) , ' = ' , $self->{uc $key}, "\n";
        $once_only{$key} = 1;
    }
    join('', @m);
}

=item const_loadlibs (o)

Defines EXTRALIBS, LDLOADLIBS, BSLOADLIBS, LD_RUN_PATH. See
L<ExtUtils::Liblist> for details.

=cut

sub const_loadlibs {
    my($self) = shift;
    return "" unless $self->needs_linking;
    my @m;
    push @m, qq{
# $self->{NAME} might depend on some other libraries:
# See ExtUtils::Liblist for details
#
};
    for my $tmp (qw/
         EXTRALIBS LDLOADLIBS BSLOADLIBS
         /) {
        next unless defined $self->{$tmp};
        push @m, "$tmp = $self->{$tmp}\n";
    }
    # don't set LD_RUN_PATH if empty
    for my $tmp (qw/
         LD_RUN_PATH
         /) {
        next unless $self->{$tmp};
        push @m, "$tmp = $self->{$tmp}\n";
    }
    return join "", @m;
}

=item constants (o)

  my $make_frag = $mm->constants;

Prints out macros for lots of constants.

=cut

sub constants {
    my($self) = @_;
    my @m = ();

    $self->{DFSEP} = '$(DIRFILESEP)';  # alias for internal use

    for my $macro (qw(

              AR_STATIC_ARGS DIRFILESEP DFSEP
              NAME NAME_SYM
              VERSION    VERSION_MACRO    VERSION_SYM DEFINE_VERSION
              XS_VERSION XS_VERSION_MACRO             XS_DEFINE_VERSION
              INST_ARCHLIB INST_SCRIPT INST_BIN INST_LIB
              INST_MAN1DIR INST_MAN3DIR
              MAN1EXT      MAN3EXT
              MAN1SECTION  MAN3SECTION
              INSTALLDIRS INSTALL_BASE DESTDIR PREFIX
              PERLPREFIX      SITEPREFIX      VENDORPREFIX
                   ),
                   (map { ("INSTALL".$_,
                          "DESTINSTALL".$_)
                        } $self->installvars),
                   qw(
              PERL_LIB
              PERL_ARCHLIB PERL_ARCHLIBDEP
              LIBPERL_A MYEXTLIB
              FIRST_MAKEFILE MAKEFILE_OLD MAKE_APERL_FILE
              PERLMAINCC PERL_SRC PERL_INC PERL_INCDEP
              PERL            FULLPERL          ABSPERL
              PERLRUN         FULLPERLRUN       ABSPERLRUN
              PERLRUNINST     FULLPERLRUNINST   ABSPERLRUNINST
              PERL_CORE
              PERM_DIR PERM_RW PERM_RWX

	      ) )
    {
	next unless defined $self->{$macro};

        # pathnames can have sharp signs in them; escape them so
        # make doesn't think it is a comment-start character.
        $self->{$macro} =~ s/#/\\#/g;
	$self->{$macro} = $self->quote_dep($self->{$macro})
	  if $ExtUtils::MakeMaker::macro_dep{$macro};
	push @m, "$macro = $self->{$macro}\n";
    }

    push @m, qq{
MAKEMAKER   = $self->{MAKEMAKER}
MM_VERSION  = $self->{MM_VERSION}
MM_REVISION = $self->{MM_REVISION}
};

    push @m, q{
# FULLEXT = Pathname for extension directory (eg Foo/Bar/Oracle).
# BASEEXT = Basename part of FULLEXT. May be just equal FULLEXT. (eg Oracle)
# PARENT_NAME = NAME without BASEEXT and no trailing :: (eg Foo::Bar)
# DLBASE  = Basename part of dynamic library. May be just equal BASEEXT.
};

    for my $macro (qw/
              MAKE
	      FULLEXT BASEEXT PARENT_NAME DLBASE VERSION_FROM INC DEFINE OBJECT
	      LDFROM LINKTYPE BOOTDEP
	      /	)
    {
	next unless defined $self->{$macro};
	push @m, "$macro = $self->{$macro}\n";
    }

    push @m, "
# Handy lists of source code files:
XS_FILES = ".$self->wraplist(sort keys %{$self->{XS}})."
C_FILES  = ".$self->wraplist(sort @{$self->{C}})."
O_FILES  = ".$self->wraplist(sort @{$self->{O_FILES}})."
H_FILES  = ".$self->wraplist(sort @{$self->{H}})."
MAN1PODS = ".$self->wraplist(sort keys %{$self->{MAN1PODS}})."
MAN3PODS = ".$self->wraplist(sort keys %{$self->{MAN3PODS}})."
";

    push @m, q{
SDKROOT := $(shell xcrun --show-sdk-path)
PERL_SYSROOT = $(SDKROOT)
} if $Is{ApplCor} && $self->{'PERL_INC'} =~ m!^/System/Library/Perl/!;

    push @m, q{
# Where is the Config information that we are using/depend on
CONFIGDEP = $(PERL_ARCHLIBDEP)$(DFSEP)Config.pm $(PERL_SYSROOT)$(PERL_INCDEP)$(DFSEP)config.h
} if $Is{ApplCor};

    push @m, q{
# Where is the Config information that we are using/depend on
CONFIGDEP = $(PERL_ARCHLIBDEP)$(DFSEP)Config.pm $(PERL_INCDEP)$(DFSEP)config.h
} if -e $self->catfile( $self->{PERL_INC}, 'config.h' ) && !$Is{ApplCor};

    push @m, qq{
# Where to build things
INST_LIBDIR      = $self->{INST_LIBDIR}
INST_ARCHLIBDIR  = $self->{INST_ARCHLIBDIR}

INST_AUTODIR     = $self->{INST_AUTODIR}
INST_ARCHAUTODIR = $self->{INST_ARCHAUTODIR}

INST_STATIC      = $self->{INST_STATIC}
INST_DYNAMIC     = $self->{INST_DYNAMIC}
INST_BOOT        = $self->{INST_BOOT}
};

    push @m, qq{
# Extra linker info
EXPORT_LIST        = $self->{EXPORT_LIST}
PERL_ARCHIVE       = $self->{PERL_ARCHIVE}
PERL_ARCHIVEDEP    = $self->{PERL_ARCHIVEDEP}
PERL_ARCHIVE_AFTER = $self->{PERL_ARCHIVE_AFTER}
};

    push @m, "

TO_INST_PM = ".$self->wraplist(map $self->quote_dep($_), sort keys %{$self->{PM}})."\n";

    join('',@m);
}


=item depend (o)

Same as macro for the depend attribute.

=cut

sub depend {
    my($self,%attribs) = @_;
    my(@m,$key,$val);
    for my $key (sort keys %attribs){
	my $val = $attribs{$key};
	next unless defined $key and defined $val;
	push @m, "$key : $val\n";
    }
    join "", @m;
}


=item init_DEST

  $mm->init_DEST

Defines the DESTDIR and DEST* variables paralleling the INSTALL*.

=cut

sub init_DEST {
    my $self = shift;

    # Initialize DESTDIR
    $self->{DESTDIR} ||= '';

    # Make DEST variables.
    foreach my $var ($self->installvars) {
        my $destvar = 'DESTINSTALL'.$var;
        $self->{$destvar} ||= '$(DESTDIR)$(INSTALL'.$var.')';
    }
}


=item init_dist

  $mm->init_dist;

Defines a lot of macros for distribution support.

  macro         description                     default

  TAR           tar command to use              tar
  TARFLAGS      flags to pass to TAR            cvf

  ZIP           zip command to use              zip
  ZIPFLAGS      flags to pass to ZIP            -r

  COMPRESS      compression command to          gzip --best
                use for tarfiles
  SUFFIX        suffix to put on                .gz
                compressed files

  SHAR          shar command to use             shar

  PREOP         extra commands to run before
                making the archive
  POSTOP        extra commands to run after
                making the archive

  TO_UNIX       a command to convert linefeeds
                to Unix style in your archive

  CI            command to checkin your         ci -u
                sources to version control
  RCS_LABEL     command to label your sources   rcs -Nv$(VERSION_SYM): -q
                just after CI is run

  DIST_CP       $how argument to manicopy()     best
                when the distdir is created

  DIST_DEFAULT  default target to use to        tardist
                create a distribution

  DISTVNAME     name of the resulting archive   $(DISTNAME)-$(VERSION)
                (minus suffixes)

=cut

sub init_dist {
    my $self = shift;

    $self->{TAR}      ||= 'tar';
    $self->{TARFLAGS} ||= 'cvf';
    $self->{ZIP}      ||= 'zip';
    $self->{ZIPFLAGS} ||= '-r';
    $self->{COMPRESS} ||= 'gzip --best';
    $self->{SUFFIX}   ||= '.gz';
    $self->{SHAR}     ||= 'shar';
    $self->{PREOP}    ||= '$(NOECHO) $(NOOP)'; # eg update MANIFEST
    $self->{POSTOP}   ||= '$(NOECHO) $(NOOP)'; # eg remove the distdir
    $self->{TO_UNIX}  ||= '$(NOECHO) $(NOOP)';

    $self->{CI}       ||= 'ci -u';
    $self->{RCS_LABEL}||= 'rcs -Nv$(VERSION_SYM): -q';
    $self->{DIST_CP}  ||= 'best';
    $self->{DIST_DEFAULT} ||= 'tardist';

    ($self->{DISTNAME} = $self->{NAME}) =~ s{::}{-}g unless $self->{DISTNAME};
    $self->{DISTVNAME} ||= $self->{DISTNAME}.'-'.$self->{VERSION};
}

=item dist (o)

  my $dist_macros = $mm->dist(%overrides);

Generates a make fragment defining all the macros initialized in
init_dist.

%overrides can be used to override any of the above.

=cut

sub dist {
    my($self, %attribs) = @_;

    my $make = '';
    if ( $attribs{SUFFIX} && $attribs{SUFFIX} !~ m!^\.! ) {
      $attribs{SUFFIX} = '.' . $attribs{SUFFIX};
    }
    foreach my $key (qw(
            TAR TARFLAGS ZIP ZIPFLAGS COMPRESS SUFFIX SHAR
            PREOP POSTOP TO_UNIX
            CI RCS_LABEL DIST_CP DIST_DEFAULT
            DISTNAME DISTVNAME
           ))
    {
        my $value = $attribs{$key} || $self->{$key};
        $make .= "$key = $value\n";
    }

    return $make;
}

=item dist_basics (o)

Defines the targets distclean, distcheck, skipcheck, manifest, veryclean.

=cut

sub dist_basics {
    my($self) = shift;

    return <<'MAKE_FRAG';
distclean :: realclean distcheck
	$(NOECHO) $(NOOP)

distcheck :
	$(PERLRUN) "-MExtUtils::Manifest=fullcheck" -e fullcheck

skipcheck :
	$(PERLRUN) "-MExtUtils::Manifest=skipcheck" -e skipcheck

manifest :
	$(PERLRUN) "-MExtUtils::Manifest=mkmanifest" -e mkmanifest

veryclean : realclean
	$(RM_F) *~ */*~ *.orig */*.orig *.bak */*.bak *.old */*.old

MAKE_FRAG

}

=item dist_ci (o)

Defines a check in target for RCS.

=cut

sub dist_ci {
    my($self) = shift;
    return sprintf "ci :\n\t%s\n", $self->oneliner(<<'EOF', [qw(-MExtUtils::Manifest=maniread)]);
@all = sort keys %{ maniread() };
print(qq{Executing $(CI) @all\n});
system(qq{$(CI) @all}) == 0 or die $!;
print(qq{Executing $(RCS_LABEL) ...\n});
system(qq{$(RCS_LABEL) @all}) == 0 or die $!;
EOF
}

=item dist_core (o)

  my $dist_make_fragment = $MM->dist_core;

Puts the targets necessary for 'make dist' together into one make
fragment.

=cut

sub dist_core {
    my($self) = shift;

    my $make_frag = '';
    foreach my $target (qw(dist tardist uutardist tarfile zipdist zipfile
                           shdist))
    {
        my $method = $target.'_target';
        $make_frag .= "\n";
        $make_frag .= $self->$method();
    }

    return $make_frag;
}


=item B<dist_target>

  my $make_frag = $MM->dist_target;

Returns the 'dist' target to make an archive for distribution.  This
target simply checks to make sure the Makefile is up-to-date and
depends on $(DIST_DEFAULT).

=cut

sub dist_target {
    my($self) = shift;

    my $date_check = $self->oneliner(<<'CODE', ['-l']);
print 'Warning: Makefile possibly out of date with $(VERSION_FROM)'
    if -e '$(VERSION_FROM)' and -M '$(VERSION_FROM)' < -M '$(FIRST_MAKEFILE)';
CODE

    return sprintf <<'MAKE_FRAG', $date_check;
dist : $(DIST_DEFAULT) $(FIRST_MAKEFILE)
	$(NOECHO) %s
MAKE_FRAG
}

=item B<tardist_target>

  my $make_frag = $MM->tardist_target;

Returns the 'tardist' target which is simply so 'make tardist' works.
The real work is done by the dynamically named tardistfile_target()
method, tardist should have that as a dependency.

=cut

sub tardist_target {
    my($self) = shift;

    return <<'MAKE_FRAG';
tardist : $(DISTVNAME).tar$(SUFFIX)
	$(NOECHO) $(NOOP)
MAKE_FRAG
}

=item B<zipdist_target>

  my $make_frag = $MM->zipdist_target;

Returns the 'zipdist' target which is simply so 'make zipdist' works.
The real work is done by the dynamically named zipdistfile_target()
method, zipdist should have that as a dependency.

=cut

sub zipdist_target {
    my($self) = shift;

    return <<'MAKE_FRAG';
zipdist : $(DISTVNAME).zip
	$(NOECHO) $(NOOP)
MAKE_FRAG
}

=item B<tarfile_target>

  my $make_frag = $MM->tarfile_target;

The name of this target is the name of the tarball generated by
tardist.  This target does the actual work of turning the distdir into
a tarball.

=cut

sub tarfile_target {
    my($self) = shift;

    return <<'MAKE_FRAG';
$(DISTVNAME).tar$(SUFFIX) : distdir
	$(PREOP)
	$(TO_UNIX)
	$(TAR) $(TARFLAGS) $(DISTVNAME).tar $(DISTVNAME)
	$(RM_RF) $(DISTVNAME)
	$(COMPRESS) $(DISTVNAME).tar
	$(NOECHO) $(ECHO) 'Created $(DISTVNAME).tar$(SUFFIX)'
	$(POSTOP)
MAKE_FRAG
}

=item zipfile_target

  my $make_frag = $MM->zipfile_target;

The name of this target is the name of the zip file generated by
zipdist.  This target does the actual work of turning the distdir into
a zip file.

=cut

sub zipfile_target {
    my($self) = shift;

    return <<'MAKE_FRAG';
$(DISTVNAME).zip : distdir
	$(PREOP)
	$(ZIP) $(ZIPFLAGS) $(DISTVNAME).zip $(DISTVNAME)
	$(RM_RF) $(DISTVNAME)
	$(NOECHO) $(ECHO) 'Created $(DISTVNAME).zip'
	$(POSTOP)
MAKE_FRAG
}

=item uutardist_target

  my $make_frag = $MM->uutardist_target;

Converts the tarfile into a uuencoded file

=cut

sub uutardist_target {
    my($self) = shift;

    return <<'MAKE_FRAG';
uutardist : $(DISTVNAME).tar$(SUFFIX)
	uuencode $(DISTVNAME).tar$(SUFFIX) $(DISTVNAME).tar$(SUFFIX) > $(DISTVNAME).tar$(SUFFIX)_uu
	$(NOECHO) $(ECHO) 'Created $(DISTVNAME).tar$(SUFFIX)_uu'
MAKE_FRAG
}


=item shdist_target

  my $make_frag = $MM->shdist_target;

Converts the distdir into a shell archive.

=cut

sub shdist_target {
    my($self) = shift;

    return <<'MAKE_FRAG';
shdist : distdir
	$(PREOP)
	$(SHAR) $(DISTVNAME) > $(DISTVNAME).shar
	$(RM_RF) $(DISTVNAME)
	$(NOECHO) $(ECHO) 'Created $(DISTVNAME).shar'
	$(POSTOP)
MAKE_FRAG
}


=item dlsyms (o)

Used by some OS' to define DL_FUNCS and DL_VARS and write the *.exp files.

