package File::MimeInfo::Applications;

use strict;
use warnings;
use Carp;
use File::Spec;
use File::BaseDir qw/config_home config_dirs data_home data_dirs data_files/;
use File::MimeInfo qw/mimetype_canon mimetype_isa/;
use File::DesktopEntry;
require Exporter;

our $VERSION = '0.30';

our @ISA = qw(Exporter);
our @EXPORT = qw(
    mime_applications mime_applications_all
    mime_applications_set_default mime_applications_set_custom

print STDERR << 'EOT' unless data_files(qw/applications mimeinfo.cache/);
WARNING: You don't seem to have any mimeinfo.cache files.
Try running the update-desktop-database command. If you
don't have this command you should install the
desktop-file-utils package. This package is available from

sub mime_applications {
    croak "usage: mime_applications(MIMETYPE)" unless @_ == 1;
    my $mime = mimetype_canon(shift @_);
    local $Carp::CarpLevel = $Carp::CarpLevel + 1;
    return wantarray ? (_default($mime), _others($mime)) : _default($mime);

sub mime_applications_all {
    croak "usage: mime_applications(MIMETYPE)" unless @_ == 1;
    my $mime = shift;
    return mime_applications($mime),
        grep defined($_), map mime_applications($_), mimetype_isa($mime);

sub mime_applications_set_default {
    croak "usage: mime_applications_set_default(MIMETYPE, APPLICATION)"
        unless @_ == 2;
    my ($mimetype, $desktop_file) = @_;
    (undef, undef, $desktop_file) =
        if ref $desktop_file;
    croak "missing desktop entry filename for application"
        unless length $desktop_file;
    $desktop_file .= '.desktop' unless $desktop_file =~ /\.desktop$/;
    _write_list($mimetype, $desktop_file);

sub mime_applications_set_custom {
    croak "usage: mime_applications_set_custom(MIMETYPE, COMMAND)"
        unless @_ == 2;
    my ($mimetype, $command) = @_;
    $command =~ /(\w+)/;
    my $word = $1 or croak "COMMAND does not contain a word !?";

    # Algorithm to generate name copied from other implementations
    my $i = 1;
    my $desktop_file =
        data_home('applications', $word.'-usercreated-'.$i.'.desktop');
    while (-e $desktop_file) {
        $desktop_file =
        data_home('applications', $word.'-usercreated-'.$i.'.desktop');

    my $object = File::DesktopEntry->new();
        Type      => 'Application',
        Name      => $word,
        NoDisplay => 'true',
        Exec      => $command,
    my (undef, undef, $df) = File::Spec->splitpath($desktop_file);
    _write_list($mimetype, $df); # creates dir if needed
    return $object;

sub _default {
    my $mimetype = shift;

    my $user       = config_home(qw/mimeapps.list/);
    my $system     = config_dirs(qw/mimeapps.list/);
    my $deprecated = data_home(qw/applications mimeapps.list/);
    my $distro     = data_dirs(qw/applications mimeapps.list/);
    my $legacy     = data_home(qw/applications defaults.list/);

    unless ( ( -f $user
        || ($system && -f $system)
        || ($deprecated && -f $deprecated)
        || ($distro && -f $distro)
        || ($legacy && -f $legacy) )
        && -r _ ) {
        return undef;

    my @list =
    _read_list($mimetype, $user, $system, $deprecated, $distro, $legacy);
    my $desktop_file = _find_file(reverse @list);

    return $desktop_file;

sub _others {
    my $mimetype = shift;

    my (@list, @done);
    for my $dir (data_dirs('applications')) {
        my $cache = File::Spec->catfile($dir, 'mimeinfo.cache');
        next if grep {$_ eq $cache} @done;
        push @done, $cache;
        next unless -f $cache and -r _;
        for (_read_list($mimetype, $cache)) {
            my $file = File::Spec->catfile($dir, $_);
            next unless -f $file and -r _;
            push @list, File::DesktopEntry->new($file);

    return @list;

sub _read_list { # read list with "mime/type=foo.desktop;bar.desktop" format
    my $mimetype = shift;

    my @list;
    my $succeeded;

    for my $file (@_) {
        if (open LIST, '<', $file) {
            $succeeded = 1;
            while (<LIST>) {
                /^\Q$mimetype\E=(.*)$/ or next;
                push @list, grep defined($_), split ';', $1;
            close LIST;

