Types::Numbers - Type constraints for numbers


    version v1.0.0


    Because we deal with numbers every day in our programs and modules,
    this is an extensive Type::Tiny library of number validations. Like
    Type::Tiny, these types work with all modern OO platforms and as a
    standalone type system.



    All of these types strive for the accurate storage and validation of
    many different types of numbers, including some storage types that Perl
    doesn't natively support.

    The hierarchy of the types is as follows:

        (T:S    = From Types::Standard)
        (~T:C:N = Based on Types::Common::Numeric types)
        Item (T:S)
            Defined (T:S)
                    NumRange[`n, `p] (~T:C:N)
                        PositiveNum (~T:C:N)
                        PositiveOrZeroNum (~T:C:N)
                        NegativeNum (~T:C:N)
                        NegativeOrZeroNum (~T:C:N)
                        IntRange[`n, `p] (~T:C:N)
                            PositiveInt (~T:C:N)
                            PositiveOrZeroInt (~T:C:N)
                            NegativeInt (~T:C:N)
                            NegativeOrZeroInt (~T:C:N)
                            SingleDigit (~T:C:N)
                        FloatBinary[`b, `e]
                        FloatDecimal[`d, `e]
                            FixedBinary[`b, `s]
                            FixedDecimal[`d, `s]
                Value (T:S)
                    Str (T:S)

 Basic types


    Behaves like LaxNum from Types::Standard, but will also accept blessed
    number types. Unlike StrictNum, it will accept NaN and Inf numbers.

  NumRange[`n, `p]

    Only accepts numbers within a certain range. By default, the two
    parameters are the minimums and maximums, inclusive. However, this type
    is also compatible with a few different parameter styles, a la

    The minimum/maximums can be omitted or undefined. Or two extra boolean
    parameters can be added to specify exclusivity:

        NumRange[0.1, 10.0, 0, 0]  # both inclusive
        NumRange[0.1, 10.0, 0, 1]  # exclusive maximum, so 10.0 is invalid
        NumRange[0.1, 10.0, 1, 0]  # exclusive minimum, so 0.1 is invalid
        NumRange[0.1, 10.0, 1, 1]  # both exclusive
        NumRange[0.1]                # lower bound check only
        NumRange[undef, 10.0]        # upper bound check only
        NumRange[0.1, undef, 1]      # lower bound check only, exclusively
        NumRange[undef, 10.0, 1, 1]  # upper bound check only, exclusively (third param ignored)


    Exactly like LaxNum, but with a different parent. Only accepts
    unblessed numbers.


    Only accepts blessed numbers. A blessed number would be using something
    like Math::BigInt or Math::BigFloat. It doesn't directly isa check
    those classes, just that the number is blessed.


    A blessed number that supports at least certain amount of digit
    accuracy. The blessed number must support the accuracy or div_scale

    For example, BlessedNum[40] would work for the default settings of
    Math::BigInt, and supports numbers at least as big as 128-bit integers.


    A "not-a-number" value, either embedded into the Perl native float or a
    blessed NaN, checked via is_nan.


    An infinity value, either embedded into the Perl native float or a
    blessed Inf, checked via is_inf.



    An infinity value with a certain sign, either embedded into the Perl
    native float or a blessed Inf, checked via is_inf. The parameter must
    be a plus or minus character.


    Like "NumLike", but does not accept NaN or Inf. Closer to the spirit of
    StrictNum, but accepts blessed numbers as well.



    Behaves like Int from Types::Standard, but will also accept blessed
    number types and integers in E notation. There are no expectations of
    storage limitations here. (See "SignedInt" for that.)

  IntRange[`n, `p]

    Only accepts integers within a certain range. By default, the two
    parameters are the minimums and maximums, inclusive. Though, the
    minimum/maximums can be omitted or undefined.


    A Perl (unblessed) integer number than can safely hold the integer
    presented. This varies between 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Perl.

    For example, for most 32-bit versions of Perl, the largest integer than
    can be safely held in a 4-byte NV (floating point number) is
    9007199254740992. Numbers can go higher than that, but due to the NV's
    mantissa length (accuracy), information is lost beyond this point.

    In this case, ...992 would pass and ...993 would fail.

    (Technically, the max integer is ...993, but we can't tell the
    difference between ...993 and ...994, so the cut off point is ...992,

    Be aware that Perls compiled with "long doubles" have a unique problem
    with storage and information loss: their number form maintains accuracy
    while their (default) stringified form loses information. For example,
    take the max safe integer for a long double:

        $num = 18446744073709551615;
        say $num;                 # 1.84467440737095516e+19
        say $num == 18446744073709551615;  # true, so the full number is still there
        say sprintf('%u', $num);  # 18446744073709551615

    These numbers are considered safe for storage. If this is not
    preferred, consider a simple /e/ check for stringified E notation.