Normally just returns an empty string.

=cut

sub dlsyms {
    return '';
}


=item dynamic_bs (o)

Defines targets for bootstrap files.

=cut

sub dynamic_bs {
    my($self, %attribs) = @_;
    return "\nBOOTSTRAP =\n" unless $self->has_link_code();
    my @exts;
    if ($self->{XSMULTI}) {
	@exts = $self->_xs_list_basenames;
    } else {
	@exts = '$(BASEEXT)';
    }
    return join "\n",
        "BOOTSTRAP = @{[map { qq{$_.bs} } @exts]}\n",
        map { $self->_xs_make_bs($_) } @exts;
}

sub _xs_make_bs {
    my ($self, $basename) = @_;
    my ($v, $d, $f) = File::Spec->splitpath($basename);
    my @d = File::Spec->splitdir($d);
    shift @d if $self->{XSMULTI} and $d[0] eq 'lib';
    my $instdir = $self->catdir('$(INST_ARCHLIB)', 'auto', @d, $f);
    $instdir = '$(INST_ARCHAUTODIR)' if $basename eq '$(BASEEXT)';
    my $instfile = $self->catfile($instdir, "$f.bs");
    my $exists = "$instdir\$(DFSEP).exists"; # match blibdirs_target
    #                                 1          2          3
    return _sprintf562 <<'MAKE_FRAG', $basename, $instfile, $exists;
# As Mkbootstrap might not write a file (if none is required)
# we use touch to prevent make continually trying to remake it.
# The DynaLoader only reads a non-empty file.
%1$s.bs : $(FIRST_MAKEFILE) $(BOOTDEP)
	$(NOECHO) $(ECHO) "Running Mkbootstrap for %1$s ($(BSLOADLIBS))"
	$(NOECHO) $(PERLRUN) \
		"-MExtUtils::Mkbootstrap" \
		-e "Mkbootstrap('%1$s','$(BSLOADLIBS)');"
	$(NOECHO) $(TOUCH) "%1$s.bs"
	$(CHMOD) $(PERM_RW) "%1$s.bs"

%2$s : %1$s.bs %3$s
	$(NOECHO) $(RM_RF) %2$s
	- $(CP_NONEMPTY) %1$s.bs %2$s $(PERM_RW)
MAKE_FRAG
}

=item dynamic_lib (o)

Defines how to produce the *.so (or equivalent) files.

=cut

sub dynamic_lib {
    my($self, %attribs) = @_;
    return '' unless $self->needs_linking(); #might be because of a subdir
    return '' unless $self->has_link_code;
    my @m = $self->xs_dynamic_lib_macros(\%attribs);
    my @libs;
    my $dlsyms_ext = eval { $self->xs_dlsyms_ext };
    if ($self->{XSMULTI}) {
        my @exts = $self->_xs_list_basenames;
        for my $ext (@exts) {
            my ($v, $d, $f) = File::Spec->splitpath($ext);
            my @d = File::Spec->splitdir($d);
            shift @d if $d[0] eq 'lib';
            pop @d if $d[$#d] eq '';
            my $instdir = $self->catdir('$(INST_ARCHLIB)', 'auto', @d, $f);

            # Dynamic library names may need special handling.
            eval { require DynaLoader };
            if (defined &DynaLoader::mod2fname) {
                $f = &DynaLoader::mod2fname([@d, $f]);
            }

            my $instfile = $self->catfile($instdir, "$f.\$(DLEXT)");
            my $objfile = $self->_xsbuild_value('xs', $ext, 'OBJECT');
            $objfile = "$ext\$(OBJ_EXT)" unless defined $objfile;
            my $ldfrom = $self->_xsbuild_value('xs', $ext, 'LDFROM');
            $ldfrom = $objfile unless defined $ldfrom;
            my $exportlist = "$ext.def";
            my @libchunk = ($objfile, $instfile, $instdir, $ldfrom, $exportlist);
            push @libchunk, $dlsyms_ext ? $ext.$dlsyms_ext : undef;
            push @libs, \@libchunk;
        }
    } else {
        my @libchunk = qw($(OBJECT) $(INST_DYNAMIC) $(INST_ARCHAUTODIR) $(LDFROM) $(EXPORT_LIST));
        push @libchunk, $dlsyms_ext ? '$(BASEEXT)'.$dlsyms_ext : undef;
        @libs = (\@libchunk);
    }
    push @m, map { $self->xs_make_dynamic_lib(\%attribs, @$_); } @libs;

    return join("\n",@m);
}

=item xs_dynamic_lib_macros

Defines the macros for the C<dynamic_lib> section.

=cut

sub xs_dynamic_lib_macros {
    my ($self, $attribs) = @_;
    my $otherldflags = $attribs->{OTHERLDFLAGS} || "";
    my $inst_dynamic_dep = $attribs->{INST_DYNAMIC_DEP} || "";
    my $armaybe = $self->_xs_armaybe($attribs);
    my $ld_opt = $Is{OS2} ? '$(OPTIMIZE) ' : ''; # Useful on other systems too?
    my $ld_fix = $Is{OS2} ? '|| ( $(RM_F) $@ && sh -c false )' : '';
    sprintf <<'EOF', $armaybe, $ld_opt.$otherldflags, $inst_dynamic_dep, $ld_fix;
# This section creates the dynamically loadable objects from relevant
# objects and possibly $(MYEXTLIB).
ARMAYBE = %s
OTHERLDFLAGS = %s
INST_DYNAMIC_DEP = %s
INST_DYNAMIC_FIX = %s
EOF
}

sub _xs_armaybe {
    my ($self, $attribs) = @_;
    my $armaybe = $attribs->{ARMAYBE} || $self->{ARMAYBE} || ":";
    $armaybe = 'ar' if ($Is{OSF} and $armaybe eq ':');
    $armaybe;
}

=item xs_make_dynamic_lib

Defines the recipes for the C<dynamic_lib> section.

=cut

sub xs_make_dynamic_lib {
    my ($self, $attribs, $object, $to, $todir, $ldfrom, $exportlist, $dlsyms) = @_;
    $exportlist = '' if $exportlist ne '$(EXPORT_LIST)';
    my $armaybe = $self->_xs_armaybe($attribs);
    my @m = sprintf '%s : %s $(MYEXTLIB) %s$(DFSEP).exists %s $(PERL_ARCHIVEDEP) $(PERL_ARCHIVE_AFTER) $(INST_DYNAMIC_DEP) %s'."\n", $to, $object, $todir, $exportlist, ($dlsyms || '');
    my $dlsyms_arg = $self->xs_dlsyms_arg($dlsyms);
    if ($armaybe ne ':'){
        $ldfrom = 'tmp$(LIB_EXT)';
        push(@m,"	\$(ARMAYBE) cr $ldfrom $object\n");
        push(@m,"	\$(RANLIB) $ldfrom\n");
    }
    $ldfrom = "-all $ldfrom -none" if $Is{OSF};

    # The IRIX linker doesn't use LD_RUN_PATH
    my $ldrun = $Is{IRIX} && $self->{LD_RUN_PATH} ?
                       qq{-rpath "$self->{LD_RUN_PATH}"} : '';

    # For example in AIX the shared objects/libraries from previous builds
    # linger quite a while in the shared dynalinker cache even when nobody
    # is using them.  This is painful if one for instance tries to restart
    # a failed build because the link command will fail unnecessarily 'cos
    # the shared object/library is 'busy'.
    push(@m,"	\$(RM_F) \$\@\n");

    my $libs = '$(LDLOADLIBS)';
    if (($Is{NetBSD} || $Is{Interix} || $Is{Android}) && $Config{'useshrplib'} eq 'true') {
        # Use nothing on static perl platforms, and to the flags needed
        # to link against the shared libperl library on shared perl
        # platforms.  We peek at lddlflags to see if we need -Wl,-R
        # or -R to add paths to the run-time library search path.
        if ($Config{'lddlflags'} =~ /-Wl,-R/) {
            $libs .= ' "-L$(PERL_INC)" "-Wl,-R$(INSTALLARCHLIB)/CORE" "-Wl,-R$(PERL_ARCHLIB)/CORE" -lperl';
        } elsif ($Config{'lddlflags'} =~ /-R/) {
            $libs .= ' "-L$(PERL_INC)" "-R$(INSTALLARCHLIB)/CORE" "-R$(PERL_ARCHLIB)/CORE" -lperl';
        } elsif ( $Is{Android} ) {
            # The Android linker will not recognize symbols from
            # libperl unless the module explicitly depends on it.
            $libs .= ' "-L$(PERL_INC)" -lperl';
        }
    }

    my $ld_run_path_shell = "";
    if ($self->{LD_RUN_PATH} ne "") {
        $ld_run_path_shell = 'LD_RUN_PATH="$(LD_RUN_PATH)" ';
    }

    push @m, sprintf <<'MAKE', $ld_run_path_shell, $ldrun, $dlsyms_arg, $ldfrom, $self->xs_obj_opt('$@'), $libs, $exportlist;
	%s$(LD) %s $(LDDLFLAGS) %s %s $(OTHERLDFLAGS) %s $(MYEXTLIB) \
	  $(PERL_ARCHIVE) %s $(PERL_ARCHIVE_AFTER) %s \
	  $(INST_DYNAMIC_FIX)
	$(CHMOD) $(PERM_RWX) $@
MAKE
    join '', @m;
}

=item exescan

Deprecated method. Use libscan instead.

=cut

sub exescan {
    my($self,$path) = @_;
    $path;
}

=item extliblist

Called by init_others, and calls ext ExtUtils::Liblist. See
L<ExtUtils::Liblist> for details.

=cut

sub extliblist {
    my($self,$libs) = @_;
    require ExtUtils::Liblist;
    $self->ext($libs, $Verbose);
}

=item find_perl

Finds the executables PERL and FULLPERL

=cut

sub find_perl {
    my($self, $ver, $names, $dirs, $trace) = @_;
    if ($trace >= 2){
        print "Looking for perl $ver by these names:
@$names
in these dirs:
@$dirs
";
    }

    my $stderr_duped = 0;
    local *STDERR_COPY;

    unless ($Is{BSD}) {
        # >& and lexical filehandles together give 5.6.2 indigestion
        if( open(STDERR_COPY, '>&STDERR') ) {  ## no critic
            $stderr_duped = 1;
        }
        else {
            warn <<WARNING;
find_perl() can't dup STDERR: $!
You might see some garbage while we search for Perl
WARNING
        }
    }

    foreach my $name (@$names){
        my ($abs, $use_dir);
        if ($self->file_name_is_absolute($name)) {     # /foo/bar
            $abs = $name;
        } elsif ($self->canonpath($name) eq
                 $self->canonpath(basename($name))) {  # foo
            $use_dir = 1;
        } else {                                            # foo/bar
            $abs = $self->catfile($Curdir, $name);
        }
        foreach my $dir ($use_dir ? @$dirs : 1){
            next unless defined $dir; # $self->{PERL_SRC} may be undefined

            $abs = $self->catfile($dir, $name)
                if $use_dir;

            print "Checking $abs\n" if ($trace >= 2);
            next unless $self->maybe_command($abs);
            print "Executing $abs\n" if ($trace >= 2);

            my $val;
            my $version_check = qq{"$abs" -le "require $ver; print qq{VER_OK}"};

            # To avoid using the unportable 2>&1 to suppress STDERR,
            # we close it before running the command.
            # However, thanks to a thread library bug in many BSDs
            # ( http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/query-pr.cgi?pr=51535 )
            # we cannot use the fancier more portable way in here
            # but instead need to use the traditional 2>&1 construct.
            if ($Is{BSD}) {
                $val = `$version_check 2>&1`;
            } else {
                close STDERR if $stderr_duped;
                $val = `$version_check`;

                # 5.6.2's 3-arg open doesn't work with >&
                open STDERR, ">&STDERR_COPY"  ## no critic
                        if $stderr_duped;
            }

            if ($val =~ /^VER_OK/m) {
                print "Using PERL=$abs\n" if $trace;
                return $abs;
            } elsif ($trace >= 2) {
                print "Result: '$val' ".($? >> 8)."\n";
            }
        }
    }
    print "Unable to find a perl $ver (by these names: @$names, in these dirs: @$dirs)\n";
    0; # false and not empty
}


=item fixin

  $mm->fixin(@files);

Inserts the sharpbang or equivalent magic number to a set of @files.

=cut

sub fixin {    # stolen from the pink Camel book, more or less
    my ( $self, @files ) = @_;

    for my $file (@files) {
        my $file_new = "$file.new";
        my $file_bak = "$file.bak";

        open( my $fixin, '<', $file ) or croak "Can't process '$file': $!";
        local $/ = "\n";
        chomp( my $line = <$fixin> );
        next unless $line =~ s/^\s*\#!\s*//;    # Not a shebang file.

        my $shb = $self->_fixin_replace_shebang( $file, $line );
        next unless defined $shb;

        open( my $fixout, ">", "$file_new" ) or do {
            warn "Can't create new $file: $!\n";
            next;
        };

        # Print out the new #! line (or equivalent).
        local $\;
        local $/;
        print $fixout $shb, <$fixin>;
        close $fixin;
        close $fixout;

        chmod 0666, $file_bak;
        unlink $file_bak;
        unless ( _rename( $file, $file_bak ) ) {
            warn "Can't rename $file to $file_bak: $!";
            next;
        }
        unless ( _rename( $file_new, $file ) ) {
            warn "Can't rename $file_new to $file: $!";
            unless ( _rename( $file_bak, $file ) ) {
                warn "Can't rename $file_bak back to $file either: $!";
                warn "Leaving $file renamed as $file_bak\n";
            }
            next;
        }
        unlink $file_bak;
    }
    continue {
        system("$Config{'eunicefix'} $file") if $Config{'eunicefix'} ne ':';
    }
}


sub _rename {
    my($old, $new) = @_;

    foreach my $file ($old, $new) {
        if( $Is{VMS} and basename($file) !~ /\./ ) {
            # rename() in 5.8.0 on VMS will not rename a file if it
            # does not contain a dot yet it returns success.
            $file = "$file.";
        }
    }

    return rename($old, $new);
}

sub _fixin_replace_shebang {
    my ( $self, $file, $line ) = @_;

    # Now figure out the interpreter name.
    my ( $origcmd, $arg ) = split ' ', $line, 2;
    (my $cmd = $origcmd) =~ s!^.*/!!;

    # Now look (in reverse) for interpreter in absolute PATH (unless perl).
    my $interpreter;
    if ( defined $ENV{PERL_MM_SHEBANG} && $ENV{PERL_MM_SHEBANG} eq "relocatable" ) {
        $interpreter = "/usr/bin/env perl";
    }
    elsif ( $cmd =~ m{^perl(?:\z|[^a-z])} ) {
        if ( $Config{startperl} =~ m,^\#!.*/perl, ) {
            $interpreter = $Config{startperl};
            $interpreter =~ s,^\#!,,;
        }
        else {
            $interpreter = $Config{perlpath};
        }
    }
    else {
        my (@absdirs)
            = reverse grep { $self->file_name_is_absolute($_) } $self->path;
        $interpreter = '';

        foreach my $dir (@absdirs) {
            my $maybefile = $self->catfile($dir,$cmd);
            if ( $self->maybe_command($maybefile) ) {
                warn "Ignoring $interpreter in $file\n"
                    if $Verbose && $interpreter;
                $interpreter = $maybefile;
            }
        }

        # If the shebang is absolute and exists in PATH, but was not
        # the first one found, leave it alone if it's actually the
        # same file as first one.  This avoids packages built on
        # merged-/usr systems with /usr/bin before /bin in the path
        # breaking when installed on systems without merged /usr
        if ($origcmd ne $interpreter and $self->file_name_is_absolute($origcmd)) {
            my $origdir = dirname($origcmd);
            if ($self->maybe_command($origcmd) && grep { $_ eq $origdir } @absdirs) {
                my ($odev, $oino) = stat $origcmd;
                my ($idev, $iino) = stat $interpreter;
                if ($odev == $idev && $oino == $iino) {
                    warn "$origcmd is the same as $interpreter, leaving alone"
                        if $Verbose;
                    $interpreter = $origcmd;
                }
            }
        }
    }

    # Figure out how to invoke interpreter on this machine.

    my ($does_shbang) = $Config{'sharpbang'} =~ /^\s*\#\!/;
    my ($shb) = "";
    if ($interpreter) {
        print "Changing sharpbang in $file to $interpreter"
            if $Verbose;
         # this is probably value-free on DOSISH platforms
        if ($does_shbang) {
            $shb .= "$Config{'sharpbang'}$interpreter";
            $shb .= ' ' . $arg if defined $arg;
            $shb .= "\n";
        }
    }
    else {
        warn "Can't find $cmd in PATH, $file unchanged"
            if $Verbose;
        return;
    }
    return $shb
}

=item force (o)

Writes an empty FORCE: target.