    unless ($succeeded) {
        croak "Could not read any defaults, tried:\n" . join("\t\n", @_);

    return @list;

sub _write_list {
    my ($mimetype, $desktop_file) = @_;
    my $file = config_home(qw/mimeapps.list/);
    my $text;
    if (-f $file) {
        open LIST, '<', $file or croak "Could not read file: $file";
        while (<LIST>) {
            $text .= $_ unless /^\Q$mimetype\E=/;
        close LIST;
        $text =~ s/[\n\r]?$/\n/; # just to be sure
    else {
        $text = "[Default Applications]\n";

    open LIST, '>', $file or croak "Could not write file: $file";
    print LIST $text;
    print LIST "$mimetype=$desktop_file;\n";
    close LIST or croak "Could not write file: $file";

sub _find_file {
    my @list = shift;
    for (@list) {
        my $file = data_files('applications', $_);
        return File::DesktopEntry->new($file) if $file;
    return undef;

sub _mkdir {
    my $dir = shift;
    return if -d $dir;

    my ($vol, $dirs, undef) = File::Spec->splitpath($dir);
    my @dirs = File::Spec->splitdir($dirs);
    my $path = File::Spec->catpath($vol, shift @dirs);
    while (@dirs) {
        mkdir $path; # fails silently
        $path = File::Spec->catdir($path, shift @dirs);

    die "Could not create dir: $path\n" unless -d $path;



=head1 NAME

File::MimeInfo::Applications - Find programs to open a file by mimetype


  use File::MimeInfo::Magic;
  use File::MimeInfo::Applications;

  my $file = '/foo/bar';
  my $mimetype = mimetype($file)
    || die "Could not find mimetype for $file\n";

  my ($default, @other) = mime_applications($mimetype);

  if (defined $default) {
  else {
    # prompt user with choice from @others
    # ...


This module tries to find applications that can open files
with a certain mimetype. This is done in the way suggested by
the freedesktop Desktop Entry specification. This module is
intended to be compatible with file managers and other applications that
implement this specification.

This module depends on L<File::DesktopEntry> being installed.

To use this module effectively you need to have the desktop-file-utils
package from freedesktop and run update-desktop-database after installing
new .desktop files.
See L<>.

At the moment of writing this module is compatible with the way Nautilus (Gnome)
and with Thunar (XFCE) handle applications for mimetypes. I understand KDE
is still working on implementing the freedesktop mime specifications but will
follow. At the very least all perl applications using this module are using
the same defaults.

=head1 EXPORT

All methods are exported by default.

=head1 METHODS

=over 4

=item C<mime_applications(MIMETYPE)>

Returns an array of L<File::DesktopEntry> objects. The first
is the default application for this mimetype, the rest are
applications that say they can handle this mimetype.

If the first result is undefined there is no default application
and it is good practice to ask the user which application he wants
to use.

=item C<mime_applications_all(MIMETYPE)>

Like C<mime_applications()> but also takes into account applications that
can open mimetypes from which MIMETYPE inherits. Parent mimetypes tell
something about the data format, all code inherits from text/plain for example.

=item C<mime_applications_set_default(MIMETYPE, APPLICATION)>

Save a default application for this mimetype. This action will
affect other applications using the same mechanism to find a default

APPLICATION can either be a File::DesktopEntry object or
the basename of a .desktop file.

=item C<mime_applications_set_custom(MIMETYPE, COMMAND)>

Save a custom shell command as default application.
Generates a DesktopEntry file on the fly and calls
Returns the DesktopEntry object.

No checks are done at all on COMMAND.
It should however contain at least one word.


=head1 NOTES

This module looks for associations files in the order specified in version 1.0
of the MIME applications specification. It will also attempt a last-resort
fallback to the legacy file
F<$XDG_DATA_HOME/applications/defaults.list>. In all cases, it will only write
to the recommended per-user defaults file located at

=head1 AUTHOR

Jaap Karssenberg E<lt>pardus@cpan.orgE<gt>
Maintained by Michiel Beijen E<lt>michiel.beijen@gmail.comE<gt>


Copyright (c) 2005, 2012 Jaap G Karssenberg. All rights reserved.
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

=head1 SEE ALSO