    A blessed number than is holding an integer. (A Math::BigFloat with an
    integer value would still pass.)


    A blessed number holding an integer of at most `d digits (inclusive).
    The blessed number container must also have digit accuracy to support
    this number. (See "BlessedNum[`d]".)


    A signed integer (blessed or otherwise) that can safely hold its own
    number. This is different than "IntLike", which doesn't check for
    storage limitations.


    A signed integer that can hold a `b bit number and is within those
    boundaries. One bit is reserved for the sign, so the max limit on a
    32-bit integer is actually 2**31-1 or 2147483647.


    Like "SignedInt", but with a minimum boundary of zero.


    Like "SignedInt[`b]", but for unsigned integers. Also, unsigned
    integers gain their extra bit, so the maximum is twice as high.

 Floating-point numbers


    A Perl native float that is in the "integer safe" range, or is a
    NaN/Inf value.

    This doesn't guarantee that every single fractional number is going to
    retain all of its information here. It only guarantees that the whole
    number will be retained, even if the fractional part is partly or
    completely lost.


    A blessed number that will support fractional numbers. A Math::BigFloat
    number will pass, whereas a Math::BigInt number will fail. However, if
    that Math::BigInt number is capable of upgrading to a Math::BigFloat,
    it will pass.


    A float-capable blessed number that supports at least certain amount of
    digit accuracy. The number itself is not boundary checked, as it is
    excessively difficult to figure out the exact dimensions of a floating
    point number. It would also not be useful for numbers like 0.333333...
    to fail checks.


    A Union of "PerlSafeFloat" and "BlessedFloat". In other words, a
    float-capable number with some basic checks to make sure information is

  FloatBinary[`b, `e]

    A floating-point number that can hold a `b bit number with `e bits of
    exponent, and is within those boundaries (or is NaN/Inf). The bit
    breakdown follows traditional IEEE 754 floating point standards. For

        FloatBinary[32, 8] =
            32 bits total (`b)
            23 bit  mantissa (significand precision)
             8 bit  exponent (`e)
             1 bit  sign (+/-)

    Unlike the *Int types, if Perl's native NV cannot support all
    dimensions of the floating-point number without losing information,
    then unblessed numbers are completely off the table. For example,
    assuming a 32-bit machine:

       (UnsignedInt[64])->check( 0 )        # pass
       (UnsignedInt[64])->check( 2 ** 30 )  # pass
       (UnsignedInt[64])->check( 2 ** 60 )  # fail, because 32-bit NVs can't safely hold it
       (FloatBinary[64, 11])->check( 0 )    # fail
       (FloatBinary[64, 11])->check( $any_unblessed_number )  # fail

  FloatDecimal[`d, `e]

    A floating-point number that can hold a `d digit number with `e digits
    of exponent. Modeled after the IEEE 754 "decimal" float. Rejects all
    Perl NVs that won't support the dimensions. (See "FloatBinary[`b,

 Fixed-point numbers


    Like "FloatSafeNum", but rejects any NaN/Inf.

  FixedBinary[`b, `s]

    A fixed-point number, represented as a `b bit integer than has been
    shifted by `s digits. For example, a FixedBinary[32, 4] has a max of
    2**31-1 / 10**4 = 214748.3647. Because integers do not hold NaN/Inf,
    this type fails on those.

    Otherwise, it has the same properties and caveats as the parameterized
    Float* types.

  FixedDecimal[`d, `s]

    Like "FixedBinary[`b, `s]", but for a `d digit integer. Or, you could
    think of `d and `s as accuracy (significant figures) and decimal
    precision, respectively.


    Characters are basically encoded numbers, so there's a few types here.
    If you need types that handle multi-length strings, you're better off
    using Types::Encodings.


    A single character. Unicode is supported, but it must be decoded first.
    A multi-byte character that Perl thinks is two separate characters will
    fail this type.


    A single character that fits within `b bits. Unicode is supported, but
    it must be decoded first.

 Types::Common::Numeric analogues

    The Types::Common::Numeric module has a lot of useful types, but none
    of them are compatible with blessed numbers. This module re-implements
    them to be grandchildren of "NumLike" and "IntLike", which allows
    blessed numbers.

    Furthermore, the "NumRange" and "IntRange" checks are already
    implemented and described above.


    Accepts non-zero numbers in the positive range.


    Accepts numbers in the positive range, or zero.


    Accepts non-zero integers in the positive range.


    Accepts integers in the positive range, or zero.


    Accepts non-zero numbers in the negative range.


    Accepts numbers in the negative range, or zero.


    Accepts non-zero integers in the negative range.


    Accepts integers in the negative range, or zero.


    Accepts integers between -9 and 9.


    Grant Street Group <>


    This software is Copyright (c) 2013 - 2021 by Grant Street Group.

    This is free software, licensed under:

      The Artistic License 2.0 (GPL Compatible)