=cut

sub force {
    my($self) = shift;
    '# Phony target to force checking subdirectories.
FORCE :
	$(NOECHO) $(NOOP)
';
}

=item guess_name

Guess the name of this package by examining the working directory's
name. MakeMaker calls this only if the developer has not supplied a
NAME attribute.

=cut

# ';

sub guess_name {
    my($self) = @_;
    use Cwd 'cwd';
    my $name = basename(cwd());
    $name =~ s|[\-_][\d\.\-]+\z||;  # this is new with MM 5.00, we
                                    # strip minus or underline
                                    # followed by a float or some such
    print "Warning: Guessing NAME [$name] from current directory name.\n";
    $name;
}

=item has_link_code

Returns true if C, XS, MYEXTLIB or similar objects exist within this
object that need a compiler. Does not descend into subdirectories as
needs_linking() does.

=cut

sub has_link_code {
    my($self) = shift;
    return $self->{HAS_LINK_CODE} if defined $self->{HAS_LINK_CODE};
    if ($self->{OBJECT} or @{$self->{C} || []} or $self->{MYEXTLIB}){
	$self->{HAS_LINK_CODE} = 1;
	return 1;
    }
    return $self->{HAS_LINK_CODE} = 0;
}


=item init_dirscan

Scans the directory structure and initializes DIR, XS, XS_FILES,
C, C_FILES, O_FILES, H, H_FILES, PL_FILES, EXE_FILES.

Called by init_main.

=cut

sub init_dirscan {	# --- File and Directory Lists (.xs .pm .pod etc)
    my($self) = @_;
    my(%dir, %xs, %c, %o, %h, %pl_files, %pm);

    my %ignore = map {( $_ => 1 )} qw(Makefile.PL Build.PL test.pl t);

    # ignore the distdir
    $Is{VMS} ? $ignore{"$self->{DISTVNAME}.dir"} = 1
            : $ignore{$self->{DISTVNAME}} = 1;

    my $distprefix = $Is{VMS} ? qr/^\Q$self->{DISTNAME}\E-v?[\d\.]+\.dir$/i
                              : qr/^\Q$self->{DISTNAME}\E-v?[\d\.]+$/;

    @ignore{map lc, keys %ignore} = values %ignore if $Is{VMS};

    if ( defined $self->{XS} and !defined $self->{C} ) {
	my @c_files = grep { m/\.c(pp|xx)?\z/i } values %{$self->{XS}};
	my @o_files = grep { m/(?:.(?:o(?:bj)?)|\$\(OBJ_EXT\))\z/i } values %{$self->{XS}};
	%c = map { $_ => 1 } @c_files;
	%o = map { $_ => 1 } @o_files;
    }

    foreach my $name ($self->lsdir($Curdir)){
	next if $name =~ /\#/;
	next if $name =~ $distprefix && -d $name;
	$name = lc($name) if $Is{VMS};
	next if $name eq $Curdir or $name eq $Updir or $ignore{$name};
	next unless $self->libscan($name);
	if (-d $name){
	    next if -l $name; # We do not support symlinks at all
            next if $self->{NORECURS};
	    $dir{$name} = $name if (-f $self->catfile($name,"Makefile.PL"));
	} elsif ($name =~ /\.xs\z/){
	    my($c); ($c = $name) =~ s/\.xs\z/.c/;
	    $xs{$name} = $c;
	    $c{$c} = 1;
	} elsif ($name =~ /\.c(pp|xx|c)?\z/i){  # .c .C .cpp .cxx .cc
	    $c{$name} = 1
		unless $name =~ m/perlmain\.c/; # See MAP_TARGET
	} elsif ($name =~ /\.h\z/i){
	    $h{$name} = 1;
	} elsif ($name =~ /\.PL\z/) {
	    ($pl_files{$name} = $name) =~ s/\.PL\z// ;
	} elsif (($Is{VMS} || $Is{Dos}) && $name =~ /[._]pl$/i) {
	    # case-insensitive filesystem, one dot per name, so foo.h.PL
	    # under Unix appears as foo.h_pl under VMS or fooh.pl on Dos
	    local($/); open(my $pl, '<', $name); my $txt = <$pl>; close $pl;
	    if ($txt =~ /Extracting \S+ \(with variable substitutions/) {
		($pl_files{$name} = $name) =~ s/[._]pl\z//i ;
	    }
	    else {
                $pm{$name} = $self->catfile($self->{INST_LIBDIR},$name);
            }
	} elsif ($name =~ /\.(p[ml]|pod)\z/){
	    $pm{$name} = $self->catfile($self->{INST_LIBDIR},$name);
	}
    }

    $self->{PL_FILES}   ||= \%pl_files;
    $self->{DIR}        ||= [sort keys %dir];
    $self->{XS}         ||= \%xs;
    $self->{C}          ||= [sort keys %c];
    $self->{H}          ||= [sort keys %h];
    $self->{PM}         ||= \%pm;

    my @o_files = @{$self->{C}};
    %o = (%o, map { $_ => 1 } grep s/\.c(pp|xx|c)?\z/$self->{OBJ_EXT}/i, @o_files);
    $self->{O_FILES} = [sort keys %o];
}


=item init_MANPODS

Determines if man pages should be generated and initializes MAN1PODS
and MAN3PODS as appropriate.

=cut

sub init_MANPODS {
    my $self = shift;

    # Set up names of manual pages to generate from pods
    foreach my $man (qw(MAN1 MAN3)) {
        if ( $self->{"${man}PODS"}
             or $self->{"INSTALL${man}DIR"} =~ /^(none|\s*)$/
        ) {
            $self->{"${man}PODS"} ||= {};
        }
        else {
            my $init_method = "init_${man}PODS";
            $self->$init_method();
        }
    }

    # logic similar to picking man${num}ext in perl's Configure script
    foreach my $num (1,3) {
        my $installdirs = uc $self->{INSTALLDIRS};
        $installdirs = '' if $installdirs eq 'PERL';
        my @mandirs = File::Spec->splitdir( $self->_expand_macros(
            $self->{ "INSTALL${installdirs}MAN${num}DIR" } ) );
        my $mandir = pop @mandirs;
        my $section = $num;

        foreach ($num, "${num}p", "${num}pm", qw< l n o C L >, "L$num") {
            if ( $mandir =~ /^(?:man|cat)$_$/ ) {
                $section = $_;
                last;
            }
        }

        $self->{"MAN${num}SECTION"} = $section;
    }
}


sub _has_pod {
    my($self, $file) = @_;

    my($ispod)=0;
    if (open( my $fh, '<', $file )) {
        while (<$fh>) {
            if (/^=(?:head\d+|item|pod)\b/) {
                $ispod=1;
                last;
            }
        }
        close $fh;
    } else {
        # If it doesn't exist yet, we assume, it has pods in it
        $ispod = 1;
    }

    return $ispod;
}


=item init_MAN1PODS

Initializes MAN1PODS from the list of EXE_FILES.

=cut

sub init_MAN1PODS {
    my($self) = @_;

    if ( exists $self->{EXE_FILES} ) {
	foreach my $name (@{$self->{EXE_FILES}}) {
	    next unless $self->_has_pod($name);

	    $self->{MAN1PODS}->{$name} =
		$self->catfile("\$(INST_MAN1DIR)",
			       basename($name).".\$(MAN1EXT)");
	}
    }
}


=item init_MAN3PODS

Initializes MAN3PODS from the list of PM files.

=cut

sub init_MAN3PODS {
    my $self = shift;

    my %manifypods = (); # we collect the keys first, i.e. the files
                         # we have to convert to pod

    foreach my $name (keys %{$self->{PM}}) {
	if ($name =~ /\.pod\z/ ) {
	    $manifypods{$name} = $self->{PM}{$name};
	} elsif ($name =~ /\.p[ml]\z/ ) {
	    if( $self->_has_pod($name) ) {
		$manifypods{$name} = $self->{PM}{$name};
	    }
	}
    }

    my $parentlibs_re = join '|', @{$self->{PMLIBPARENTDIRS}};

    # Remove "Configure.pm" and similar, if it's not the only pod listed
    # To force inclusion, just name it "Configure.pod", or override
    # MAN3PODS
    foreach my $name (keys %manifypods) {
	if (
            ($self->{PERL_CORE} and $name =~ /(config|setup).*\.pm/is) or
            ( $name =~ m/^README\.pod$/i ) # don't manify top-level README.pod
        ) {
	    delete $manifypods{$name};
	    next;
	}
	my($manpagename) = $name;
	$manpagename =~ s/\.p(od|m|l)\z//;
	# everything below lib is ok
	unless($manpagename =~ s!^\W*($parentlibs_re)\W+!!s) {
	    $manpagename = $self->catfile(
	        split(/::/,$self->{PARENT_NAME}),$manpagename
	    );
	}
	$manpagename = $self->replace_manpage_separator($manpagename);
	$self->{MAN3PODS}->{$name} =
	    $self->catfile("\$(INST_MAN3DIR)", "$manpagename.\$(MAN3EXT)");
    }
}


=item init_PM

Initializes PMLIBDIRS and PM from PMLIBDIRS.

=cut

sub init_PM {
    my $self = shift;

    # Some larger extensions often wish to install a number of *.pm/pl
    # files into the library in various locations.

    # The attribute PMLIBDIRS holds an array reference which lists
    # subdirectories which we should search for library files to
    # install. PMLIBDIRS defaults to [ 'lib', $self->{BASEEXT} ].  We
    # recursively search through the named directories (skipping any
    # which don't exist or contain Makefile.PL files).

    # For each *.pm or *.pl file found $self->libscan() is called with
    # the default installation path in $_[1]. The return value of
    # libscan defines the actual installation location.  The default
    # libscan function simply returns the path.  The file is skipped
    # if libscan returns false.

    # The default installation location passed to libscan in $_[1] is:
    #
    #  ./*.pm		=> $(INST_LIBDIR)/*.pm
    #  ./xyz/...	=> $(INST_LIBDIR)/xyz/...
    #  ./lib/...	=> $(INST_LIB)/...
    #
    # In this way the 'lib' directory is seen as the root of the actual
    # perl library whereas the others are relative to INST_LIBDIR
    # (which includes PARENT_NAME). This is a subtle distinction but one
    # that's important for nested modules.

    unless( $self->{PMLIBDIRS} ) {
        if( $Is{VMS} ) {
            # Avoid logical name vs directory collisions
            $self->{PMLIBDIRS} = ['./lib', "./$self->{BASEEXT}"];
        }
        else {
            $self->{PMLIBDIRS} = ['lib', $self->{BASEEXT}];
        }
    }

    #only existing directories that aren't in $dir are allowed

    # Avoid $_ wherever possible:
    # @{$self->{PMLIBDIRS}} = grep -d && !$dir{$_}, @{$self->{PMLIBDIRS}};
    my (@pmlibdirs) = @{$self->{PMLIBDIRS}};
    @{$self->{PMLIBDIRS}} = ();
    my %dir = map { ($_ => $_) } @{$self->{DIR}};
    foreach my $pmlibdir (@pmlibdirs) {
	-d $pmlibdir && !$dir{$pmlibdir} && push @{$self->{PMLIBDIRS}}, $pmlibdir;
    }

    unless( $self->{PMLIBPARENTDIRS} ) {
	@{$self->{PMLIBPARENTDIRS}} = ('lib');
    }

    return if $self->{PM} and $self->{ARGS}{PM};

    if (@{$self->{PMLIBDIRS}}){
	print "Searching PMLIBDIRS: @{$self->{PMLIBDIRS}}\n"
	    if ($Verbose >= 2);
	require File::Find;
        File::Find::find(sub {
            if (-d $_){
                unless ($self->libscan($_)){
                    $File::Find::prune = 1;
                }
                return;
            }
            return if /\#/;
            return if /~$/;             # emacs temp files
            return if /,v$/;            # RCS files
            return if m{\.swp$};        # vim swap files

	    my $path   = $File::Find::name;
            my $prefix = $self->{INST_LIBDIR};
            my $striplibpath;

	    my $parentlibs_re = join '|', @{$self->{PMLIBPARENTDIRS}};
	    $prefix =  $self->{INST_LIB}
                if ($striplibpath = $path) =~ s{^(\W*)($parentlibs_re)\W}
	                                       {$1}i;

	    my($inst) = $self->catfile($prefix,$striplibpath);
	    local($_) = $inst; # for backwards compatibility
	    $inst = $self->libscan($inst);
	    print "libscan($path) => '$inst'\n" if ($Verbose >= 2);
	    return unless $inst;
	    if ($self->{XSMULTI} and $inst =~ /\.xs\z/) {
		my($base); ($base = $path) =~ s/\.xs\z//;
		$self->{XS}{$path} = "$base.c";
		push @{$self->{C}}, "$base.c";
		push @{$self->{O_FILES}}, "$base$self->{OBJ_EXT}";
	    } else {
		$self->{PM}{$path} = $inst;
	    }
	}, @{$self->{PMLIBDIRS}});
    }
}


=item init_DIRFILESEP

Using / for Unix.  Called by init_main.

=cut

sub init_DIRFILESEP {
    my($self) = shift;

    $self->{DIRFILESEP} = '/';
}


=item init_main

Initializes AR, AR_STATIC_ARGS, BASEEXT, CONFIG, DISTNAME, DLBASE,
EXE_EXT, FULLEXT, FULLPERL, FULLPERLRUN, FULLPERLRUNINST, INST_*,
INSTALL*, INSTALLDIRS, LIB_EXT, LIBPERL_A, MAP_TARGET, NAME,
OBJ_EXT, PARENT_NAME, PERL, PERL_ARCHLIB, PERL_INC, PERL_LIB,
PERL_SRC, PERLRUN, PERLRUNINST, PREFIX, VERSION,
VERSION_SYM, XS_VERSION.

=cut

sub init_main {
    my($self) = @_;

    # --- Initialize Module Name and Paths

    # NAME    = Foo::Bar::Oracle
    # FULLEXT = Foo/Bar/Oracle
    # BASEEXT = Oracle
    # PARENT_NAME = Foo::Bar
### Only UNIX:
###    ($self->{FULLEXT} =
###     $self->{NAME}) =~ s!::!/!g ; #eg. BSD/Foo/Socket
    $self->{FULLEXT} = $self->catdir(split /::/, $self->{NAME});


    # Copied from DynaLoader:

    my(@modparts) = split(/::/,$self->{NAME});
    my($modfname) = $modparts[-1];

    # Some systems have restrictions on files names for DLL's etc.
    # mod2fname returns appropriate file base name (typically truncated)
    # It may also edit @modparts if required.
    # We require DynaLoader to make sure that mod2fname is loaded
    eval { require DynaLoader };
    if (defined &DynaLoader::mod2fname) {
        $modfname = &DynaLoader::mod2fname(\@modparts);
    }

    ($self->{PARENT_NAME}, $self->{BASEEXT}) = $self->{NAME} =~ m!(?:([\w:]+)::)?(\w+)\z! ;
    $self->{PARENT_NAME} ||= '';

    if (defined &DynaLoader::mod2fname) {
	# As of 5.001m, dl_os2 appends '_'
	$self->{DLBASE} = $modfname;
    } else {
	$self->{DLBASE} = '$(BASEEXT)';
    }


    # --- Initialize PERL_LIB, PERL_SRC

    # *Real* information: where did we get these two from? ...
    my $inc_config_dir = dirname($INC{'Config.pm'});
    my $inc_carp_dir   = dirname($INC{'Carp.pm'});

    unless ($self->{PERL_SRC}){
        foreach my $dir_count (1..8) { # 8 is the VMS limit for nesting
            my $dir = $self->catdir(($Updir) x $dir_count);

            if (-f $self->catfile($dir,"config_h.SH")   &&
                -f $self->catfile($dir,"perl.h")        &&
                -f $self->catfile($dir,"lib","strict.pm")
            ) {
                $self->{PERL_SRC}=$dir ;
                last;
            }
        }
    }

    warn "PERL_CORE is set but I can't find your PERL_SRC!\n" if
      $self->{PERL_CORE} and !$self->{PERL_SRC};

    if ($self->{PERL_SRC}){
	$self->{PERL_LIB}     ||= $self->catdir("$self->{PERL_SRC}","lib");

        $self->{PERL_ARCHLIB} = $self->{PERL_LIB};
        $self->{PERL_INC}     = ($Is{Win32}) ?
            $self->catdir($self->{PERL_LIB},"CORE") : $self->{PERL_SRC};

	# catch a situation that has occurred a few times in the past:
	unless (
		-s $self->catfile($self->{PERL_SRC},'cflags')
		or
		$Is{VMS}
		&&
		-s $self->catfile($self->{PERL_SRC},'vmsish.h')
		or
		$Is{Win32}
	       ){
	    warn qq{
You cannot build extensions below the perl source tree after executing
a 'make clean' in the perl source tree.

To rebuild extensions distributed with the perl source you should
simply Configure (to include those extensions) and then build perl as
normal. After installing perl the source tree can be deleted. It is
not needed for building extensions by running 'perl Makefile.PL'
usually without extra arguments.

It is recommended that you unpack and build additional extensions away
from the perl source tree.
};
	}
    } else {
	# we should also consider $ENV{PERL5LIB} here
        my $old = $self->{PERL_LIB} || $self->{PERL_ARCHLIB} || $self->{PERL_INC};
	$self->{PERL_LIB}     ||= $Config{privlibexp};
	$self->{PERL_ARCHLIB} ||= $Config{archlibexp};
	$self->{PERL_INC}     = $self->catdir("$self->{PERL_ARCHLIB}","CORE"); # wild guess for now
	my $perl_h;

	if (not -f ($perl_h = $self->catfile($self->{PERL_INC},"perl.h"))
	    and not $old){
	    # Maybe somebody tries to build an extension with an
	    # uninstalled Perl outside of Perl build tree
	    my $lib;
	    for my $dir (@INC) {
	      $lib = $dir, last if -e $self->catfile($dir, "Config.pm");
	    }
	    if ($lib) {
              # Win32 puts its header files in /perl/src/lib/CORE.
              # Unix leaves them in /perl/src.
	      my $inc = $Is{Win32} ? $self->catdir($lib, "CORE" )
                                  : dirname $lib;
	      if (-e $self->catfile($inc, "perl.h")) {
		$self->{PERL_LIB}	   = $lib;
		$self->{PERL_ARCHLIB}	   = $lib;
		$self->{PERL_INC}	   = $inc;
		$self->{UNINSTALLED_PERL}  = 1;
		print <<EOP;
... Detected uninstalled Perl.  Trying to continue.
EOP
	      }
	    }
	}
    }

    if ($Is{Android}) {
    	# Android fun times!
    	# ../../perl -I../../lib -MFile::Glob -e1 works
    	# ../../../perl -I../../../lib -MFile::Glob -e1 fails to find
    	# the .so for File::Glob.
    	# This always affects core perl, but may also affect an installed
    	# perl built with -Duserelocatableinc.
    	$self->{PERL_LIB} = File::Spec->rel2abs($self->{PERL_LIB});
    	$self->{PERL_ARCHLIB} = File::Spec->rel2abs($self->{PERL_ARCHLIB});
    }
    $self->{PERL_INCDEP} = $self->{PERL_INC};
    $self->{PERL_ARCHLIBDEP} = $self->{PERL_ARCHLIB};

    # We get SITELIBEXP and SITEARCHEXP directly via
    # Get_from_Config. When we are running standard modules, these
    # won't matter, we will set INSTALLDIRS to "perl". Otherwise we
    # set it to "site". I prefer that INSTALLDIRS be set from outside
    # MakeMaker.
    $self->{INSTALLDIRS} ||= "site";

    $self->{MAN1EXT} ||= $Config{man1ext};
    $self->{MAN3EXT} ||= $Config{man3ext};

    # Get some stuff out of %Config if we haven't yet done so
    print "CONFIG must be an array ref\n"
        if ($self->{CONFIG} and ref $self->{CONFIG} ne 'ARRAY');
    $self->{CONFIG} = [] unless (ref $self->{CONFIG});
    push(@{$self->{CONFIG}}, @ExtUtils::MakeMaker::Get_from_Config);
    push(@{$self->{CONFIG}}, 'shellflags') if $Config{shellflags};
    my(%once_only);
    foreach my $m (@{$self->{CONFIG}}){
        next if $once_only{$m};
        print "CONFIG key '$m' does not exist in Config.pm\n"
                unless exists $Config{$m};
        $self->{uc $m} ||= $Config{$m};
        $once_only{$m} = 1;
    }

# This is too dangerous:
#    if ($^O eq "next") {
#	$self->{AR} = "libtool";
#	$self->{AR_STATIC_ARGS} = "-o";
#    }
# But I leave it as a placeholder

    $self->{AR_STATIC_ARGS} ||= "cr";

    # These should never be needed
    $self->{OBJ_EXT} ||= '.o';
    $self->{LIB_EXT} ||= '.a';

    $self->{MAP_TARGET} ||= "perl";

    $self->{LIBPERL_A} ||= "libperl$self->{LIB_EXT}";

    # make a simple check if we find strict
    warn "Warning: PERL_LIB ($self->{PERL_LIB}) seems not to be a perl library directory
        (strict.pm not found)"
        unless -f $self->catfile("$self->{PERL_LIB}","strict.pm") ||
               $self->{NAME} eq "ExtUtils::MakeMaker";
}

=item init_tools

Initializes tools to use their common (and faster) Unix commands.

=cut

sub init_tools {
    my $self = shift;

    $self->{ECHO}       ||= 'echo';
    $self->{ECHO_N}     ||= 'echo -n';
    $self->{RM_F}       ||= "rm -f";
    $self->{RM_RF}      ||= "rm -rf";
    $self->{TOUCH}      ||= "touch";
    $self->{TEST_F}     ||= "test -f";
    $self->{TEST_S}     ||= "test -s";
    $self->{CP}         ||= "cp";
    $self->{MV}         ||= "mv";
    $self->{CHMOD}      ||= "chmod";
    $self->{FALSE}      ||= 'false';
    $self->{TRUE}       ||= 'true';

    $self->{LD}         ||= 'ld';

    return $self->SUPER::init_tools(@_);

    # After SUPER::init_tools so $Config{shell} has a
    # chance to get set.
    $self->{SHELL}      ||= '/bin/sh';

    return;
}


=item init_linker

Unix has no need of special linker flags.

=cut

sub init_linker {
    my($self) = shift;
    $self->{PERL_ARCHIVE} ||= '';
    $self->{PERL_ARCHIVEDEP} ||= '';
    $self->{PERL_ARCHIVE_AFTER} ||= '';
    $self->{EXPORT_LIST}  ||= '';
}


=begin _protected

=item init_lib2arch

    $mm->init_lib2arch

=end _protected

=cut

sub init_lib2arch {
    my($self) = shift;

    # The user who requests an installation directory explicitly
    # should not have to tell us an architecture installation directory
    # as well. We look if a directory exists that is named after the
    # architecture. If not we take it as a sign that it should be the
    # same as the requested installation directory. Otherwise we take
    # the found one.
    for my $libpair ({l=>"privlib",   a=>"archlib"},
                     {l=>"sitelib",   a=>"sitearch"},
                     {l=>"vendorlib", a=>"vendorarch"},
                    )
    {
        my $lib = "install$libpair->{l}";
        my $Lib = uc $lib;
        my $Arch = uc "install$libpair->{a}";
        if( $self->{$Lib} && ! $self->{$Arch} ){
            my($ilib) = $Config{$lib};

            $self->prefixify($Arch,$ilib,$self->{$Lib});

            unless (-d $self->{$Arch}) {
                print "Directory $self->{$Arch} not found\n"
                  if $Verbose;
                $self->{$Arch} = $self->{$Lib};
            }
            print "Defaulting $Arch to $self->{$Arch}\n" if $Verbose;
        }
    }
}


=item init_PERL

    $mm->init_PERL;

Called by init_main.  Sets up ABSPERL, PERL, FULLPERL and all the
*PERLRUN* permutations.

    PERL is allowed to be miniperl
    FULLPERL must be a complete perl

    ABSPERL is PERL converted to an absolute path

    *PERLRUN contains everything necessary to run perl, find it's
         libraries, etc...

    *PERLRUNINST is *PERLRUN + everything necessary to find the
         modules being built.

=cut

sub init_PERL {
    my($self) = shift;

    my @defpath = ();
    foreach my $component ($self->{PERL_SRC}, $self->path(),
                           $Config{binexp})
    {
	push @defpath, $component if defined $component;
    }

    # Build up a set of file names (not command names).
    my $thisperl = $self->canonpath($^X);
    $thisperl .= $Config{exe_ext} unless
                # VMS might have a file version # at the end
      $Is{VMS} ? $thisperl =~ m/$Config{exe_ext}(;\d+)?$/i
              : $thisperl =~ m/$Config{exe_ext}$/i;

    # We need a relative path to perl when in the core.
    $thisperl = $self->abs2rel($thisperl) if $self->{PERL_CORE};

    my @perls = ($thisperl);
    push @perls, map { "$_$Config{exe_ext}" }
                     ("perl$Config{version}", 'perl5', 'perl');

    # miniperl has priority over all but the canonical perl when in the
    # core.  Otherwise its a last resort.
    my $miniperl = "miniperl$Config{exe_ext}";
    if( $self->{PERL_CORE} ) {
        splice @perls, 1, 0, $miniperl;
    }
    else {
        push @perls, $miniperl;
    }

    $self->{PERL} ||=
        $self->find_perl(5.0, \@perls, \@defpath, $Verbose );

    my $perl = $self->{PERL};
    $perl =~ s/^"//;
    my $has_mcr = $perl =~ s/^MCR\s*//;
    my $perlflags = '';
    my $stripped_perl;
    while ($perl) {
	($stripped_perl = $perl) =~ s/"$//;
	last if -x $stripped_perl;
	last unless $perl =~ s/(\s+\S+)$//;
	$perlflags = $1.$perlflags;
    }
    $self->{PERL} = $stripped_perl;
    $self->{PERL} = 'MCR '.$self->{PERL} if $has_mcr || $Is{VMS};

    # When built for debugging, VMS doesn't create perl.exe but ndbgperl.exe.
    my $perl_name = 'perl';
    $perl_name = 'ndbgperl' if $Is{VMS} &&
      defined $Config{usevmsdebug} && $Config{usevmsdebug} eq 'define';

    # XXX This logic is flawed.  If "miniperl" is anywhere in the path
    # it will get confused.  It should be fixed to work only on the filename.
    # Define 'FULLPERL' to be a non-miniperl (used in test: target)
    unless ($self->{FULLPERL}) {
      ($self->{FULLPERL} = $self->{PERL}) =~ s/\Q$miniperl\E$/$perl_name$Config{exe_ext}/i;
      $self->{FULLPERL} = qq{"$self->{FULLPERL}"}.$perlflags;
    }
    # Can't have an image name with quotes, and findperl will have
    # already escaped spaces.
    $self->{FULLPERL} =~ tr/"//d if $Is{VMS};

    # `dmake` can fail for image (aka, executable) names which start with double-quotes
    # * push quote inward by at least one character (or the drive prefix, if present)
    # * including any initial directory separator preserves the `file_name_is_absolute` property
    $self->{FULLPERL} =~ s/^"(\S(:\\|:)?)/$1"/ if $self->is_make_type('dmake');

    # Little hack to get around VMS's find_perl putting "MCR" in front
    # sometimes.
    $self->{ABSPERL} = $self->{PERL};
    $has_mcr = $self->{ABSPERL} =~ s/^MCR\s*//;
    if( $self->file_name_is_absolute($self->{ABSPERL}) ) {
        $self->{ABSPERL} = '$(PERL)';
    }
    else {
        $self->{ABSPERL} = $self->rel2abs($self->{ABSPERL});

        # Quote the perl command if it contains whitespace
        $self->{ABSPERL} = $self->quote_literal($self->{ABSPERL})
          if $self->{ABSPERL} =~ /\s/;

        $self->{ABSPERL} = 'MCR '.$self->{ABSPERL} if $has_mcr;
    }
    $self->{PERL} = qq{"$self->{PERL}"}.$perlflags;

    # Can't have an image name with quotes, and findperl will have
    # already escaped spaces.
    $self->{PERL} =~ tr/"//d if $Is{VMS};

    # `dmake` can fail for image (aka, executable) names which start with double-quotes
    # * push quote inward by at least one character (or the drive prefix, if present)
    # * including any initial directory separator preserves the `file_name_is_absolute` property
    $self->{PERL} =~ s/^"(\S(:\\|:)?)/$1"/ if $self->is_make_type('dmake');

    # Are we building the core?
    $self->{PERL_CORE} = $ENV{PERL_CORE} unless exists $self->{PERL_CORE};
    $self->{PERL_CORE} = 0               unless defined $self->{PERL_CORE};

    # Make sure perl can find itself before it's installed.
    my $lib_paths = $self->{UNINSTALLED_PERL} || $self->{PERL_CORE}
        ? ( $self->{PERL_ARCHLIB} && $self->{PERL_LIB} && $self->{PERL_ARCHLIB} ne $self->{PERL_LIB} ) ?
            q{ "-I$(PERL_LIB)" "-I$(PERL_ARCHLIB)"} : q{ "-I$(PERL_LIB)"}
        : undef;
    my $inst_lib_paths = $self->{INST_ARCHLIB} ne $self->{INST_LIB}
        ? 'RUN)'.$perlflags.' "-I$(INST_ARCHLIB)" "-I$(INST_LIB)"'
        : 'RUN)'.$perlflags.' "-I$(INST_LIB)"';
    # How do we run perl?
    foreach my $perl (qw(PERL FULLPERL ABSPERL)) {
        my $run  = $perl.'RUN';

        $self->{$run}  = qq{\$($perl)};
        $self->{$run} .= $lib_paths if $lib_paths;

        $self->{$perl.'RUNINST'} = '$('.$perl.$inst_lib_paths;
    }

    return 1;
}


=item init_platform

=item platform_constants

Add MM_Unix_VERSION.

=cut

sub init_platform {
    my($self) = shift;

    $self->{MM_Unix_VERSION} = $VERSION;
    $self->{PERL_MALLOC_DEF} = '-DPERL_EXTMALLOC_DEF -Dmalloc=Perl_malloc '.
                               '-Dfree=Perl_mfree -Drealloc=Perl_realloc '.
                               '-Dcalloc=Perl_calloc';

}

sub platform_constants {
    my($self) = shift;
    my $make_frag = '';

    foreach my $macro (qw(MM_Unix_VERSION PERL_MALLOC_DEF))
    {
        next unless defined $self->{$macro};
        $make_frag .= "$macro = $self->{$macro}\n";
    }

    return $make_frag;
}


=item init_PERM

  $mm->init_PERM

Called by init_main.  Initializes PERL_*

=cut

sub init_PERM {
    my($self) = shift;

    $self->{PERM_DIR} = 755  unless defined $self->{PERM_DIR};
    $self->{PERM_RW}  = 644  unless defined $self->{PERM_RW};
    $self->{PERM_RWX} = 755  unless defined $self->{PERM_RWX};

    return 1;
}


=item init_xs

    $mm->init_xs

Sets up macros having to do with XS code.  Currently just INST_STATIC,
INST_DYNAMIC and INST_BOOT.

=cut

sub init_xs {
    my $self = shift;

    if ($self->has_link_code()) {
        $self->{INST_STATIC}  =
          $self->catfile('$(INST_ARCHAUTODIR)', '$(BASEEXT)$(LIB_EXT)');
        $self->{INST_DYNAMIC} =
          $self->catfile('$(INST_ARCHAUTODIR)', '$(DLBASE).$(DLEXT)');
        $self->{INST_BOOT}    =
          $self->catfile('$(INST_ARCHAUTODIR)', '$(BASEEXT).bs');
	if ($self->{XSMULTI}) {
	    my @exts = $self->_xs_list_basenames;
	    my (@statics, @dynamics, @boots);
	    for my $ext (@exts) {
		my ($v, $d, $f) = File::Spec->splitpath($ext);
		my @d = File::Spec->splitdir($d);
		shift @d if defined $d[0] and $d[0] eq 'lib';
		pop @d if $d[$#d] eq '';
		my $instdir = $self->catdir('$(INST_ARCHLIB)', 'auto', @d, $f);
		my $instfile = $self->catfile($instdir, $f);
		push @statics, "$instfile\$(LIB_EXT)";

                # Dynamic library names may need special handling.
                my $dynfile = $instfile;
                eval { require DynaLoader };
                if (defined &DynaLoader::mod2fname) {
                    $dynfile = $self->catfile($instdir, &DynaLoader::mod2fname([@d, $f]));
                }

		push @dynamics, "$dynfile.\$(DLEXT)";
		push @boots, "$instfile.bs";
	    }
	    $self->{INST_STATIC} = join ' ', @statics;
	    $self->{INST_DYNAMIC} = join ' ', @dynamics;
	    $self->{INST_BOOT} = join ' ', @boots;
	}
    } else {
        $self->{INST_STATIC}  = '';
        $self->{INST_DYNAMIC} = '';
        $self->{INST_BOOT}    = '';
    }
}

=item install (o)

Defines the install target.

=cut

sub install {
    my($self, %attribs) = @_;
    my(@m);

    push @m, q{
install :: pure_install doc_install
	$(NOECHO) $(NOOP)

install_perl :: pure_perl_install doc_perl_install
	$(NOECHO) $(NOOP)

install_site :: pure_site_install doc_site_install
	$(NOECHO) $(NOOP)

install_vendor :: pure_vendor_install doc_vendor_install
	$(NOECHO) $(NOOP)

pure_install :: pure_$(INSTALLDIRS)_install
	$(NOECHO) $(NOOP)

doc_install :: doc_$(INSTALLDIRS)_install
	$(NOECHO) $(NOOP)

pure__install : pure_site_install
	$(NOECHO) $(ECHO) INSTALLDIRS not defined, defaulting to INSTALLDIRS=site

doc__install : doc_site_install
	$(NOECHO) $(ECHO) INSTALLDIRS not defined, defaulting to INSTALLDIRS=site

pure_perl_install :: all
	$(NOECHO) $(MOD_INSTALL) \
};

    push @m,
q{		read "}.$self->catfile('$(PERL_ARCHLIB)','auto','$(FULLEXT)','.packlist').q{" \
		write "}.$self->catfile('$(DESTINSTALLARCHLIB)','auto','$(FULLEXT)','.packlist').q{" \
} unless $self->{NO_PACKLIST};

    push @m,
q{		"$(INST_LIB)" "$(DESTINSTALLPRIVLIB)" \
		"$(INST_ARCHLIB)" "$(DESTINSTALLARCHLIB)" \
		"$(INST_BIN)" "$(DESTINSTALLBIN)" \
		"$(INST_SCRIPT)" "$(DESTINSTALLSCRIPT)" \
		"$(INST_MAN1DIR)" "$(DESTINSTALLMAN1DIR)" \
		"$(INST_MAN3DIR)" "$(DESTINSTALLMAN3DIR)"
	$(NOECHO) $(WARN_IF_OLD_PACKLIST) \
		"}.$self->catdir('$(SITEARCHEXP)','auto','$(FULLEXT)').q{"


pure_site_install :: all
	$(NOECHO) $(MOD_INSTALL) \
};
    push @m,
q{		read "}.$self->catfile('$(SITEARCHEXP)','auto','$(FULLEXT)','.packlist').q{" \
		write "}.$self->catfile('$(DESTINSTALLSITEARCH)','auto','$(FULLEXT)','.packlist').q{" \
} unless $self->{NO_PACKLIST};

    push @m,
q{		"$(INST_LIB)" "$(DESTINSTALLSITELIB)" \
		"$(INST_ARCHLIB)" "$(DESTINSTALLSITEARCH)" \
		"$(INST_BIN)" "$(DESTINSTALLSITEBIN)" \
		"$(INST_SCRIPT)" "$(DESTINSTALLSITESCRIPT)" \
		"$(INST_MAN1DIR)" "$(DESTINSTALLSITEMAN1DIR)" \
		"$(INST_MAN3DIR)" "$(DESTINSTALLSITEMAN3DIR)"
	$(NOECHO) $(WARN_IF_OLD_PACKLIST) \
		"}.$self->catdir('$(PERL_ARCHLIB)','auto','$(FULLEXT)').q{"

pure_vendor_install :: all
	$(NOECHO) $(MOD_INSTALL) \
};
    push @m,
q{		read "}.$self->catfile('$(VENDORARCHEXP)','auto','$(FULLEXT)','.packlist').q{" \
		write "}.$self->catfile('$(DESTINSTALLVENDORARCH)','auto','$(FULLEXT)','.packlist').q{" \
} unless $self->{NO_PACKLIST};

    push @m,
q{		"$(INST_LIB)" "$(DESTINSTALLVENDORLIB)" \
		"$(INST_ARCHLIB)" "$(DESTINSTALLVENDORARCH)" \
		"$(INST_BIN)" "$(DESTINSTALLVENDORBIN)" \
		"$(INST_SCRIPT)" "$(DESTINSTALLVENDORSCRIPT)" \
		"$(INST_MAN1DIR)" "$(DESTINSTALLVENDORMAN1DIR)" \
		"$(INST_MAN3DIR)" "$(DESTINSTALLVENDORMAN3DIR)"

};

    push @m, q{
doc_perl_install :: all
	$(NOECHO) $(NOOP)

doc_site_install :: all
	$(NOECHO) $(NOOP)

doc_vendor_install :: all
	$(NOECHO) $(NOOP)

} if $self->{NO_PERLLOCAL};

    push @m, q{
doc_perl_install :: all
	$(NOECHO) $(ECHO) Appending installation info to "$(DESTINSTALLARCHLIB)/perllocal.pod"
	-$(NOECHO) $(MKPATH) "$(DESTINSTALLARCHLIB)"
	-$(NOECHO) $(DOC_INSTALL) \
		"Module" "$(NAME)" \
		"installed into" "$(INSTALLPRIVLIB)" \
		LINKTYPE "$(LINKTYPE)" \
		VERSION "$(VERSION)" \
		EXE_FILES "$(EXE_FILES)" \
		>> "}.$self->catfile('$(DESTINSTALLARCHLIB)','perllocal.pod').q{"

doc_site_install :: all
	$(NOECHO) $(ECHO) Appending installation info to "$(DESTINSTALLARCHLIB)/perllocal.pod"
	-$(NOECHO) $(MKPATH) "$(DESTINSTALLARCHLIB)"
	-$(NOECHO) $(DOC_INSTALL) \
		"Module" "$(NAME)" \
		"installed into" "$(INSTALLSITELIB)" \
		LINKTYPE "$(LINKTYPE)" \
		VERSION "$(VERSION)" \
		EXE_FILES "$(EXE_FILES)" \
		>> "}.$self->catfile('$(DESTINSTALLARCHLIB)','perllocal.pod').q{"

doc_vendor_install :: all
	$(NOECHO) $(ECHO) Appending installation info to "$(DESTINSTALLARCHLIB)/perllocal.pod"
	-$(NOECHO) $(MKPATH) "$(DESTINSTALLARCHLIB)"
	-$(NOECHO) $(DOC_INSTALL) \
		"Module" "$(NAME)" \
		"installed into" "$(INSTALLVENDORLIB)" \
		LINKTYPE "$(LINKTYPE)" \
		VERSION "$(VERSION)" \
		EXE_FILES "$(EXE_FILES)" \
		>> "}.$self->catfile('$(DESTINSTALLARCHLIB)','perllocal.pod').q{"

} unless $self->{NO_PERLLOCAL};

    push @m, q{
uninstall :: uninstall_from_$(INSTALLDIRS)dirs
	$(NOECHO) $(NOOP)

uninstall_from_perldirs ::
	$(NOECHO) $(UNINSTALL) "}.$self->catfile('$(PERL_ARCHLIB)','auto','$(FULLEXT)','.packlist').q{"

uninstall_from_sitedirs ::
	$(NOECHO) $(UNINSTALL) "}.$self->catfile('$(SITEARCHEXP)','auto','$(FULLEXT)','.packlist').q{"

uninstall_from_vendordirs ::
	$(NOECHO) $(UNINSTALL) "}.$self->catfile('$(VENDORARCHEXP)','auto','$(FULLEXT)','.packlist').q{"
};

    join("",@m);
}

=item installbin (o)

Defines targets to make and to install EXE_FILES.

=cut

sub installbin {
    my($self) = shift;

    return "" unless $self->{EXE_FILES} && ref $self->{EXE_FILES} eq "ARRAY";
    my @exefiles = sort @{$self->{EXE_FILES}};
    return "" unless @exefiles;

    @exefiles = map vmsify($_), @exefiles if $Is{VMS};

    my %fromto;
    for my $from (@exefiles) {
	my($path)= $self->catfile('$(INST_SCRIPT)', basename($from));

	local($_) = $path; # for backwards compatibility
	my $to = $self->libscan($path);
	print "libscan($from) => '$to'\n" if ($Verbose >=2);

        $to = vmsify($to) if $Is{VMS};
	$fromto{$from} = $to;
    }
    my @to   = sort values %fromto;

    my @m;
    push(@m, qq{
EXE_FILES = @exefiles

pure_all :: @to
	\$(NOECHO) \$(NOOP)

realclean ::
});

    # realclean can get rather large.
    push @m, map "\t$_\n", $self->split_command('$(RM_F)', @to);
    push @m, "\n";

    # A target for each exe file.
    my @froms = sort keys %fromto;
    for my $from (@froms) {
        #                              1      2
        push @m, _sprintf562 <<'MAKE', $from, $fromto{$from};
%2$s : %1$s $(FIRST_MAKEFILE) $(INST_SCRIPT)$(DFSEP).exists $(INST_BIN)$(DFSEP).exists
	$(NOECHO) $(RM_F) %2$s
	$(CP) %1$s %2$s
	$(FIXIN) %2$s
	-$(NOECHO) $(CHMOD) $(PERM_RWX) %2$s

MAKE

    }

    join "", @m;
}

=item linkext (o)

Defines the linkext target which in turn defines the LINKTYPE.

=cut

# LINKTYPE => static or dynamic or ''
sub linkext {
    my($self, %attribs) = @_;
    my $linktype = $attribs{LINKTYPE};
    $linktype = $self->{LINKTYPE} unless defined $linktype;
    if (defined $linktype and $linktype eq '') {
        warn "Warning: LINKTYPE set to '', no longer necessary\n";
    }
    $linktype = '$(LINKTYPE)' unless defined $linktype;
    "
linkext :: $linktype
	\$(NOECHO) \$(NOOP)
";
}

=item lsdir

Takes as arguments a directory name and a regular expression. Returns
all entries in the directory that match the regular expression.

=cut

sub lsdir {
    #  $self
    my(undef, $dir, $regex) = @_;
    opendir(my $dh, defined($dir) ? $dir : ".")
        or return;
    my @ls = readdir $dh;
    closedir $dh;
    @ls = grep(/$regex/, @ls) if defined $regex;
    @ls;
}

=item macro (o)

Simple subroutine to insert the macros defined by the macro attribute
into the Makefile.

=cut

sub macro {
    my($self,%attribs) = @_;
    my @m;
    foreach my $key (sort keys %attribs) {
	my $val = $attribs{$key};
	push @m, "$key = $val\n";
    }
    join "", @m;
}

=item makeaperl (o)

Called by staticmake. Defines how to write the Makefile to produce a
static new perl.

By default the Makefile produced includes all the static extensions in
the perl library. (Purified versions of library files, e.g.,
DynaLoader_pure_p1_c0_032.a are automatically ignored to avoid link errors.)

=cut

sub makeaperl {
    my($self, %attribs) = @_;
    my($makefilename, $searchdirs, $static, $extra, $perlinc, $target, $tmp, $libperl) =
	@attribs{qw(MAKE DIRS STAT EXTRA INCL TARGET TMP LIBPERL)};
    s/^(.*)/"-I$1"/ for @{$perlinc || []};
    my(@m);
    push @m, "
# --- MakeMaker makeaperl section ---
MAP_TARGET    = $target
FULLPERL      = $self->{FULLPERL}
MAP_PERLINC   = @{$perlinc || []}
";
    return join '', @m if $self->{PARENT};

    my($dir) = join ":", @{$self->{DIR}};

    unless ($self->{MAKEAPERL}) {
	push @m, q{
$(MAP_TARGET) :: $(MAKE_APERL_FILE)
	$(MAKE) $(USEMAKEFILE) $(MAKE_APERL_FILE) $@

$(MAKE_APERL_FILE) : static $(FIRST_MAKEFILE) pm_to_blib
	$(NOECHO) $(ECHO) Writing \"$(MAKE_APERL_FILE)\" for this $(MAP_TARGET)
	$(NOECHO) $(PERLRUNINST) \
		Makefile.PL DIR="}, $dir, q{" \
		MAKEFILE=$(MAKE_APERL_FILE) LINKTYPE=static \
		MAKEAPERL=1 NORECURS=1 CCCDLFLAGS=};

	foreach (@ARGV){
		my $arg = $_; # avoid lvalue aliasing
		if ( $arg =~ /(^.*?=)(.*['\s].*)/ ) {
			$arg = $1 . $self->quote_literal($2);
		}
		push @m, " \\\n\t\t$arg";
	}
	push @m, "\n";

	return join '', @m;
    }

    my $cccmd = $self->const_cccmd($libperl);
    $cccmd =~ s/^CCCMD\s*=\s*//;
    $cccmd =~ s/\$\(INC\)/ "-I$self->{PERL_INC}" /;
    $cccmd .= " $Config{cccdlflags}"
	if ($Config{useshrplib} eq 'true');
    $cccmd =~ s/\(CC\)/\(PERLMAINCC\)/;

    # The front matter of the linkcommand...
    my $linkcmd = join ' ', "\$(CC)",
	    grep($_, @Config{qw(ldflags ccdlflags)});
    $linkcmd =~ s/\s+/ /g;
    $linkcmd =~ s,(perl\.exp),\$(PERL_INC)/$1,;

    # Which *.a files could we make use of...
    my $staticlib21 = $self->_find_static_libs($searchdirs);
    # We trust that what has been handed in as argument, will be buildable
    $static = [] unless $static;
    @$staticlib21{@{$static}} = (1) x @{$static};

    $extra = [] unless $extra && ref $extra eq 'ARRAY';
    for (sort keys %$staticlib21) {
	next unless /\Q$self->{LIB_EXT}\E\z/;
	$_ = dirname($_) . "/extralibs.ld";
	push @$extra, $_;
    }

    s/^(.*)/"-I$1"/ for @{$perlinc || []};

    $target ||= "perl";
    $tmp    ||= ".";

# MAP_STATIC doesn't look into subdirs yet. Once "all" is made and we
# regenerate the Makefiles, MAP_STATIC and the dependencies for
# extralibs.all are computed correctly
    my @map_static = reverse sort keys %$staticlib21;
    push @m, "
MAP_LINKCMD   = $linkcmd
MAP_STATIC    = ", join(" \\\n\t", map { qq{"$_"} } @map_static), "
MAP_STATICDEP = ", join(' ', map { $self->quote_dep($_) } @map_static), "

MAP_PRELIBS   = $Config{perllibs} $Config{cryptlib}
";

    my $lperl;
    if (defined $libperl) {
	($lperl = $libperl) =~ s/\$\(A\)/$self->{LIB_EXT}/;
    }
    unless ($libperl && -f $lperl) { # Ilya's code...
	my $dir = $self->{PERL_SRC} || "$self->{PERL_ARCHLIB}/CORE";
	$dir = "$self->{PERL_ARCHLIB}/.." if $self->{UNINSTALLED_PERL};
	$libperl ||= "libperl$self->{LIB_EXT}";
	$libperl   = "$dir/$libperl";
	$lperl   ||= "libperl$self->{LIB_EXT}";
	$lperl     = "$dir/$lperl";

        if (! -f $libperl and ! -f $lperl) {
          # We did not find a static libperl. Maybe there is a shared one?
          if ($Is{SunOS}) {
            $lperl  = $libperl = "$dir/$Config{libperl}";
            # SUNOS ld does not take the full path to a shared library
            $libperl = '' if $Is{SunOS4};
          }
        }

	print <<EOF unless -f $lperl || defined($self->{PERL_SRC});
Warning: $libperl not found
If you're going to build a static perl binary, make sure perl is installed
otherwise ignore this warning
EOF
    }

    # SUNOS ld does not take the full path to a shared library
    my $llibperl = $libperl ? '$(MAP_LIBPERL)' : '-lperl';
    my $libperl_dep = $self->quote_dep($libperl);

    push @m, "
MAP_LIBPERL = $libperl
MAP_LIBPERLDEP = $libperl_dep
LLIBPERL    = $llibperl
";

    push @m, '
$(INST_ARCHAUTODIR)/extralibs.all : $(INST_ARCHAUTODIR)$(DFSEP).exists '.join(" \\\n\t", @$extra).'
	$(NOECHO) $(RM_F)  $@
	$(NOECHO) $(TOUCH) $@
';

    foreach my $catfile (@$extra){
	push @m, "\tcat $catfile >> \$\@\n";
    }

    my $ldfrom = $self->{XSMULTI} ? '' : '$(LDFROM)';
    #                             1     2                        3        4
    push @m, _sprintf562 <<'EOF', $tmp, $ldfrom, $self->xs_obj_opt('$@'), $makefilename;
$(MAP_TARGET) :: %1$s/perlmain$(OBJ_EXT) $(MAP_LIBPERLDEP) $(MAP_STATICDEP) $(INST_ARCHAUTODIR)/extralibs.all
	$(MAP_LINKCMD) %2$s $(OPTIMIZE) %1$s/perlmain$(OBJ_EXT) %3$s $(MAP_STATIC) "$(LLIBPERL)" `cat $(INST_ARCHAUTODIR)/extralibs.all` $(MAP_PRELIBS)
	$(NOECHO) $(ECHO) "To install the new '$(MAP_TARGET)' binary, call"
	$(NOECHO) $(ECHO) "    $(MAKE) $(USEMAKEFILE) %4$s inst_perl MAP_TARGET=$(MAP_TARGET)"
	$(NOECHO) $(ECHO) "    $(MAKE) $(USEMAKEFILE) %4$s map_clean"

%1$s/perlmain\$(OBJ_EXT): %1$s/perlmain.c
EOF
    push @m, "\t".$self->cd($tmp, qq[$cccmd "-I\$(PERL_INC)" perlmain.c])."\n";

    my $maybe_DynaLoader = $Config{usedl} ? 'q(DynaLoader)' : '';
    push @m, _sprintf562 <<'EOF', $tmp, $makefilename, $maybe_DynaLoader;

%1$s/perlmain.c: %2$s
	$(NOECHO) $(ECHO) Writing $@
	$(NOECHO) $(PERL) $(MAP_PERLINC) "-MExtUtils::Miniperl" \
		-e "writemain(grep(s#.*/auto/##s, @ARGV), %3$s)" $(MAP_STATIC) > $@t
	$(MV) $@t $@

EOF
    push @m, "\t", q{$(NOECHO) $(PERL) "$(INSTALLSCRIPT)/fixpmain"
} if (defined (&Dos::UseLFN) && Dos::UseLFN()==0);


    push @m, q{
doc_inst_perl :
	$(NOECHO) $(ECHO) Appending installation info to "$(DESTINSTALLARCHLIB)/perllocal.pod"
	-$(NOECHO) $(MKPATH) "$(DESTINSTALLARCHLIB)"
	-$(NOECHO) $(DOC_INSTALL) \
		"Perl binary" "$(MAP_TARGET)" \
		MAP_STATIC "$(MAP_STATIC)" \
		MAP_EXTRA "`cat $(INST_ARCHAUTODIR)/extralibs.all`" \
		MAP_LIBPERL "$(MAP_LIBPERL)" \
		>> "}.$self->catfile('$(DESTINSTALLARCHLIB)','perllocal.pod').q{"

};

    push @m, q{
inst_perl : pure_inst_perl doc_inst_perl

pure_inst_perl : $(MAP_TARGET)
	}.$self->{CP}.q{ $(MAP_TARGET) "}.$self->catfile('$(DESTINSTALLBIN)','$(MAP_TARGET)').q{"

clean :: map_clean

map_clean :
	}.$self->{RM_F}.qq{ $tmp/perlmain\$(OBJ_EXT) $tmp/perlmain.c \$(MAP_TARGET) $makefilename \$(INST_ARCHAUTODIR)/extralibs.all
};

    join '', @m;
}

# utility method
sub _find_static_libs {
    my ($self, $searchdirs) = @_;
    # don't use File::Spec here because on Win32 F::F still uses "/"
    my $installed_version = join('/',
	'auto', $self->{FULLEXT}, "$self->{BASEEXT}$self->{LIB_EXT}"
    );
    my %staticlib21;
    require File::Find;
    File::Find::find(sub {
	if ($File::Find::name =~ m{/auto/share\z}) {
	    # in a subdir of auto/share, prune because e.g.
	    # Alien::pkgconfig uses File::ShareDir to put .a files
	    # there. do not want
	    $File::Find::prune = 1;
	    return;
	}

	return unless m/\Q$self->{LIB_EXT}\E$/;

	return unless -f 'extralibs.ld'; # this checks is a "proper" XS installation

        # Skip perl's libraries.
        return if m/^libperl/ or m/^perl\Q$self->{LIB_EXT}\E$/;

	# Skip purified versions of libraries
        # (e.g., DynaLoader_pure_p1_c0_032.a)
	return if m/_pure_\w+_\w+_\w+\.\w+$/ and -f "$File::Find::dir/.pure";

	if( exists $self->{INCLUDE_EXT} ){
		my $found = 0;

		(my $xx = $File::Find::name) =~ s,.*?/auto/,,s;
		$xx =~ s,/?$_,,;
		$xx =~ s,/,::,g;

		# Throw away anything not explicitly marked for inclusion.
		# DynaLoader is implied.
		foreach my $incl ((@{$self->{INCLUDE_EXT}},'DynaLoader')){
			if( $xx eq $incl ){
				$found++;
				last;
			}
		}
		return unless $found;
	}
	elsif( exists $self->{EXCLUDE_EXT} ){
		(my $xx = $File::Find::name) =~ s,.*?/auto/,,s;
		$xx =~ s,/?$_,,;
		$xx =~ s,/,::,g;

		# Throw away anything explicitly marked for exclusion
		foreach my $excl (@{$self->{EXCLUDE_EXT}}){
			return if( $xx eq $excl );
		}
	}

	# don't include the installed version of this extension. I
	# leave this line here, although it is not necessary anymore:
	# I patched minimod.PL instead, so that Miniperl.pm won't
	# include duplicates

	# Once the patch to minimod.PL is in the distribution, I can
	# drop it
	return if $File::Find::name =~ m:\Q$installed_version\E\z:;
	return if !$self->xs_static_lib_is_xs($_);
	use Cwd 'cwd';
	$staticlib21{cwd() . "/" . $_}++;
    }, grep( -d $_, map { $self->catdir($_, 'auto') } @{$searchdirs || []}) );
    return \%staticlib21;
}

=item xs_static_lib_is_xs (o)

Called by a utility method of makeaperl. Checks whether a given file
is an XS library by seeing whether it defines any symbols starting
with C<boot_> (with an optional leading underscore - needed on MacOS).

=cut

sub xs_static_lib_is_xs {
    my ($self, $libfile) = @_;
    my $devnull = File::Spec->devnull;
    return `nm $libfile 2>$devnull` =~ /\b_?boot_/;
}

=item makefile (o)

Defines how to rewrite the Makefile.

=cut

sub makefile {
    my($self) = shift;
    my $m;
    # We do not know what target was originally specified so we
    # must force a manual rerun to be sure. But as it should only
    # happen very rarely it is not a significant problem.
    $m = '
$(OBJECT) : $(FIRST_MAKEFILE)

' if $self->{OBJECT};

    my $newer_than_target = $Is{VMS} ? '$(MMS$SOURCE_LIST)' : '$?';
    my $mpl_args = join " ", map qq["$_"], @ARGV;
    my $cross = '';
    if (defined $::Cross::platform) {
        # Inherited from win32/buildext.pl
        $cross = "-MCross=$::Cross::platform ";
    }
    $m .= sprintf <<'MAKE_FRAG', $newer_than_target, $cross, $mpl_args;
# We take a very conservative approach here, but it's worth it.
# We move Makefile to Makefile.old here to avoid gnu make looping.
$(FIRST_MAKEFILE) : Makefile.PL $(CONFIGDEP)
	$(NOECHO) $(ECHO) "Makefile out-of-date with respect to %s"
	$(NOECHO) $(ECHO) "Cleaning current config before rebuilding Makefile..."
	-$(NOECHO) $(RM_F) $(MAKEFILE_OLD)
	-$(NOECHO) $(MV)   $(FIRST_MAKEFILE) $(MAKEFILE_OLD)
	- $(MAKE) $(USEMAKEFILE) $(MAKEFILE_OLD) clean $(DEV_NULL)
	$(PERLRUN) %sMakefile.PL %s
	$(NOECHO) $(ECHO) "==> Your Makefile has been rebuilt. <=="
	$(NOECHO) $(ECHO) "==> Please rerun the $(MAKE) command.  <=="
	$(FALSE)

MAKE_FRAG

    return $m;
}


=item maybe_command

Returns true, if the argument is likely to be a command.

=cut

sub maybe_command {
    my($self,$file) = @_;
    return $file if -x $file && ! -d $file;
    return;
}


=item needs_linking (o)

Does this module need linking? Looks into subdirectory objects (see
also has_link_code())

=cut

sub needs_linking {
    my($self) = shift;

    my $caller = (caller(0))[3];
    confess("needs_linking called too early") if
      $caller =~ /^ExtUtils::MakeMaker::/;
    return $self->{NEEDS_LINKING} if defined $self->{NEEDS_LINKING};
    if ($self->has_link_code or $self->{MAKEAPERL}){
	$self->{NEEDS_LINKING} = 1;
	return 1;
    }
    foreach my $child (keys %{$self->{CHILDREN}}) {
	if ($self->{CHILDREN}->{$child}->needs_linking) {
	    $self->{NEEDS_LINKING} = 1;
	    return 1;
	}
    }
    return $self->{NEEDS_LINKING} = 0;
}


=item parse_abstract

parse a file and return what you think is the ABSTRACT

=cut

sub parse_abstract {
    my($self,$parsefile) = @_;
    my $result;

    local $/ = "\n";
    open(my $fh, '<', $parsefile) or die "Could not open '$parsefile': $!";
    binmode $fh;
    my $inpod = 0;
    my $pod_encoding;
    my $package = $self->{DISTNAME};
    $package =~ s/-/::/g;
    while (<$fh>) {
        $inpod = /^=(?!cut)/ ? 1 : /^=cut/ ? 0 : $inpod;
        next if !$inpod;
        s#\r*\n\z##; # handle CRLF input

        if ( /^=encoding\s*(.*)$/i ) {
            $pod_encoding = $1;
        }

        if ( /^($package(?:\.pm)? \s+ -+ \s+)(.*)/x ) {
          $result = $2;
          next;
        }
        next unless $result;

        if ( $result && ( /^\s*$/ || /^\=/ ) ) {
          last;
        }
        $result = join ' ', $result, $_;
    }
    close $fh;

    if ( $pod_encoding and !( "$]" < 5.008 or !$Config{useperlio} ) ) {
        # Have to wrap in an eval{} for when running under PERL_CORE
        # Encode isn't available during build phase and parsing
        # ABSTRACT isn't important there
        eval {
          require Encode;
          $result = Encode::decode($pod_encoding, $result);
        }
    }

    return $result;
}

=item parse_version

    my $version = MM->parse_version($file);

Parse a $file and return what $VERSION is set to by the first assignment.
It will return the string "undef" if it can't figure out what $VERSION
is. $VERSION should be for all to see, so C<our $VERSION> or plain $VERSION
are okay, but C<my $VERSION> is not.

C<package Foo VERSION> is also checked for.  The first version
declaration found is used, but this may change as it differs from how
Perl does it.

parse_version() will try to C<use version> before checking for
C<$VERSION> so the following will work.

    $VERSION = qv(1.2.3);

=cut

sub parse_version {
    my($self,$parsefile) = @_;
    my $result;

    local $/ = "\n";
    local $_;
    open(my $fh, '<', $parsefile) or die "Could not open '$parsefile': $!";
    my $inpod = 0;
    while (<$fh>) {
        $inpod = /^=(?!cut)/ ? 1 : /^=cut/ ? 0 : $inpod;
        next if $inpod || /^\s*#/;
        chop;
        next if /^\s*(if|unless|elsif)/;
        if ( m{^ \s* package \s+ \w[\w\:\']* \s+ (v?[0-9._]+) \s* (;|\{)  }x ) {
            local $^W = 0;
            $result = $1;
        }
        elsif ( m{(?<!\\) ([\$*]) (([\w\:\']*) \bVERSION)\b .* (?<![<>=!])\=[^=]}x ) {
			$result = $self->get_version($parsefile, $1, $2);
        }
        else {
          next;
        }
        last if defined $result;
    }
    close $fh;

    if ( defined $result && $result !~ /^v?[\d_\.]+$/ ) {
      require version;
      my $normal = eval { version->new( $result ) };
      $result = $normal if defined $normal;
    }
    $result = "undef" unless defined $result;
    return $result;
}

sub get_version {
    my ($self, $parsefile, $sigil, $name) = @_;
    my $line = $_; # from the while() loop in parse_version
    {
        package ExtUtils::MakeMaker::_version;
        undef *version; # in case of unexpected version() sub
        eval {
            require version;
            version::->import;
        };
        no strict;
        local *{$name};
        local $^W = 0;
        $line = $1 if $line =~ m{^(.+)}s;
        eval($line); ## no critic
        return ${$name};
    }
}

=item pasthru (o)

Defines the string that is passed to recursive make calls in
subdirectories. The variables like C<PASTHRU_DEFINE> are used in each
level, and passed downwards on the command-line with e.g. the value of
that level's DEFINE. Example:

    # Level 0 has DEFINE = -Dfunky
    # This code will define level 0's PASTHRU=PASTHRU_DEFINE="$(DEFINE)
    #     $(PASTHRU_DEFINE)"
    # Level 0's $(CCCMD) will include macros $(DEFINE) and $(PASTHRU_DEFINE)
    # So will level 1's, so when level 1 compiles, it will get right values
    # And so ad infinitum

=cut

sub pasthru {
    my($self) = shift;
    my(@m);

    my(@pasthru);
    my($sep) = $Is{VMS} ? ',' : '';
    $sep .= "\\\n\t";

    foreach my $key (qw(LIB LIBPERL_A LINKTYPE OPTIMIZE
                     PREFIX INSTALL_BASE)
                 )
    {
        next unless defined $self->{$key};
	push @pasthru, "$key=\"\$($key)\"";
    }

    foreach my $key (qw(DEFINE INC)) {
        # default to the make var
        my $val = qq{\$($key)};
        # expand within perl if given since need to use quote_literal
        # since INC might include space-protecting ""!
        chomp($val = $self->{$key}) if defined $self->{$key};
        $val .= " \$(PASTHRU_$key)";
        my $quoted = $self->quote_literal($val);
        push @pasthru, qq{PASTHRU_$key=$quoted};
    }

    push @m, "\nPASTHRU = ", join ($sep, @pasthru), "\n";
    join "", @m;
}

=item perl_script

Takes one argument, a file name, and returns the file name, if the
argument is likely to be a perl script. On MM_Unix this is true for
any ordinary, readable file.

=cut

sub perl_script {
    my($self,$file) = @_;
    return $file if -r $file && -f _;
    return;
}

=item perldepend (o)

Defines the dependency from all *.h files that come with the perl
distribution.

=cut

sub perldepend {
    my($self) = shift;
    my(@m);

    my $make_config = $self->cd('$(PERL_SRC)', '$(MAKE) lib/Config.pm');

    push @m, sprintf <<'MAKE_FRAG', $make_config if $self->{PERL_SRC};
# Check for unpropogated config.sh changes. Should never happen.
# We do NOT just update config.h because that is not sufficient.
# An out of date config.h is not fatal but complains loudly!
$(PERL_INCDEP)/config.h: $(PERL_SRC)/config.sh
	-$(NOECHO) $(ECHO) "Warning: $(PERL_INC)/config.h out of date with $(PERL_SRC)/config.sh"; $(FALSE)

$(PERL_ARCHLIB)/Config.pm: $(PERL_SRC)/config.sh
	$(NOECHO) $(ECHO) "Warning: $(PERL_ARCHLIB)/Config.pm may be out of date with $(PERL_SRC)/config.sh"
	%s
MAKE_FRAG

    return join "", @m unless $self->needs_linking;

    if ($self->{OBJECT}) {
        # Need to add an object file dependency on the perl headers.
        # this is very important for XS modules in perl.git development.
        push @m, $self->_perl_header_files_fragment("/"); # Directory separator between $(PERL_INC)/header.h
    }

    push @m, join(" ", sort values %{$self->{XS}})." : \$(XSUBPPDEPS)\n"  if %{$self->{XS}};

    return join "\n", @m;
}


=item pm_to_blib

Defines target that copies all files in the hash PM to their
destination and autosplits them. See L<ExtUtils::Install/DESCRIPTION>

=cut

sub pm_to_blib {
    my $self = shift;
    my($autodir) = $self->catdir('$(INST_LIB)','auto');
    my $r = q{
pm_to_blib : $(FIRST_MAKEFILE) $(TO_INST_PM)
};

    # VMS will swallow '' and PM_FILTER is often empty.  So use q[]
    my $pm_to_blib = $self->oneliner(<<CODE, ['-MExtUtils::Install']);
pm_to_blib({\@ARGV}, '$autodir', q[\$(PM_FILTER)], '\$(PERM_DIR)')
CODE

    my @cmds = $self->split_command($pm_to_blib,
                  map { ($self->quote_literal($_) => $self->quote_literal($self->{PM}->{$_})) } sort keys %{$self->{PM}});

    $r .= join '', map { "\t\$(NOECHO) $_\n" } @cmds;
    $r .= qq{\t\$(NOECHO) \$(TOUCH) pm_to_blib\n};

    return $r;
}

# transform dot-separated version string into comma-separated quadruple
# examples:  '1.2.3.4.5' => '1,2,3,4'
#            '1.2.3'     => '1,2,3,0'
sub _ppd_version {
    my ($self, $string) = @_;
    return join ',', ((split /\./, $string), (0) x 4)[0..3];
}

=item ppd

Defines target that creates a PPD (Perl Package Description) file
for a binary distribution.

=cut

sub ppd {
    my($self) = @_;

    my $abstract = $self->{ABSTRACT} || '';
    $abstract =~ s/\n/\\n/sg;
    $abstract =~ s/</&lt;/g;
    $abstract =~ s/>/&gt;/g;

    my $author = join(', ',@{ ref $self->{AUTHOR} eq 'ARRAY' ? $self->{AUTHOR} : [ $self->{AUTHOR} || '']});
    $author =~ s/</&lt;/g;
    $author =~ s/>/&gt;/g;

    my $ppd_file = "$self->{DISTNAME}.ppd";

    my @ppd_chunks = qq(<SOFTPKG NAME="$self->{DISTNAME}" VERSION="$self->{VERSION}">\n);

    push @ppd_chunks, sprintf <<'PPD_HTML', $abstract, $author;
    <ABSTRACT>%s</ABSTRACT>
    <AUTHOR>%s</AUTHOR>
PPD_HTML

    push @ppd_chunks, "    <IMPLEMENTATION>\n";
    if ( $self->{MIN_PERL_VERSION} ) {
        my $min_perl_version = $self->_ppd_version($self->{MIN_PERL_VERSION});
        push @ppd_chunks, sprintf <<'PPD_PERLVERS', $min_perl_version;
        <PERLCORE VERSION="%s" />
PPD_PERLVERS

    }

    # Don't add "perl" to requires.  perl dependencies are
    # handles by ARCHITECTURE.
    my %prereqs = %{$self->{PREREQ_PM}};
    delete $prereqs{perl};

    # Build up REQUIRE
    foreach my $prereq (sort keys %prereqs) {
        my $name = $prereq;
        $name .= '::' unless $name =~ /::/;
        my $version = $prereqs{$prereq};

        my %attrs = ( NAME => $name );
        $attrs{VERSION} = $version if $version;
        my $attrs = join " ", map { qq[$_="$attrs{$_}"] } sort keys %attrs;
        push @ppd_chunks, qq(        <REQUIRE $attrs />\n);
    }

    my $archname = $Config{archname};
    if ("$]" >= 5.008) {
        # archname did not change from 5.6 to 5.8, but those versions may
        # not be not binary compatible so now we append the part of the
        # version that changes when binary compatibility may change
        $archname .= "-$Config{PERL_REVISION}.$Config{PERL_VERSION}";
    }
    push @ppd_chunks, sprintf <<'PPD_OUT', $archname;
        <ARCHITECTURE NAME="%s" />
PPD_OUT

    if ($self->{PPM_INSTALL_SCRIPT}) {
        if ($self->{PPM_INSTALL_EXEC}) {
            push @ppd_chunks, sprintf qq{        <INSTALL EXEC="%s">%s</INSTALL>\n},
                  $self->{PPM_INSTALL_EXEC}, $self->{PPM_INSTALL_SCRIPT};
        }
        else {
            push @ppd_chunks, sprintf qq{        <INSTALL>%s</INSTALL>\n},
                  $self->{PPM_INSTALL_SCRIPT};
        }
    }

    if ($self->{PPM_UNINSTALL_SCRIPT}) {
        if ($self->{PPM_UNINSTALL_EXEC}) {
            push @ppd_chunks, sprintf qq{        <UNINSTALL EXEC="%s">%s</UNINSTALL>\n},
                  $self->{PPM_UNINSTALL_EXEC}, $self->{PPM_UNINSTALL_SCRIPT};
        }
        else {
            push @ppd_chunks, sprintf qq{        <UNINSTALL>%s</UNINSTALL>\n},
                  $self->{PPM_UNINSTALL_SCRIPT};
        }
    }

    my ($bin_location) = $self->{BINARY_LOCATION} || '';
    $bin_location =~ s/\\/\\\\/g;

    push @ppd_chunks, sprintf <<'PPD_XML', $bin_location;
        <CODEBASE HREF="%s" />
    </IMPLEMENTATION>
</SOFTPKG>
PPD_XML

    my @ppd_cmds = $self->stashmeta(join('', @ppd_chunks), $ppd_file);

    return sprintf <<'PPD_OUT', join "\n\t", @ppd_cmds;
# Creates a PPD (Perl Package Description) for a binary distribution.
ppd :
	%s
PPD_OUT

}

=item prefixify

  $MM->prefixify($var, $prefix, $new_prefix, $default);

Using either $MM->{uc $var} || $Config{lc $var}, it will attempt to
replace it's $prefix with a $new_prefix.

Should the $prefix fail to match I<AND> a PREFIX was given as an
argument to WriteMakefile() it will set it to the $new_prefix +
$default.  This is for systems whose file layouts don't neatly fit into
our ideas of prefixes.

This is for heuristics which attempt to create directory structures
that mirror those of the installed perl.

For example:

    $MM->prefixify('installman1dir', '/usr', '/home/foo', 'man/man1');

this will attempt to remove '/usr' from the front of the
$MM->{INSTALLMAN1DIR} path (initializing it to $Config{installman1dir}
if necessary) and replace it with '/home/foo'.  If this fails it will
simply use '/home/foo/man/man1'.

=cut

sub prefixify {
    my($self,$var,$sprefix,$rprefix,$default) = @_;

    my $path = $self->{uc $var} ||
               $Config_Override{lc $var} || $Config{lc $var} || '';

    $rprefix .= '/' if $sprefix =~ m|/$|;

    warn "  prefixify $var => $path\n" if $Verbose >= 2;
    warn "    from $sprefix to $rprefix\n" if $Verbose >= 2;

    if( $self->{ARGS}{PREFIX} &&
        $path !~ s{^\Q$sprefix\E\b}{$rprefix}s )
    {

        warn "    cannot prefix, using default.\n" if $Verbose >= 2;
        warn "    no default!\n" if !$default && $Verbose >= 2;

        $path = $self->catdir($rprefix, $default) if $default;
    }

    print "    now $path\n" if $Verbose >= 2;
    return $self->{uc $var} = $path;
}


=item processPL (o)

Defines targets to run *.PL files.

=cut

sub processPL {
    my $self = shift;
    my $pl_files = $self->{PL_FILES};

    return "" unless $pl_files;

    my $m = '';
    foreach my $plfile (sort keys %$pl_files) {
        my $targets = $pl_files->{$plfile};
        my $list =
            ref($targets) eq 'HASH'  ? [ sort keys %$targets ] :
            ref($targets) eq 'ARRAY' ? $pl_files->{$plfile}   :
            [$pl_files->{$plfile}];

        foreach my $target (@$list) {
            if( $Is{VMS} ) {
                $plfile = vmsify($self->eliminate_macros($plfile));
                $target = vmsify($self->eliminate_macros($target));
            }

            # Normally a .PL file runs AFTER pm_to_blib so it can have
            # blib in its @INC and load the just built modules.  BUT if
            # the generated module is something in $(TO_INST_PM) which
            # pm_to_blib depends on then it can't depend on pm_to_blib
            # else we have a dependency loop.
            my $pm_dep;
            my $perlrun;
            if( defined $self->{PM}{$target} ) {
                $pm_dep  = '';
                $perlrun = 'PERLRUN';
            }
            else {
                $pm_dep  = 'pm_to_blib';
                $perlrun = 'PERLRUNINST';
            }

            my $extra_inputs = '';
            if( ref($targets) eq 'HASH' ) {
                my $inputs = ref($targets->{$target})
                    ? $targets->{$target}
                    : [$targets->{$target}];

                for my $input (@$inputs) {
                    if( $Is{VMS} ) {
                        $input = vmsify($self->eliminate_macros($input));
                    }
                    $extra_inputs .= ' '.$input;
                }
            }

            $m .= <<MAKE_FRAG;

pure_all :: $target
	\$(NOECHO) \$(NOOP)

$target :: $plfile $pm_dep $extra_inputs
	\$($perlrun) $plfile $target $extra_inputs
MAKE_FRAG

        }
    }

    return $m;
}

=item specify_shell

Specify SHELL if needed - not done on Unix.

=cut

sub specify_shell {
  return '';
}

=item quote_paren

Backslashes parentheses C<()> in command line arguments.
Doesn't handle recursive Makefile C<$(...)> constructs,
but handles simple ones.

=cut

sub quote_paren {
    my $arg = shift;
    $arg =~ s{\$\((.+?)\)}{\$\\\\($1\\\\)}g;	# protect $(...)
    $arg =~ s{(?<!\\)([()])}{\\$1}g;		# quote unprotected
    $arg =~ s{\$\\\\\((.+?)\\\\\)}{\$($1)}g;	# unprotect $(...)
    return $arg;
}

=item replace_manpage_separator

  my $man_name = $MM->replace_manpage_separator($file_path);

Takes the name of a package, which may be a nested package, in the
form 'Foo/Bar.pm' and replaces the slash with C<::> or something else
safe for a man page file name.  Returns the replacement.

=cut

sub replace_manpage_separator {
    my($self,$man) = @_;

    $man =~ s,/+,::,g;
    return $man;
}


=item cd

=cut

sub cd {
    my($self, $dir, @cmds) = @_;

    # No leading tab and no trailing newline makes for easier embedding
    my $make_frag = join "\n\t", map { "cd $dir && $_" } @cmds;

    return $make_frag;
}

=item oneliner

=cut

sub oneliner {
    my($self, $cmd, $switches) = @_;
    $switches = [] unless defined $switches;

    # Strip leading and trailing newlines
    $cmd =~ s{^\n+}{};
    $cmd =~ s{\n+$}{};

    my @cmds = split /\n/, $cmd;
    $cmd = join " \n\t  -e ", map $self->quote_literal($_), @cmds;
    $cmd = $self->escape_newlines($cmd);

    $switches = join ' ', @$switches;

    return qq{\$(ABSPERLRUN) $switches -e $cmd --};
}


=item quote_literal

Quotes macro literal value suitable for being used on a command line so
that when expanded by make, will be received by command as given to
this method:

  my $quoted = $mm->quote_literal(q{it isn't});
  # returns:
  #   'it isn'\''t'
  print MAKEFILE "target:\n\techo $quoted\n";
  # when run "make target", will output:
  #   it isn't

=cut

sub quote_literal {
    my($self, $text, $opts) = @_;
    $opts->{allow_variables} = 1 unless defined $opts->{allow_variables};

    # Quote single quotes
    $text =~ s{'}{'\\''}g;

    $text = $opts->{allow_variables}
      ? $self->escape_dollarsigns($text) : $self->escape_all_dollarsigns($text);

    return "'$text'";
}


=item escape_newlines

=cut

sub escape_newlines {
    my($self, $text) = @_;

    $text =~ s{\n}{\\\n}g;

    return $text;
}


=item max_exec_len

Using L<POSIX>::ARG_MAX.  Otherwise falling back to 4096.

=cut

sub max_exec_len {
    my $self = shift;

    if (!defined $self->{_MAX_EXEC_LEN}) {
        if (my $arg_max = eval { require POSIX;  &POSIX::ARG_MAX }) {
            $self->{_MAX_EXEC_LEN} = $arg_max;
        }
        else {      # POSIX minimum exec size
            $self->{_MAX_EXEC_LEN} = 4096;
        }
    }

    return $self->{_MAX_EXEC_LEN};
}


=item static (o)

Defines the static target.

=cut

sub static {
# --- Static Loading Sections ---

    my($self) = shift;
    '
## $(INST_PM) has been moved to the all: target.
## It remains here for awhile to allow for old usage: "make static"
static :: $(FIRST_MAKEFILE) $(INST_STATIC)
	$(NOECHO) $(NOOP)
';
}

sub static_lib {
    my($self) = @_;
    return '' unless $self->has_link_code;
    my(@m);
    my @libs;
    if ($self->{XSMULTI}) {
	for my $ext ($self->_xs_list_basenames) {
	    my ($v, $d, $f) = File::Spec->splitpath($ext);
	    my @d = File::Spec->splitdir($d);
	    shift @d if $d[0] eq 'lib';
	    my $instdir = $self->catdir('$(INST_ARCHLIB)', 'auto', @d, $f);
	    my $instfile = $self->catfile($instdir, "$f\$(LIB_EXT)");
	    my $objfile = "$ext\$(OBJ_EXT)";
	    push @libs, [ $objfile, $instfile, $instdir ];
	}
    } else {
	@libs = ([ qw($(OBJECT) $(INST_STATIC) $(INST_ARCHAUTODIR)) ]);
    }
    push @m, map { $self->xs_make_static_lib(@$_); } @libs;
    join "\n", @m;
}

=item xs_make_static_lib

Defines the recipes for the C<static_lib> section.

=cut

sub xs_make_static_lib {
    my ($self, $from, $to, $todir) = @_;
    my @m = sprintf '%s: %s $(MYEXTLIB) %s$(DFSEP).exists'."\n", $to, $from, $todir;
    push @m, "\t\$(RM_F) \"\$\@\"\n";
    push @m, $self->static_lib_fixtures;
    push @m, $self->static_lib_pure_cmd($from);
    push @m, "\t\$(CHMOD) \$(PERM_RWX) \$\@\n";
    push @m, $self->static_lib_closures($todir);
    join '', @m;
}

=item static_lib_closures

Records C<$(EXTRALIBS)> in F<extralibs.ld> and F<$(PERL_SRC)/ext.libs>.

=cut

sub static_lib_closures {
    my ($self, $todir) = @_;
    my @m = sprintf <<'MAKE_FRAG', $todir;
	$(NOECHO) $(ECHO) "$(EXTRALIBS)" > %s$(DFSEP)extralibs.ld
MAKE_FRAG
    # Old mechanism - still available:
    push @m, <<'MAKE_FRAG' if $self->{PERL_SRC} && $self->{EXTRALIBS};
	$(NOECHO) $(ECHO) "$(EXTRALIBS)" >> $(PERL_SRC)$(DFSEP)ext.libs
MAKE_FRAG
    @m;
}

=item static_lib_fixtures

Handles copying C<$(MYEXTLIB)> as starter for final static library that
then gets added to.

=cut

sub static_lib_fixtures {
    my ($self) = @_;
    # If this extension has its own library (eg SDBM_File)
    # then copy that to $(INST_STATIC) and add $(OBJECT) into it.
    return unless $self->{MYEXTLIB};
    "\t\$(CP) \$(MYEXTLIB) \"\$\@\"\n";
}

=item static_lib_pure_cmd

Defines how to run the archive utility.

=cut

sub static_lib_pure_cmd {
    my ($self, $from) = @_;
    my $ar;
    if (exists $self->{FULL_AR} && -x $self->{FULL_AR}) {
        # Prefer the absolute pathed ar if available so that PATH
        # doesn't confuse us.  Perl itself is built with the full_ar.
        $ar = 'FULL_AR';
    } else {
        $ar = 'AR';
    }
    sprintf <<'MAKE_FRAG', $ar, $from;
	$(%s) $(AR_STATIC_ARGS) "$@" %s
	$(RANLIB) "$@"
MAKE_FRAG
}

=item staticmake (o)

Calls makeaperl.

=cut

sub staticmake {
    my($self, %attribs) = @_;
    my(@static);

    my(@searchdirs)=($self->{PERL_ARCHLIB}, $self->{SITEARCHEXP},  $self->{INST_ARCHLIB});

    # And as it's not yet built, we add the current extension
    # but only if it has some C code (or XS code, which implies C code)
    if (@{$self->{C}}) {
	@static = $self->catfile($self->{INST_ARCHLIB},
				 "auto",
				 $self->{FULLEXT},
				 "$self->{BASEEXT}$self->{LIB_EXT}"
				);
    }

    # Either we determine now, which libraries we will produce in the
    # subdirectories or we do it at runtime of the make.

    # We could ask all subdir objects, but I cannot imagine, why it
    # would be necessary.

    # Instead we determine all libraries for the new perl at
    # runtime.
    my(@perlinc) = ($self->{INST_ARCHLIB}, $self->{INST_LIB}, $self->{PERL_ARCHLIB}, $self->{PERL_LIB});

    $self->makeaperl(MAKE	=> $self->{MAKEFILE},
		     DIRS	=> \@searchdirs,
		     STAT	=> \@static,
		     INCL	=> \@perlinc,
		     TARGET	=> $self->{MAP_TARGET},
		     TMP	=> "",
		     LIBPERL	=> $self->{LIBPERL_A}
		    );
}

=item subdir_x (o)

Helper subroutine for subdirs

=cut

sub subdir_x {
    my($self, $subdir) = @_;

    my $subdir_cmd = $self->cd($subdir,
      '$(MAKE) $(USEMAKEFILE) $(FIRST_MAKEFILE) all $(PASTHRU)'
    );
    return sprintf <<'EOT', $subdir_cmd;

subdirs ::
	$(NOECHO) %s
EOT

}

=item subdirs (o)

Defines targets to process subdirectories.

=cut

sub subdirs {
# --- Sub-directory Sections ---
    my($self) = shift;
    my(@m);
    # This method provides a mechanism to automatically deal with
    # subdirectories containing further Makefile.PL scripts.
    # It calls the subdir_x() method for each subdirectory.
    foreach my $dir (@{$self->{DIR}}){
	push @m, $self->subdir_x($dir);
####	print "Including $dir subdirectory\n";
    }
    if (@m){
	unshift @m, <<'EOF';

# The default clean, realclean and test targets in this Makefile
# have automatically been given entries for each subdir.

EOF
    } else {
	push(@m, "\n# none")
    }
    join('',@m);
}

=item test (o)

Defines the test targets.

=cut

sub test {
    my($self, %attribs) = @_;
    my $tests = $attribs{TESTS} || '';
    if (!$tests && -d 't' && defined $attribs{RECURSIVE_TEST_FILES}) {
        $tests = $self->find_tests_recursive;
    }
    elsif (!$tests && -d 't') {
        $tests = $self->find_tests;
    }
    # have to do this because nmake is broken
    $tests =~ s!/!\\!g if $self->is_make_type('nmake');
    # note: 'test.pl' name is also hardcoded in init_dirscan()
    my @m;
    my $default_testtype = $Config{usedl} ? 'dynamic' : 'static';
    push @m, <<EOF;
TEST_VERBOSE=0
TEST_TYPE=test_\$(LINKTYPE)
TEST_FILE = test.pl
TEST_FILES = $tests
TESTDB_SW = -d

testdb :: testdb_\$(LINKTYPE)
	\$(NOECHO) \$(NOOP)

test :: \$(TEST_TYPE)
	\$(NOECHO) \$(NOOP)

# Occasionally we may face this degenerate target:
test_ : test_$default_testtype
	\$(NOECHO) \$(NOOP)

EOF

    for my $linktype (qw(dynamic static)) {
        my $directdeps = join ' ', grep !$self->{SKIPHASH}{$_}, $linktype, "pure_all"; # no depend on a linktype if SKIPped
        push @m, "subdirs-test_$linktype :: $directdeps\n";
        foreach my $dir (@{ $self->{DIR} }) {
            my $test = $self->cd($dir, "\$(MAKE) test_$linktype \$(PASTHRU)");
            push @m, "\t\$(NOECHO) $test\n";
        }
        push @m, "\n";
        if ($tests or -f "test.pl") {
            for my $testspec ([ '', '' ], [ 'db', ' $(TESTDB_SW)' ]) {
                my ($db, $switch) = @$testspec;
                my ($command, $deps);
                # if testdb, build all but don't test all
                $deps = $db eq 'db' ? $directdeps : "subdirs-test_$linktype";
                if ($linktype eq 'static' and $self->needs_linking) {
                    my $target = File::Spec->rel2abs('$(MAP_TARGET)');
                    $command = qq{"$target" \$(MAP_PERLINC)};
                    $deps .= ' $(MAP_TARGET)';
                } else {
                    $command = '$(FULLPERLRUN)' . $switch;
                }
                push @m, "test${db}_$linktype :: $deps\n";
                if ($db eq 'db') {
                    push @m, $self->test_via_script($command, '$(TEST_FILE)')
                } else {
                    push @m, $self->test_via_script($command, '$(TEST_FILE)')
                        if -f "test.pl";
                    push @m, $self->test_via_harness($command, '$(TEST_FILES)')
                        if $tests;
                }
                push @m, "\n";
            }
        } else {
            push @m, _sprintf562 <<'EOF', $linktype;
testdb_%1$s test_%1$s :: subdirs-test_%1$s
	$(NOECHO) $(ECHO) 'No tests defined for $(NAME) extension.'

EOF
        }
    }

    join "", @m;
}

=item test_via_harness (override)

For some reason which I forget, Unix machines like to have
PERL_DL_NONLAZY set for tests.

=cut

sub test_via_harness {
    my($self, $perl, $tests) = @_;
    return $self->SUPER::test_via_harness("PERL_DL_NONLAZY=1 $perl", $tests);
}

=item test_via_script (override)

Again, the PERL_DL_NONLAZY thing.

=cut

sub test_via_script {
    my($self, $perl, $script) = @_;
    return $self->SUPER::test_via_script("PERL_DL_NONLAZY=1 $perl", $script);
}


=item tool_xsubpp (o)

Determines typemaps, xsubpp version, prototype behaviour.

=cut

sub tool_xsubpp {
    my($self) = shift;
    return "" unless $self->needs_linking;

    my $xsdir;
    my @xsubpp_dirs = @INC;

    # Make sure we pick up the new xsubpp if we're building perl.
    unshift @xsubpp_dirs, $self->{PERL_LIB} if $self->{PERL_CORE};

    my $foundxsubpp = 0;
    foreach my $dir (@xsubpp_dirs) {
        $xsdir = $self->catdir($dir, 'ExtUtils');
        if( -r $self->catfile($xsdir, "xsubpp") ) {
            $foundxsubpp = 1;
            last;
        }
    }
    die "ExtUtils::MM_Unix::tool_xsubpp : Can't find xsubpp" if !$foundxsubpp;

    my $tmdir   = $self->catdir($self->{PERL_LIB},"ExtUtils");
    my(@tmdeps) = $self->catfile($tmdir,'typemap');
    if( $self->{TYPEMAPS} ){
        foreach my $typemap (@{$self->{TYPEMAPS}}){
            if( ! -f  $typemap ) {
                warn "Typemap $typemap not found.\n";
            }
            else {
                $typemap = vmsify($typemap) if $Is{VMS};
                push(@tmdeps, $typemap);
            }
        }
    }
    push(@tmdeps, "typemap") if -f "typemap";
    # absolutised because with deep-located typemaps, eg "lib/XS/typemap",
    # if xsubpp is called from top level with
    #     $(XSUBPP) ... -typemap "lib/XS/typemap" "lib/XS/Test.xs"
    # it says:
    #     Can't find lib/XS/type map in (fulldir)/lib/XS
    # because ExtUtils::ParseXS::process_file chdir's to .xs file's
    # location. This is the only way to get all specified typemaps used,
    # wherever located.
    my @tmargs = map { '-typemap '.$self->quote_literal(File::Spec->rel2abs($_)) } @tmdeps;
    $_ = $self->quote_dep($_) for @tmdeps;
    if( exists $self->{XSOPT} ){
        unshift( @tmargs, $self->{XSOPT} );
    }

    if ($Is{VMS}                          &&
        $Config{'ldflags'}               &&
        $Config{'ldflags'} =~ m!/Debug!i &&
        (!exists($self->{XSOPT}) || $self->{XSOPT} !~ /linenumbers/)
       )
    {
        unshift(@tmargs,'-nolinenumbers');
    }


    $self->{XSPROTOARG} = "" unless defined $self->{XSPROTOARG};
    my $xsdirdep = $self->quote_dep($xsdir);
    # -dep for use when dependency not command

    return qq{
XSUBPPDIR = $xsdir
XSUBPP = "\$(XSUBPPDIR)\$(DFSEP)xsubpp"
XSUBPPRUN = \$(PERLRUN) \$(XSUBPP)
XSPROTOARG = $self->{XSPROTOARG}
XSUBPPDEPS = @tmdeps $xsdirdep\$(DFSEP)xsubpp
XSUBPPARGS = @tmargs
XSUBPP_EXTRA_ARGS =
};
}


=item all_target

Build man pages, too

=cut

sub all_target {
    my $self = shift;

    return <<'MAKE_EXT';
all :: pure_all manifypods
	$(NOECHO) $(NOOP)
MAKE_EXT
}

=item top_targets (o)

Defines the targets all, subdirs, config, and O_FILES

=cut

sub top_targets {
# --- Target Sections ---

    my($self) = shift;
    my(@m);

    push @m, $self->all_target, "\n" unless $self->{SKIPHASH}{'all'};

    push @m, sprintf <<'EOF';
pure_all :: config pm_to_blib subdirs linkext
	$(NOECHO) $(NOOP)

	$(NOECHO) $(NOOP)

subdirs :: $(MYEXTLIB)
	$(NOECHO) $(NOOP)

config :: $(FIRST_MAKEFILE) blibdirs
	$(NOECHO) $(NOOP)
EOF

    push @m, '
$(O_FILES) : $(H_FILES)
' if @{$self->{O_FILES} || []} && @{$self->{H} || []};

    push @m, q{
help :
	perldoc ExtUtils::MakeMaker
};

    join('',@m);
}

=item writedoc

Obsolete, deprecated method. Not used since Version 5.21.

=cut

sub writedoc {
# --- perllocal.pod section ---
    my($self,$what,$name,@attribs)=@_;
    my $time = gmtime($ENV{SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH} || time);
    print "=head2 $time: $what C<$name>\n\n=over 4\n\n=item *\n\n";
    print join "\n\n=item *\n\n", map("C<$_>",@attribs);
    print "\n\n=back\n\n";
}

=item xs_c (o)

Defines the suffix rules to compile XS files to C.

=cut

sub xs_c {
    my($self) = shift;
    return '' unless $self->needs_linking();
    '
.xs.c:
	$(XSUBPPRUN) $(XSPROTOARG) $(XSUBPPARGS) $(XSUBPP_EXTRA_ARGS) $*.xs > $*.xsc
	$(MV) $*.xsc $*.c
';
}

=item xs_cpp (o)

Defines the suffix rules to compile XS files to C++.

=cut

sub xs_cpp {
    my($self) = shift;
    return '' unless $self->needs_linking();
    '
.xs.cpp:
	$(XSUBPPRUN) $(XSPROTOARG) $(XSUBPPARGS) $*.xs > $*.xsc
	$(MV) $*.xsc $*.cpp
';
}

=item xs_o (o)

Defines suffix rules to go from XS to object files directly. This was
originally only intended for broken make implementations, but is now
necessary for per-XS file under C<XSMULTI>, since each XS file might
have an individual C<$(VERSION)>.

=cut

sub xs_o {
    my ($self) = @_;
    return '' unless $self->needs_linking();
    my $m_o = $self->{XSMULTI} ? $self->xs_obj_opt('$*$(OBJ_EXT)') : '';
    my $dbgout = $self->dbgoutflag;
    $dbgout = $dbgout ? "$dbgout " : '';
    my $frag = '';
    # dmake makes noise about ambiguous rule
    $frag .= sprintf <<'EOF', $dbgout, $m_o unless $self->is_make_type('dmake');
.xs$(OBJ_EXT) :
	$(XSUBPPRUN) $(XSPROTOARG) $(XSUBPPARGS) $*.xs > $*.xsc
	$(MV) $*.xsc $*.c
	$(CCCMD) $(CCCDLFLAGS) "-I$(PERL_INC)" $(PASTHRU_DEFINE) $(DEFINE) %s$*.c %s
EOF
    if ($self->{XSMULTI}) {
	for my $ext ($self->_xs_list_basenames) {
	    my $pmfile = "$ext.pm";
	    croak "$ext.xs has no matching $pmfile: $!" unless -f $pmfile;
	    my $version = $self->parse_version($pmfile);
	    my $cccmd = $self->{CONST_CCCMD};
	    $cccmd =~ s/^\s*CCCMD\s*=\s*//;
	    $cccmd =~ s/\$\(DEFINE_VERSION\)/-DVERSION=\\"$version\\"/;
	    $cccmd =~ s/\$\(XS_DEFINE_VERSION\)/-DXS_VERSION=\\"$version\\"/;
            $self->_xsbuild_replace_macro($cccmd, 'xs', $ext, 'INC');
            my $define = '$(DEFINE)';
            $self->_xsbuild_replace_macro($define, 'xs', $ext, 'DEFINE');
            #                             1     2       3     4        5
            $frag .= _sprintf562 <<'EOF', $ext, $cccmd, $m_o, $define, $dbgout;

%1$s$(OBJ_EXT): %1$s.xs
	$(XSUBPPRUN) $(XSPROTOARG) $(XSUBPPARGS) $*.xs > $*.xsc
	$(MV) $*.xsc $*.c
	%2$s $(CCCDLFLAGS) "-I$(PERL_INC)" $(PASTHRU_DEFINE) %4$s %5$s$*.c %3$s
EOF
	}
    }
    $frag =~ s/"-I(\$\(PERL_INC\))"/-iwithsysroot "$1"/sg if $Is{ApplCor};
    $frag;
}

# param gets modified
sub _xsbuild_replace_macro {
    my ($self, undef, $xstype, $ext, $varname) = @_;
    my $value = $self->_xsbuild_value($xstype, $ext, $varname);
    return unless defined $value;
    $_[1] =~ s/\$\($varname\)/$value/;
}

sub _xsbuild_value {
    my ($self, $xstype, $ext, $varname) = @_;
    return $self->{XSBUILD}{$xstype}{$ext}{$varname}
        if $self->{XSBUILD}{$xstype}{$ext}{$varname};
    return $self->{XSBUILD}{$xstype}{all}{$varname}
        if $self->{XSBUILD}{$xstype}{all}{$varname};
    ();
}

1;

=back

=head1 SEE ALSO

L<ExtUtils::MakeMaker>

=cut

__END__